Leukocytes – blood cells
human and animal. They differ in origin, external
mind and functions, but they are united by the presence of the kernel and the lack
self coloring. Because of the last sign, they look
white. The cells play an important role in the life of the organism, since
protect it from external and internal pathogens
diseases due to the implementation of phagocytosis.
The implementation of protective functions
Leukocytes in the blood show the capabilities of the immune system
organism. it значит, что они обеспечивают высокий уровень защиты
due to its property to actively move, overcome the walls
capillaries and penetrate the extracellular space. There they find
foreign particles then absorb and digest them. Process
called phagocytosis, and leukocytes, respectively, are
phagocytes. Such activity was discovered and studied by Russians.
biologist Ilya Mechnikov.
Absorption of harmful particles is inevitably accompanied by
an increase in phagocytes in size, which during further work
may collapse. At the same time pathogenic substances are released,
immediately causing inflammation, signs of which are
edema, fever, local skin redness
To the released particles rush new leukocytes, which
actively destroy harmful substances and affected cells, but
they themselves die and accumulate in the tissues in the form of pus.
White cells perform their function in different ways. One of
they are capable of phagocytosis, others are capable of producing antibodies. But
thanks to the discovery of a German doctor, bacteriologist, immunologist and
chemist Paul Ehrlich, they are all classified mainly by the presence of
or the absence of specific granules in the leukocyte composition
cytoplasm. On this basis, there are two
- granulocytes with large segmented nuclei and granular
- agranulocytes (non-granular) with a simple nucleus and without specific
AT каждой группе также выделяется несколько подгрупп.
Diseases associated with deviations in the number of leukocytes from
standards are diagnosed by leukocyte formula (leukogram), then
there is a percentage of different types of white cells in the sample
The granulocyte subgroup is the most
крупная, ими представлено от five0 до 80% всех leukocytes. Produces
their bone marrow. Cells ranging in size from 9 to 13 microns develop in 9
days Almost half of the time spent on the division of progenitor cells
и ещё около five дней на дозревание. Then they live for about a week in
blood and die 2 days after the release of tissue.
Granules, providing cytoplasmic granularity, can
examine with an optical microscope. They are educated
cellular elements – large lysosomes and peroxisomes in
natural or altered state.
Granularity is a common feature of granulocytes, but within the group they are
are divided into several subspecies:
- neutrophil absorbing
small cells and protecting the body against bacterial and fungal
- eosinophilic, regulatory allergic reactions and
- basophilic, blocking the spread of poisons in tissues and
регулирующие свёртываемость blood.
Basophils are the largest cells compared to the previous two
As the name implies, the cytoplasm of agranulocytes is not
grainy. Among these cells there is a division into lymphocytes.
The former are capable of producing specific antibodies and thus
how to respond to getting into the systems and organs of antigens. They
stick together among themselves and form an insoluble complex, which
затем выводится из organism.
Functional signs of lymphocytes are divided into
- AT-клетки, непосредственно вырабатывающие антитела;
- T cells that regulate immunity by stimulating and
inhibition of antibody production;
- NK lymphocytes capable of destroying atypical cells, in
Моноциты — самые крупные клетки периферической blood. it
means they are capable of absorbing rather large alien
particles or accumulations of small ones. AT отличие от других видов лейкоцитов,
they can work in an acidic environment and are not destroyed after
phagocytosis, therefore, do not provoke the formation of pus. Their
- cleansing the site of inflammation and stimulating it
- participation in blood formation;
- protection of the body from foreign particles.
Monocytes are present not only in the blood, but also in the lymphatic
nodes, alveoli, bone marrow, liver and spleen tissues. They are there
grow, increase the number of own lysosomes and mitochondria and
become macrophages directly involved in
the following two types of immunity:
- cellular, which is manifested in the absorption of viruses and
- humoral in which lymphocytes are delivered
information about the appearance of antigens.
Due to the large size, macrophages actively destroy
The level of protection of the body depends on
quantities contained in blood leukocytes exercising
phagocytosis. But this indicator is not constant and changes to
throughout a person’s life.
During the first month of life in the body of the baby can
contain from 9 to 30 billion leukocytes per liter
blood. As they grow older, their number stabilizes at
6−17 billion, and after 6 years, it decreases to 6−11
In an adult, only 4–9 billion leukocytes remain per
a liter of blood (of which at least 2 billion are granulocytes). For
comparisons, red blood cells, red blood cells, exercising
oxygen transport in the body is ten00 times more.
But the number of white blood cells depends not only on
age, it changes even during the day. So it
increases in the evening, after eating and in
periods of physical or emotional stress.
Of course, the fluctuation of the normal white blood cell count to the side
reduction is an unhealthy process. It is characterized
term leukopenia and requires treatment. But the increase in the number
white cells per unit volume of blood does not benefit the body.
This process is called leukocytosis.
Both leukocytosis and leukopenia are classified according to certain
featured. Two types of diseases are distinguished depending on the reasons
caused a change in the level of white cells in the blood:
- True. It
associated with bone marrow activity that produces too
little or, conversely, a lot of leukocytes.
- Redistributive. Leukocyte change is associated with
the presence or absence in the circulating blood of cells that
should be attached to the inner surface of the vessels.
Two more types are associated with the processes occurring in the body.
We are talking about such deviations:
- Physiological – occurs in healthy people.
- Pathological – on the background of painful conditions.
Whatever form a disease takes, it usually yields to
The fall in the level of white blood cells in a person’s blood will be felt
unpleasant symptoms. Among them:
- high temperature;
- frequent pulse;
- sense of anxiety;
Because of this, the body is depleted and becomes vulnerable to
various infections, particularly those affecting the blood or lungs. AT
as a result, the glands swell, the spleen and tonsils grow,
associated diseases develop.
The reasons for this condition may be many. Most often his
provide the following factors:
- defects and damage to the bone marrow;
- infectious and viral diseases;
- exposure to ionizing radiation;
- deficiency of vitamins and minerals;
- connective tissue lesions;
The formation of malignant tumors deserves special attention.
tumors. Such a pathological process in itself reduces
the number of protective cells, but the method of its treatment, namely
chemotherapy, suggesting exposure to the organism with poisons and
toxins, leading to an even more dramatic fall in white blood cells. it
the condition is dangerous and the person needs immediate complex
Doctors usually recommend that patients follow a diet, include
diet foods that can raise the level of white blood cells. To the last
buckwheat and flour, red fish, raw beets,
Garnet. You can use tinctures on walnut, oats,
herbal preparations. But these are only measures that accelerate recovery. First
By doing this, the specialist will appoint the patient to take certain medications,
- Methyluracil, Pentoxyl, Leucovorin, Imunofan, Polyoxidonium at
- Sodium nucleinate, Remaxol, Betaleykin in heavier
- Batilol, Leucogen, Pyridoxine at the extreme stage.
The need for the appointment of a drug can evaluate
A special case of leukopenia – febrile
neutropenia. it состояние, характеризующееся резким снижением
numbers of neutrophils that are subspecies of granulocyte
To the symptoms characteristic of leukopenia, pouring is added.
sweat, tremor, tachycardia. They develop over several
hours and sometimes minutes. Characteristic feature of neutropenia
is the absence of inflammation and damage to soft tissues, lungs,
pharynx, nasal passages, urinary and gastrointestinal
But this is only until others develop on its background.
diseases. Therefore, the final diagnosis can be made
only after a thorough examination, within the framework of which
analyze biological fluids and examine internal
Causes of febrile neutropenia:
- the body’s response to toxic effects;
- the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, fungi, viruses;
- congenital anomalies;
- violations of the functions of internal organs;
- bone marrow damage;
- oncological diseases;
- cyanocobalamin and folic acid deficiency.
Treatment should begin quickly, as the disease threatens
human life. Patients are given antibiotics and antifungal
drugs, transfuse blood and prescribe other procedures for
The reasons leukocytosis
leukocytes over 32 billion per liter of blood in an infant, 11
billions in a seven-year-old child or 9 billion in an adult
allows you to diagnose leukocytosis. Physiological – occurs
with temperature drops, taking certain food, after a heavy
physical work. It is often diagnosed in pregnant women and in women.
Pathological leukocytosis can be caused by inflammatory and
infectious diseases, particularly those affecting the immune system.
system, as well as severe poisoning, necrosis of any organ,
burns, blood loss, oncology.
Symptoms of this condition may be
- increased body temperature;
- violation of visual function;
- labored breathing;
- pain in the limbs, abdomen;
- poor appetite.
But the symptoms do not always appear, and leukocytosis may be
diagnosed only after a full examination. Reduce
the number of leukocytes in human blood by taking antibiotics,
steroid drugs, antacids.
To health problems can
bring not only the fluctuation of the number of leukocytes in the blood, but also
change their structure, shape and size. This happens when
severe intoxication of the body as a result of infections, purulent,
tumor and inflammatory processes, chemical poisoning,
ionizing radiation. But anomalies do not occur when such
diseases like tuberculosis, tetanus, encephalitis, typhoid.
The changes usually concern the structure of the liquid part of the cytoplasm.
The protein in it coagulates, and then surrounds the neutrophilic kernels. AT
as a result, coarse, large granules form inside the leukocyte.
Also degenerative signs are the difference in forms.
leukocytes, their wrinkling and lagging of the nucleus or cytoplasm in
White blood cell tests
Although leukocytes are blood
cells, they are determined in other biological fluids. For example,
in the urine. The sample is examined under a microscope. U healthy
women, the number of visible leukocytes should not exceed five, and
men – 3. If this condition is not met, you can diagnose
leukocyturia. It indicates inflammation in the kidneys,
urinary tract or genitals. Where exactly, find out
through additional analyzes.
Too high white blood cell count is called pyuria. Her
easy to detect by the presence of pus in the urine, due to which it becomes
turbid and contains inclusions in the form of flakes or filaments. More often
this affects young children and the elderly. However more dangerous
In general, such a state is not for these categories, but for pregnant women.
women who are at increased risk of infection in the urinary tract
of the way. Treatment is usually carried out by taking antibiotics.
In addition, leukocytes are determined in a vaginal smear in women.
Their presence indicates the normal functioning of local
immunity but this is only true when
the number of white cells does not exceed specified in the table
|Fence discharge point||Leukocyte count|
При количестве лейкоцитов свыше 1five единиц в поле зрения
inflammatory or infectious processes are diagnosed in
genitourinary system. ATызваны они могут быть цервицитом, аднекситом,
colpitis, endometritis, urethritis, sexually transmitted infections. Inattention
to this problem in the future threatens with chronic diseases,
hormonal imbalance, cervical erosion and even
infertility, miscarriages or missed abortion.
From all this it follows that you need to monitor your health in
without fail. The number of leukocytes in the blood characterizes
defenses of the body and identifies possible inflammatory
or infectious processes. Disregard for such signals failures in
functions face unpleasant consequences and sometimes need
undergoing serious treatment.