Update: November 2018
One of the most important indicators of clinical blood analysis
is the count of leukocyte formula.
Leukocytes are the immune cells of our body, their main
function – protection against foreign agents (microbes, parasites, poisons,
allergens, foreign bodies). However, not all leukocytes are the same,
There are 5 types of these cells: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils,
monocytes and lymphocytes. Each of these types performs its
specific role in the immune response.
Calculate the percentage of different types of white blood cells from
their total number is called a leukocyte formula.
What kind of basophil cells
Basophils in the total number of leukocytes occupy the most
small position. Normally, their number does not exceed 1% of all
white blood cells. They are granulocytes, that is
cells that have granules in the cytoplasm with various biologically
Basophil granules are intensely stained with basic aniline.
dye, hence the name of these cells. Under the microscope they
look like cells with a large, slightly segmented dark blue or
the purple nucleus (often S-shaped), their cytoplasm is filled
large granules, painted in different shades of purple,
the core behind these granules is poorly visible.
Basophilic leukocytes are formed in the bone marrow, then they
enter the bloodstream, where only a few hours are circulating.
Then they enter the tissues, where they perform their main
Why do we need basophils
The main function of these cells is detoxification. They
directly involved in the body’s immune responses.
Basophil granules contain histamine, heparin, serotonin,
leukotrienes, as well as factors that attract inflammation to the focus
neutrophils and eosinophils.
In the tissues are mast cells – analogs of basophils. They очень
similar in structure and function. Scientists are still arguing
about their origins. For a long time, it was believed that basophils with
transition into tissues are transformed into mast cells. Now more
reliable version that they are differentiated much earlier and,
possibly derived from one predecessor.
Basophils, like mast cells, have receptors on their membranes
Ig E (these are antibodies that are produced by lymphocytes in response to
allergen intake). Upon receipt of foreign protein in
the body, it binds to Ig E, and the mechanism starts
degranulation of basophils and mast cells (mast cells).
Biologically active substances come from the cell to the tissue,
cause expansion, as well as increased vascular permeability. This and
there is a manifestation of allergies: there is swelling of tissues, which externally
may be manifested by swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract (attack
bronchial asthma), blistering on the skin, itching,
redness, runny nose, tearing.
What are considered and denoted basophils
According to all academic canons leukocyte formula is read
a lab technician in a stained blood smear under a microscope.
Recently, clinics are almost universally used.
hematologic analyzers. The principle of their work – differentiation
cells by their volume, light refraction, electrical resistance
and other parameters. The advantage of hemoanalyzers is that they
save time and are able to appreciate a much larger number
cells than manual counting.
However, not all of them are able to issue a complete leukocyte formula.
of them. The simplest analyzer supplied to clinics
The national project “Health” distinguishes white blood cells only by their
volume and allocates 3 populations: granulocytes (GRN or GR), lymphocytes
(LYM or LY), and middle cells (MID), which are most often
associated with monocytes.
Basophils in this analysis can be found in the GRN group,
so in the MID. Ideally, the counting of a leukocyte formula after
research with such an analyzer should be complemented
microscopy of the smear, but this does not happen everywhere.
More high-tech hemoanalyzer is able to distinguish everything
5 types of white blood cells. Basophils in the transcript are designated BAS or BA.
If all automatic indicators fit into normal, recalculation
do not produce. If the analyzer shows deviations in
leukocyte formula, the doctor may prescribe a reanalysis with
Why basophils rise
The content of basophils in the blood formula is not more than 1%. Them can
do not be smeared at all, it is not considered a pathology.
Enhancement of basophils in the blood (basophilia) is enough
What do elevated basophils say? As already said
basophilic leukocytes are active participants in allergic
reactions of both immediate and delayed type. Therefore, the main
the cause is an allergy.
When an allergen enters the body, they are the first to react to it.
mast cells, that is, tissue basophils. A hearth is forming
allergic inflammation. Basophils from
blood. During this period their increase is noted.
The second reason for basophilia is their enhanced education in
bone marrow. This condition can be when myeloid leukemia,
erythremia and some other diseases of the hematopoietic system.
The main conditions under which can be raised
Если basophils повышены у взрослого, то причин может быть
- Various allergic reactions (dermatitis, urticaria, bite
insect exacerbation of asthma, etc.). The sharper
протекает аллергия, тем резче повышаются basophils
- Chronic autoimmune diseases – type 1 diabetes,
hypothyroidism, ulcerative colitis, hepatitis, nephrosis.
- Chronic myeloid leukemia.
- Invasion of parasites.
- Condition after spleen removal.
- Estrogen treatment.
- In women, basophil content may increase during
Basophils in a child
It is believed that the rate of basophil content in a child is somewhat
lower than in adults (no more than 0.5%), but it is clear that this difference
very conditional. In any case, if a lab technician sees one basophil on
100 cells, the analysis will be the figure of 1%, and it will not be
Повышенные basophils у ребенка чаще всего свидетельствуют об
allergies or about worm infestation. Much less often the reason will be
a friend. If a blood test is taken after vaccination, you can also
Decrease or absence of basophils in the blood has no
Possible questions about basophils
Вопрос: Is it worth пугаться повышения в крови
Most often – no. If there is a clear allergic reaction or
an autoimmune disease in the acute stage, then their increase
fit into the clinical picture. And increase with
also eosinophils. This is usually temporary, and after the start
treatment all comes back to normal.
Another thing is if basophilia is found in a person who
nothing bothers. May need additional
examination. But before this blood test is recommended to repeat
preferably in another laboratory.
Вопрос: Повышение базофилов может быть признаком
Да, может, но достаточно seldom. And with this pathology almost
никогда не будут повышены изолированно одни basophils. �”Red
flags “should be sharply increased or significantly
reduced total number of leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets,
другие изменения в анализе blood.
Вопрос: Нужно ли лечить повышение базофилов в
Basophilia is a symptom. And you need to treat the disease.
Asymptomatic elevation of basophils does not need to be treated.
Вопрос: Врач назначает повторный анализ. Is it worth
trust this doctor and this lab?
One blood test can never be done.
findings. The doctor may be in the analysis, and this is normal. Can
manual recalculation of the formula is required after hardware analysis.
And, finally, in medicine, quite often there are situations when
some waiting and watching instead of immediate
costly survey. You can take the initiative and retake
blood in another lab.
But if basophilia is observed in 2-3 consecutive analyzes,
это уже повод пройти более тщательное examination.