Update: December 2018 Human existence without immunity
is impossible. On the surface of our body lives a huge amount
microbes, we are confronted daily with dozens of viruses and harmful
factors (cold, stress, overheating, physical
перенапряжением и etc.). If the body was not protected from all
these effects, severe illness and death would not have forced themselves
to wait. White blood cells (white blood cells) – the most important component of this
protection that saves the life of man.
To determine the number of these cells is enough
total blood count. This indicator can significantly
change to a greater or lesser extent in various diseases.
Knowing normal white blood cell levels, even an ordinary person can
заподозрить наличие определенного diseases. However important
remember that only a doctor is able to diagnose correctly and
treat various pathologies.
What are leukocytes
This term refers to not just one specific cell, but about
a dozen different microscopic formations. Why are they called
in a word? Only because of their similar functions. Each of them
ensures the proper functioning of immunity, activated by
exposure to various harmful factors and the development of inflammation. For
better understanding, white blood cells can be divided into 4 large
white blood cells under the electron microscope
- Эозинофилы. They perform two main functions.
– participate in the development of allergies and pathological reactions,
arising from the penetration of parasites (Giardia, Ascaris,
Opistorch, Cysticerci and other organisms). Despite its
unpleasant task, these cells are a necessary part of protection
organism. It is they who can “give out” the underlying disease,
causing specific symptoms;
- Базофилы. The main culprits of any
allergic reactions due to their histamine –
amine compounds that activate inflammation. When penetrating
susceptible organism of a certain substance (dust particles, dandruff
animals, plant pollen, etc.), basophils release histamine.
The result is the appearance of allergy symptoms (runny nose, dermatitis,
anaphylaxis, edema, and others);
- Neutrophils (сегменто- и палочкоядерные). With
ingested harmful bacteria these cells will be the first to
попытается ее уничтожить и предотвратить возникновение diseases.
If they do not succeed – neutrophils inhibit infection before
until the body develops specific antibodies against
microbes and not destroy them. Also detect this component
immunity is possible in any place where inflammation is actively developing,
even if there are no bacteria there. This situation may occur when
heart attack, burn, toxin poisoning and tissue necrosis;
- Lymphocytes. This is the most complicated
cells that last take part in protecting the body – in
on average, after 2 weeks from penetration of the malicious agent.
This time is necessary for lymphocytes to determine the exact type.
threats and the production of antibodies that act only on a specific
harmful factor. Another important cell function is
providing antitumor immunity, the effectiveness of which
Additionally, doctors secrete monocytes as a special component.
immune system. However, changes in their quantity do not possess
very informative and recorded extremely rarely.
Normally, a blood test for leukocytes should show a certain
the number of each of these types of cells. Increase or decrease them
content, in most cases, indicates the presence of
disease or improper diagnostic procedure.
Normal leukocyte counts
The number of white blood cells is determined by the state
organism, therefore, when evaluating a blood test, it is necessary to consider
age and individual characteristics of each patient. Also,
normal values may differ slightly in different
laboratories, depending on the equipment used. therefore
optimal values for each indicator laboratory technicians print
непосредственно на листке с результатами diagnostics.
With отсутствии этих данных, можно использоваться следующую
table by age:
|Group of patients||Общее количество лейкоцитов, WBC 109/литре||Neutrophils, NEU%||Lymphocytes, LYM%||Eosinophils, EO%||Basophils, BA%|
|Segmento nuclear||Sticks nuclear|
|In newborns (first 3 days of life)||9-30||47-70||3-14||15-35||1-6||0-1|
|Leukocyte norm of a child under one year old||5.9-17.5||16-46||1-5||45-69|
|Adults (over 16 years old)||4-9||48-70||19-40|
||Up to 11|
||Up to 15|
The presence of deviations from normal values in a large or
the smaller side is a reason to go to the doctor to find out the reason.
In most cases, changes in the blood are due to the presence of the disease.
or impaired immunity.
Withчины увеличения количества клеток
Exceeding the rate of white blood cells can detect when wrong
preparing for the analysis or on the background of the disease. In the first case,
the number of white blood cells increases slightly – not
более чем на 2*109 клеток/литре. In a healthy person
such changes are often observed with the following
- With recent consumption of food (within 3 hours before taking
- After physical or emotional overload;
- Within 1-2 hours after water treatments with
high / low temperature;
- A few days before the menstruation.
In other cases, abnormality of leukocytes in men or
women in a big way is considered a pathological sign. This
the indicator does not allow to determine the affected organ, however
reliably indicates the presence of inflammatory disease.
Why is this so important? At the first examination of the patient, it happens
It is difficult to distinguish similar diseases, such as osteoarthritis and
seropositive arthritis. A blood test can ease a doctor’s task.
during the diagnosis.
The total number of all leukocytes may increase with the following
|Group of diseases||Examples||Why does cell count increase?|
|Bacterial or fungal infections (less often – viral)||
||White blood cells are attracted to the focus of the disease and try
deal with a harmful microorganism. It requires
a large number of cells, so their blood levels can
||With these pathologies, the immune system is “mistaken” and the lymphocytes begin
attack your own tissue. During exacerbations, their number in
clinical blood test often increases.
|Damage to internal organs||
||The human body is responsible for almost any damage
inflammation. This процесс привлекает лейкоцитов из «депо».
||Blood is the same tissue as muscle, fatty tissue, or
connective tissue fibers. With uncontrolled growth occurs
multiple increase of its components (white bodies).
Excess blood leukocytes in women or men may
be an indirect sign of any of these conditions. To
narrow the “search range”, the doctor may recommend to determine
leukocyte formula. This is a special blood test that allows
estimate the number of different leukocytes (eosinophils, neutrophils and
etc.). As evidenced by the excess amount of each species
cells, you will learn below.
Eosinophils and basophils
These are the main indicators of allergies. The increase in their number
the presence of typical symptoms (rash, runny nose, swelling of the skin)
suggests this diagnosis with a high probability.
Reliably confirm it and identify the substance that caused
exacerbation of the disease, you can use allergoprob.
How are allergy tests carried out? There are several options.
of this analysis, but at present, the most practical
considered the scarification method. Its principle is as follows – on the skin
shallow scratches are applied and the most
common allergens (essence of dust, pollen, animal dander
и etc.). If there are signs of inflammation (significant
redness, swelling) – the sample is considered positive.
The second most common cause of increased eosinophils is
parasites. In Russia, most often these organisms cause
opisthorchiasis, ascariasis, enterobiosis, demodicosis, trichinosis, however
the development of more exotic diseases is also possible (leishmaniasis,
шистосомоза и etc.). It should be remembered that the increase in content
these cells is an indirect sign of parasitic pathology.
To confirm it, it is necessary to conduct additional
In most patients, neutrophil levels increase due to
the presence of a bacterial infection. It is this change of blood.
allows you to distinguish them from viral diseases and choose the right
healed tactics. Significant excess of the norm, often
indicates a serious illness and may become an indication
for hospitalization of a patient in a therapeutic hospital.
For other reasons, a large number of neutrophils can become
- Any damage to organs and tissues (heart attacks, cholecystitis,
инсульты и etc.);
- Serious injuries (fractures, burns and others);
- Poison poisoning (lead, mercury, animal poisons).
These cells leave the blood depot during the development of viral
diseases. As a rule, lymphocytes react slowly enough
their number begins to increase after a few days, and the first
antibodies appear no earlier than 1.5-2 weeks. None
however, this component of immunity is practically the only
virus protection. Also the level of lymphocytes may increase
during exacerbation of autoimmune pathologies, the presence of fungal infections
Causes of Leukocyte Reduction
The improper work of immunity, first of all, affects
the number of white bodies. Reduction in blood levels
testifies to the weakened protection of the body and the presence
diseases. Most often to low leukocyte counts
приводят following pathologies:
|Group of diseases||The effect on the number of cells|
|Viral infections (influenza, RS-virus, norovirus, etc.)||Some viruses can suppress natural immunity.
human, which is manifested by a deficiency of blood cells.
This вирус обладает особым действием на кровь человека, поэтому
How relevant is this problem? According to statistics from Roszdravnadzor,
Therefore, when there is a shortage of white bodies without obvious
|Severe conditions of the patient (with sepsis, severe pneumonia,
|In these conditions, all functions of the body suffer, including
protective. Due to the strong damaging factor, immunity
unable to cope with it adequately and, as a result, gradually
exhausted. Deviation of blood parameters in the lower side – always
is an unfavorable sign.
|Bone marrow damage (common osteomyelitis,
myelofibrosis and other pathologies)
|Almost all blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.
Therefore, in case of violation of this process by any harmful factor –
there is a decrease in the number of blood cells
|Violation of the production of white blood cells (after taking
cytostatics, chemotherapy, antiepileptic drugs,
Correctly identify and cure the cause of the decrease in the rate of white blood cells in
blood in children and adults can only qualified doctor.
Almost always, this deviation indicates a disturbed
work immunity. Therefore, when it is detected, it is recommended
turn to a specialist and not to engage in therapy
on their own.
Preparing for a blood test
In order to reliably determine how many leukocytes
contained in your blood, you must comply with the following
- Hand over the analysis no earlier than 3 hours after taking
- Within 3 hours, eliminate the use of caffeine and
sugar-containing beverages, alcohol and tobacco;
- Limit physical exertion for 30-40 minutes before delivery
- Do not take hot baths before going to hospital
contrast souls and other water treatments with uncomfortable for
If these rules are not followed, the level of white bodies may
slightly exceed the norm or be at its upper limit.
This change may lead to a diagnostic error and incorrect
Вопрос: Почему снижается количество белых
телец к старости?
All human tissues are subject to aging, which is inevitable
affects their functions. The weakening of the body’s defenses is one of
manifestations of this process.
Вопрос: Какая норма лейкоцитов у женщин? Do have
Are they any features?
The number of these cells does not depend on gender, but may
slightly increase before and during menstruation.
Вопрос: Изменяется ли этот показатель при опухолях
In most cases, it remains within the normal range.
Вопрос: Если снижается уровень клеток после приема
drugs, is it worth it to cancel?
The decision to discontinue medication is decided individually, in
depending on the degree of reduction of white bodies and the patient’s condition.
As a rule, with a slight decrease in WBC
It is recommended to continue therapy. Anyway, this question
It should be discussed only with the attending doctor.