The occurrence and treatment of toxoplasmosishuman

The occurrence and treatment of toxoplasmosis humanPlanting
Pets, man is not always aware of the danger
may represent a furry pet for his master. Meanwhile
There are a number of diseases related to zooanthroponoses that
can be transmitted to humans from animals. Such a disease
is toxoplasmosis (toxoplasmosis), which people can
to become infected with cats suffering from this disease – the main
carriers of this disease.

Causative agent

ATозбудитель токсоплазмоза Withчиной возникновения
toxoplasmosis is an intracellular parasite toxoplasma gondia
(Toxoplasma gondii). This is the simplest single-cell size from 4 to
6 micrometers, shaped like a crescent, able to live and
breed only in the body of his master. Toxoplasma refers to
order Eucoccidiida, a type of sporozoans, being a tissue
cyst-forming coccidia. This parasite, unlike the virus,
representing the extracellular form of life, has a nucleus,
located inside the cell in which the genetic
program of development and functioning as a DNA molecule.

Toxoplasma has two masters in its development cycle:
final and intermediate. The final owner of this
the parasite is an ordinary domestic cat, intermediate –
domestic and wild animals and birds, as well as humans. In his
развитии токсоплазма проходит следующие

  • Extra-intestinal (tissue). Asexual reproduction of toxoplasma in
    intermediate host body. This breeding parasite
    can pass as endodiogeny – the formation of two organisms under
    maternal cell wall, or as endopolyfion – division
    maternal individuals to many subsidiaries.
  • Заражение токсоплазмозомIntestinal. Reproduction of toxoplasma in
    epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa final
    home – cats. This process can be as sexual (gametogony),
    and asexual (schizogony). With шизогонии ядро токсоплазмы
    splits into several daughter nuclei, with the subsequent formation
    several, by the number of nuclei, individuals. Gametogony is
    the merger of microgametes – male germ cells, and macrogametes – female
    germ cells, with the formation of zygotes. When around a zygote will
    a shell is formed, an oocysts appear, which is derived from
    the intestinal lumen of the final host into the external environment.
  • Sporogony. Phase beginning in the gastrointestinal tract
    cats, and ending in the external environment. Favorable conditions
    for the development of oocysts is the presence of moisture and temperature
    environment from 15 ° C to 30 ° C. After 3-8 days inside the oocysts
    2-4 sporozoites are formed, and from that moment on it becomes
    invasive, i.e. can infect a specific host. Animals
    mature oocysts are swallowed with food or water.

Cats are infected by eating infected mice, in whose body
under the influence of toxoplasma certain
neurotransmitters causing the infected mouse to stop
afraid of cats and easily falls into their hands. Have a cat
Toxoplasmosis is manifested by diarrhea, retarded growth and development.
Purulent effusions appear from the eyes and nose, which dry out in
form of crusts.

In cats, Toxoplasma is localized in the gastrointestinal tract and
as breeding in large quantities are displayed in the external environment
with feces of the animal. With этом паразиты попадают на шерсть,
items of care, and then the hands of the owner. Thus, toxoplasma
может проникать в организм human.

Ways of infection

Toxoplasmosis is a fairly common disease, and it can
transmitted in several ways. Infection occurs
alimentary or intrauterine way. Sources of invasion
can be:

  • Ways of infection токсоплазмозомSick animals. Usually,
    The main carriers of this disease are cats, in the body
    which is the reproduction of Toxoplasma.
  • Animal products. Bad roasted meat
    is the main route of infection with toxoplasmosis.
  • Fruits or vegetables that came into contact with the land in which they could
    be the causative agent of toxoplasmosis.

With внутриутробном заражении плода, после рождения ставится
diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

Toxoplasma is transmitted by transplacental
by. Infection can occur only when the mother has
parasitemia, i.e. parasites are present in peripheral blood

The possibility of penetration of Toxoplasma into the body is not excluded.
human через повреждённую кожу, например, у работников
meat processing enterprises and animal breeding associations. AT
medical literature describes isolated cases of infection
toxoplasmosis during organ transplantation, but still the main way
infection with this disease – alimentary.

Симптомы diseases

Usually in people infected with toxoplasmosis, there is
asymptomatic disease, in which the parasite does not
manifests. The immune system usually deals with
возбудителем, и в организме human вырабатываются антитела к
this disease. AT ряде случаев всё же диагностируется
toxoplasmosis in adults. Symptoms and treatment этого diseases
somewhat different from that of children.

In people with reduced immunity, the infection can occur with
fever and severe pain. Disease afflicts
lymphatic system, as well as eyes and musculoskeletal system.
The incubation period can last from 3 days to several
months. Withобретённый токсоплазмоз протекает в следующих

  • Острая. Для этой формы diseases характерно
    sudden fever, inflammation of lymph nodes, pain
    in muscles and general weakness due to exposure to toxins,
    secreted by toxoplasma. In addition, an increase is recorded
    percussion boundaries of the liver and spleen. Heavy current
    toxoplasmosis is manifested by signs of encephalitis or
    meningoencephalitis, and cerebral form may also develop
  • Симптомы diseases токсоплазмозомХроническая. This
    form of toxoplasmosis develops over a long time.
    The clinical picture is usually erased. Temperature rise
    the patient’s body is insignificant, within 37–38 degrees, but
    this low-grade temperature persists for a long time
    of time. For the chronic course of the disease is characterized by bright
    severe signs of intoxication, weakness, emotional
    instability, headaches. Lymph nodes in chronic
    toxoplasmosis also increased.
  • Латентная. This форма diseases
    characterized by asymptomatic, and the presence of the disease
    detected only when conducting special laboratory or
    instrumental studies for the presence of toxoplasma.

Toxoplasmosis is especially dangerous for people with weakened immune systems,
such as HIV patients, people receiving drugs to suppress
the body’s immune response, for example, in organ transplants,
cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, as well as some
elderly people.

These patients show signs of toxoplasmosis in humans,
while the parasite infects the cells of the nervous tissue, the heart muscle,
lung epithelium and even smooth muscle.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease токсоплазмозDiagnosis at
toxoplasmosis is quite difficult, the diagnosis can be made
only after exclusion of all other diseases with similar
symptomatology. The diagnosis of this disease is complex,
based on clinical data and laboratory results

Clinical manifestations such as subfebrile, lymphadenopathy,
an increase in internal organs, retinopathy, may indicate
about the development of toxoplasmosis. In addition, often with this disease
assigned to x-ray examination of the brain (CT)
or MRI in which multiple abscesses and foci are detected

Among the laboratory methods for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
can highlight the following:

  • Serological. Includes research such as method
    indirect immunofluorescence, the reaction of indirect hemagglutination,
    the Sebin-Feldman reaction, and the complement fixation reaction.
  • Лабораторный методов диагностики токсоплазмозаAllergic.
    Conducted intradermal test with toxoplasmin, which is introduced
    intracutaneously in the shoulder area. The result is determined after 48 hours.
    after injection by measuring the size of the hyperemia and
  • Parasitological. It consists in microscopy of blood smears and
    tissue sections, bioassays on laboratory animals. This method is not
    very common in the practice of intravital diagnostics
    toxoplasma infection, since the parasitemia phase is
    relatively short, while fewer located inside
    Parasite cells are quite difficult to detect.

It is necessary to remember that single serological studies
can not serve as the basis for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

In most cases, the real picture can
only comparing the results of immunological examinations
один раз, а в динамике развития diseases. Usually diagnosed
toxoplasmosis is based on a combination of several types

Treatment diseases

Successful treatment of toxoplasmosis, the symptoms of which in humans
similar to the manifestations of a number of other diseases, based on
correct and timely diagnosis. It should be noted that
Toxoplasmosis does not always need treatment. So, if a woman has
there are no clinical manifestations of the disease, and with immunological
a blood test revealed type G antibodies, then the treatment in this
case not required.

If as a result of laboratory studies revealed antibodies
M, A, or the disease proceeds with a pronounced clinical
picture, for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in humans is applied
A complex approach. Proper and timely therapy
reduces the risk of severe complications in this disease.
To treat toxoplasmosis in humans is necessary taking into account the shape of his
the course, in addition, the duration of therapy and drugs
for its carrying out are selected by the expert individually for
each patient.

Treatment diseases токсоплазмоз

In the treatment of toxoplasmosis, drugs have proved to be a good idea.
chemotherapy, which inhibit the activity of Toxoplasma.
Often antimalarial drugs are used for these purposes. With
chemotherapy need to constantly monitor
peripheral blood condition. AT комплексном лечении этого
diseases применяются и антибактериальные препараты, которые
depressant effect on toxoplasma.

ATсе применяемые при лечении токсоплазмоза препараты воздействуют
on toxoplasma in a state of trophozoite, but if you draw
внимание на хроническую форму diseases, то станет понятно, что
Toxoplasma with this type of toxoplasmosis have the form of cysts.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute
diseases, неэффективны при его хроническом течении, поскольку не
can get inside the cysts through its shell.

For the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis are used, as a rule,
immunostimulating, antiallergic drugs, and
conduct specific treatment with toxoplasmin. Also with
комплексном лечении хронической формы diseases проводится
ultraviolet radiation of the patient.

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women

With беременности проведение анализов на токсоплазмоз
required ATрождённый токсоплазмоз в зависимости от срока
беременности, на котором произошло заражение, условно можно
divided into two types:

  • Ранний. AT этом случае женщина заражается
    toxoplasmosis in early pregnancy, which can lead to
    missed abortion, fetal death and spontaneous
  • Поздний. Infection of the pregnant occurs on
    the final stage of pregnancy. With этом наблюдаются признаки
    damage to the brain and eyes of the infant.

Toxoplasmosis in pregnant womenGetting into the circulatory system
fetus, parasites are carried by blood to all organs and tissues that
leads to miscarriages and serious damage to internal organs
germ, often incompatible with life.

If the infection occurs in late pregnancy, then
the fetus shows signs of damage to the central nervous system and
visual organs. Especially dangerous for a child is considered
chronic toxoplasmosis inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus,
since in this case the infection occurs in the absence of
parasitemia in pregnant women.

With проведении терапии токсоплазмоза у беременных женщин стоит
the task is not only to cure the sick, but also to prevent the likelihood
развития врождённого diseases у новорождённого. Treatment
беременных проводится по неделям беременности, в четыре

  • 9-14 n. First grade.
  • 15-20 n. ATторой курс.
  • 21-26 n. The third course.
  • 27—32 n. Fourth year in college.

AT зависимости от срока беременности и общего состояния матери
some drugs used in its treatment may be replaced or
supplemented with other drugs.

ATрождённый токсоплазмозThe outcome of congenital toxoplasmosis
depends on many factors such as duration and intensity
infection, virulence of the pathogen, the age of the fetus at the time
infection, as well as the degree of formation of protective mechanisms in
his body. The consequence of toxoplasmosis in women can be
infertility. После перенесённого diseases в организме
recovered, as a rule, antibodies are produced that
block the spread of infection and form non-sterile

Preventive actions

AT зависимости от культуры потребления мяса,
hygienic living conditions and breadth of distribution
cats in the settlements the incidence of toxoplasmosis in
different countries range from 5 to 70%. AT качестве профилактики
токсоплазмоза необходимо:

  • Preventive actions против токсоплазмозаTo control
    drinking water quality.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.
  • Do not eat raw and poorly roasted meat. ATся
    meat products must be exposed to sufficient heat
  • Freeze the meat. With низких температурах токсоплазмы
  • Do not give pets meat raw.
  • In due time, at least once a day, to make cleaning
    cat litter.
  • Do not let the domestic cat on the street.
  • Equip retractable sandboxes on playgrounds.
  • Use gloves when in contact with soil.
  • Observe hygiene, wash hands after talking to a cat or any
    garden work.
  • Do not start cats for pregnant women.
  • Strengthen immunity (maintain a healthy lifestyle, harden
    body and eat the right food).

The greatest risk of infection with toxoplasmosis is carried by such species.
meat like pork, venison and lamb. It must be remembered that
Toxoplasma in meat dies when it is heated to more than 70 ° C or when
freezing below -15 ° C.

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