Thick blood: causes, treatment, making bloodthicker

Update: December 2018

Content:

  • What is the danger
  • What is the peculiarity of blood
  • Причины сthickerния of blood
  • The ratio of blood cells and plasma
    (hematocrit)
  • Hematocrit norm
  • The shape of red blood cells and their ability to deform
  • Effect of gender and age on viscosity
    of blood
  • Вязкость of blood у беременных
  • How hyperviscosity syndrome manifests
  • Методы диагностики густой of blood
  • Treatment


Currently, when much attention is paid to prevention
cardiovascular accidents are increasingly talked about
сthickerнии of blood. Additional confusion is often made by the doctors themselves.
when patients are told about the need to thin the blood.

Many well-known drugs (clopidogrel, warfarin, heparin and
others) really reduce the risk of thromboembolic complications,
however, they have an impact on the coagulation system, but not on
густоту of blood.  Несомненно, сthickerние of blood повышает риск
thrombosis, however, this is just one of the factors
thrombus formation, and in itself “thick” blood rarely leads to
thrombosis, as well as “liquid” – does not guarantee protection against
cardiovascular accidents.

What is the danger

Very thick blood creates additional resistance.
blood flow, and therefore significantly increases the load on the heart.
There is a violation of microcirculation, increasing tissue hypoxia.
Замедление тока of blood в капиллярах способствует стойкой агрегации
erythrocyte and thrombosis.

Последствия очень густой of blood:

  • high blood pressure
  • decompensation of cardiovascular diseases
  • impaired microcirculation,
  • increased risk of blood clots.

What is the peculiarity of blood

густая кровьBlood is a special substance that, by its
properties are fundamentally different from our usual fluids (water,
oil), and does not obey the laws of Newton’s laminar flow. If a
the viscosity of true solutions is constant under various conditions, and
depends only on the nature of the substance and the temperature then applicable for
of blood на этот показатель оказывает влияние множество факторов
(composition, flow rate, pH level, vessel diameter, properties
red blood cells and others.).

Вязкость of blood в разных отделах кровеносной системы отличается,
so, for example, in the veins it is thicker than arteries, and
в крупных артериях thicker, чем артериях мелкого калибра.

Minor fluctuations in viscosity occur throughout the day.
Сthickerнию of blood способствует тяжелая физическая работа, переедание,
use at one time a large number of products rich
starch and protein, the use of certain medicinal
drugs, etc.

Причины сthickerния of blood

Важнейшими факторами, определяющими густоту of blood являются:

  1. The ratio of blood cells and plasma
  2. The shape of red blood cells and their ability to deform
  3. Erythrocyte aggregation ability
  4. Plasma composition

The ratio of blood cells and plasma
(hematocrit)

Whole blood is a suspension, where as
solution is plasma, and as suspended particles –
uniform elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). However on
практике при исследовании of blood в расчет берут только объем
red blood cells, as it is more than 160 times greater than that
других клеток of blood.

В клиническом анализе of blood для оценки соотношения объема
эритроцитов к общему объему of blood используют показатель под
name hematocrit.

Hematocrit norm

in men 0.4—0.48
among women 0.36—0.42

Чем выше этот показатель, тем thicker кровь. Even minor
fluctuations in hematocrit, including in the normal range,
существенно влияют на вязкость of blood. For example, the increase
гематокрита с 0,4 до 0,5 повышает вязкость of blood в 2 раза.

Hematocrit increases for 2 reasons:

  1. increase in the number of erythrocytes (erythrocytosis)
  2. уменьшение объема плазмы of blood.
The increase in the number of red blood cells (erythrocytosis) Уменьшение объема плазмы of blood
Vacaise disease (a type of leukemia with a predominant
damage to the red sprout of the bone marrow)
Dehydration (dehydration)

  • insufficient water consumption
  • alcohol consumption
  • diarrhea
  • indomitable vomiting
  • diuretic drugs
  • excessive sweating
  • antipyretic drugs
  • polyuria
  • diabetes insipidus
Chronic tissue hypoxia:

  • long stay or work at height (pilots,
    climbers)
  • decompression work
  • smoking
  • cardiovascular diseases accompanied
    circulatory failure
  • chronic lung disease accompanied by respiratory
    insufficiency
Pathological conditions, accompanied by a sharp decline
обьема циркулирующей of blood

  • shock conditions
  • extensive burns and burn disease
  • peritonitis
Increased synthesis of erythropoietin (a hormone that stimulates
erythrocyte formation)

  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • доброкачественные   опухоли   почек,
  • hydronephrosis,
  • стеноз  почечных  артерий,
  • трансплантация почки
  • фибромиома матки, гемангиома  мозжечка,
  • аденомы  и  кисты  гипофиза, аденома  
    thyroid gland,
  • синдром  Кушинга.

Erythrocyte aggregation ability

Большое влияние на густоту of blood оказывает ability
red blood cells to stick together (aggregation).

Normally in large vessels, red blood cells are connected to each other with
using special protein bridges and form characteristic cellular
complexes, which due to their shape were called “monetary
columns. However, connections in this complex are fragile and easy
burst with minimal mechanical impact. Closer
the convergence of red blood cells among themselves is hampered by negative
membrane potential.

Normally reversible aggregation of red blood cells facilitates their movement in
flow and contributes to more efficient tissue saturation
with oxygen.

However, in some pathological conditions occurs
marked irreversible clumping of red blood cells, which leads to
резкому повышению вязкости of blood. The blood becomes so
thick, that just can not move through the capillaries.

Повышению густоты of blood из-за слипания эритроцитов
contribute to:

  • long bed rest, long immobilization,
  • the use of certain drugs (muscle relaxants,
    anesthetics)
  • marked reduction in blood pressure
  • increased cholesterol (atherosclerosis)
  • hematocrit increase (dehydration, erythrocytosis)
  • активация свертывающей системы of blood (травмы, двс-синдром)
  • снижение скорости кровотока  (недостаточность
    blood circulation, venous insufficiency).

Plasma composition

Густота of blood во многом зависит от липидного и белкового состава
плазмы of blood. Increased viscosity increases
the content of globulins, especially fibrinogen.

A significant increase in globulin fraction is observed when:

  • myeloma,
  • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia,
  • autoimmune diseases
  • severe allergic reactions.

Albumin, on the contrary, has the properties of deaggregants and reduces
вязкость of blood.

High cholesterol, low and very low lipoproteins
плотности также способствует дополнительном сthickerнию of blood.

The shape of red blood cells and their ability to deform

Red blood cells have a biconcave shape, but if necessary
they are able to change their configuration. Thanks to its
plasticity and deformability of red blood cells are able to freely
pass through the smallest capillaries, the lumen of which is smaller than them
diameter more than 2 times.

Excessive “stiffness” of red blood cells contributes to an increase in viscosity
of blood.

Low deformability may be due to:

  • an increase in the number of abnormal erythrocytes (hereditary
    spherocytosis, COPD),
  • hemoglobinopathy (sickle cell anemia),
  • chronic hypoxia
  • erythrocyte swelling due to acidosis
  • chronic stress
  • night work

Effect of gender and age on viscosity
of blood

Вязкость of blood зависит от возраста. Newborns have blood
very thick. This phenomenon is due to the high content
red blood cells (hematocrit – 55% and higher, and the level of hemoglobin
reaches 180-240 g / l). From the 2nd day of life, these figures (and
respectively, and viscosity) begin to decline, reaching minimum
values ​​to 6 months. К 12 годам вязкость of blood у детей
approaching adult values.

На вязкость of blood также влияет половая принадлежность.

В норме in men кровь более густая, чем among women. Wherein
дополнительному сthickerнию of blood мужчины подвержены в большей
degree. This is associated with greater adherence to bad habits.
(smoking, alcohol consumption), особенностями труда,
exposure to heavy physical exertion.

Дополнительным фактором сthickerния of blood among women является прием
hormonal contraceptives, uncontrolled diuretic and
laxatives for weight loss.

Вязкость of blood у беременных

Беременность сопровождается снижением вязкости of blood, что
обусловлено физиологическим увеличением объма of blood преимущественно
due to its liquid part. Only in the third trimester of pregnancy
отмечается некоторое сthickerние of blood, преимущественно из-за
increase the level of fibrinogen that is adaptive
reaction before the upcoming blood loss.

How hyperviscosity syndrome manifests

Как правило, специфические  признаки умеренного сthickerния
of blood отсутствуют, а на первый план выходят симптомы основного
diseases.

Viscosity increase more than 5 units. (at a rate of 1.4-1.8 units) leads
to severe microcirculation disorders.

Most often, patients are concerned about:

  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • drowsiness,
  • parasthesia
  • adynamia
  • double vision
  • memory impairment
  • episodes of unconsciousness
  • blurred vision,
  • development of trophic ulcers,
  • hearing impairment
  • gangrene of the limbs
  • progression of cardiovascular diseases, arterial
    hypertension.

Методы диагностики густой of blood

Unfortunately, there are no methods to accurately determine
вязкость of blood.

This is due to the fact that the blood outside the human body
loses some of its properties, so the figures obtained
may differ significantly from the real.

  • Viscometry – the most reliable way to determine
    относительной вязкости of blood, применяется в основном у
    гематологических больных (при лейкозах, myeloma,
    Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, некоторых интоксикациях и heavy
    инфекциях), когда сthickerние of blood может достигать критических
    values.
  • Общий анализ of blood. В общеклиническом анализе of blood признаками
    густой of blood являются увеличение уровня гемоглобина, количества
    erythrocytes, hematocrit increase, presence of pathological forms
    red blood cells, a sharp decrease in ESR.
  • Биохимический анализ of blood. О сthickerнии of blood могут
    testify to high levels of total protein at relatively
    low albumin, increased cholesterol,
    low density lipoprotein.
  • Coagulogram. You can talk about increased viscosity at
    increasing fibrinogen concentration.

The most objectively judge the thickness of the blood can be at an aggregate
evaluation of the indicators.

Treatment

Спектр лекарственных препаратов, влияющих на вязкость of blood
limited We know a small amount of drugs
affecting only the individual components of the syndrome
increased viscosity.

These drugs include

  • Acecylsalicylic acid,
  • Dipyridamole (chimes),
  • Pentoxifylline,
  • Tanakan
  • Dicvertin in combination with ascorbic acid.

Из растительных препаратов abilityю разжижать кровь обладают
extracts of leuzea safflower and Lichnis chalcedony.

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