Update: December 2018
Discomfort in the knee area is enough
common complaint of traumatology patients. Sometimes such
phenomena develop as a result of injury and relatively easy
are cured by timely referral to a specialist.
However, more often they are the result of diseases occurring in
hidden form, require careful diagnosis and adequate
drug and surgical treatment. We will understand what
the disease can act as a cause of knee pain,
and what symptoms can signal different pathologies.
As a result of the predominance of the rate of destruction of bones over
the processes of their formation is a gradual decrease in their
density, this disease has received the name osteoporosis (see
symptoms and treatment of osteoporosis).
- Along with severe pain in the knee, pain is observed in
areas of other joints: wrists, forearms, thighs, along the
spine, waist, between the shoulder blades.
- The peculiarity of the pain syndrome is its strengthening with
prolonged mechanical stress, being in an uncomfortable
- Additional signs include: posture change,
stunting, stoop, destruction of dental tissue, frequent
The diagnosis can be made after a thorough examination and
the results of specialized studies including
X-ray (the doctor may suspect pathology after a long
disease), magnetic resonance and computed tomography,
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Research can be used among biochemical methods.
calcium phosphorus metabolism, markers of formation and degradation
bone tissue, the amount of calcium-regulating hormones.
This is the name of the pathology of the development of the foot, expressed in
changing its shape (flattening of the vault), the result is loss
its main function is the damping ability.
- Pain in the knee when flexing has a pronounced
character (it is easier for a person to bend over to touch the floor than
- There is pain in the hips, feet, back.
- The main symptom is visually noticeable bone deformation.
stop (unnaturally wide foot, protruding bone in the area
big toe, flat foot, very long toes
- A more detailed examination reveals a change in
disproportionately shaped knee joints
the muscles of the leg, compared with other muscle tissues of the legs,
unnatural posture, “club foot”, “weight” in gait.
Diagnosis is carried out on the pictures under the X-rays of the feet.
in the vertical position of the body (it is necessary to study 2 projections –
straight and lateral). A preliminary diagnosis can be made by
results of visual and instrumental examination
Pain occurs as a result of impaired blood circulation,
the problem is actual for teenagers and is not serious
pathology. It is associated with insufficiently rapid growth of vessels and their
bandwidth versus accelerated formation
There is predominantly aching pain simultaneously on both.
joints, not resulting in impaired mobility and limitation
movements. Gradually, discomfort subsides by the age of 19 years.
reduced to zero. May be accompanied by aching pain in others.
joints (hip, shoulder, wrist, etc.).
As a result of vascular atherosclerosis
When atherosclerosis of the lower extremities is observed
deposition of cholesterol on their surface (see how to reduce
cholesterol). Subsequently, calcification of this area occurs.
vessel and proliferation of connective tissue, physiologically it is
manifested in a significant decrease in its lumen (to complete
If the vascular lesion occurred in the area around the knee, then the pain
can be located under the knee joint or positioned
over it. In addition to local aching pain outside exercise
there is pain all over the foot, cooling one
limbs, muscle fatigue. Often
the affected limb is prone to numbness after tension and
load. In later stages, when the vessel lumen is completely
overlapped, tissue necrosis (gangrene) can occur.
For diagnosis, you need to dopplerographic
examination of the vessels of the lower limbs, ultrasound duplex
diagnosis of blood vessels. Indicative can be angioregime
studies using CT and MRI.
As a result of phlebitis (vascular inflammation)
When inflammation of the vessels near the knee, pain
associated with hyperthermia localized area (with extensive
lesion – a general increase in body temperature), reddening of the skin,
puffiness A characteristic feature of phlebitis of the venous vessels is
relieving pain in the process of lifting the leg, in the case of
inflammation of vessels carrying arterial blood – pain weakens
when lowering the limb.
Ultrasound – the most informative study.
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (Perthes)
The disease develops in children, expressed in the form of necrosis
non-infectious femoral head due to
impaired blood supply to the cartilage.
- There is pain in the hip joint and
throughout the length of the leg.
- Often the primary focus of pain is the knee
joint (pain in the knee when walking).
- There is progressive lameness, possibly undercovering
affected leg, crouching on it.
- Subsequently, the hip joint swells, weakens
- A certain difficulty causes turning the legs out,
extensor and rotational movements of the joint.
- Observed wrinkles and pale skin on the foot, abundant
sweating and cooling.
- Body temperature can rise to 37.5 degrees.
- The disease often affects only one joint.
Diagnosis can be made after decoding the results.
computed tomography, ultrasound or
radiography. The clinical manifestations of the disease are specific,
difficulties can only arise in detecting the first stage
Chronic inflammation occurs during illness.
connective intraarticular tissue. It is assumed that
rheumatoid arthritis develops as a result of autoimmune pathologies
in the body.
- The disease affects not only the knee joints, it can
spread to other areas of bone joints.
- A characteristic feature of the course of rheumatoid arthritis is
symmetry (two knees are affected at once, identical joints on
areas of the right and left half of the body, etc.).
- With pain, stiffness is observed,
mainly after 2-3 hours of the night and in the morning (sometimes
it is impossible to move the joint up to half an hour or more).
- Additionally, there are patient complaints about muscle pain,
fatigue, chronic weakness, ailments, similar to
- Often происходит потеря желания кушать, постепенное падение
weight, lack of tear fluid and saliva, increased sweating
feet and palms.
- Palpation is marked by a slight swelling of the knee,
hyperthermia of the skin and soreness.
Diagnosis is carried out by radiography and research
blood, including the presence of a specific rheumatoid factor.
Read more about the symptoms of knee arthritis.
More children are affected by the age of 10 years.
The causative agent of tuberculosis from the primary zone of distribution falls
joint tissue where it begins to develop intensively, causing
There is swelling, pain during extension of the joint. Discomfort in
in the evening and at night (the child may
cry out at night), gradually weakening towards the morning. Also noted
progression of leg muscle atrophy. The gait changes, baby
incorrectly puts the foot, often stumbles.
For the diagnosis of doing a number of radiological
pictures, and also receive the conclusion of a tubdispanser about a state
With arthrosis, a person’s cartilage tissues wear out, resulting in
becomes the launch of degenerative-dystrophic lesions
- With the defeat of the knee osteoarthritis (gonarthrosis) severe pain
starts to bother not immediately, at first it appears when moving
(especially up or down the stairs).
- The pain on the inside of the knee is like a sting.
- A symptom of osteoarthritis is the manifestation of symptoms.
directly at the beginning of the movement (after a couple of steps they subside) and
with a long load.
- With the development of osteoarthritis, discomfort worries mainly
anterior to the knee during any movement, limiting is noted
in the activity of the joint (when a person tries to bend the leg “on
full force, sharp pain in the knee).
- In the later stages, the pain is almost not relieved, but
movements are accompanied by a rough crunch (more on why
crunches joints). Flexion-extensor movements strongly
limited, the joint itself swells, and the person is practically
loses the ability to move without support (canes or
- There may be pain, giving in the knee, with the defeat
osteoarthritis of the hip joints (coxarthrosis). At the same time pain
the syndrome is rarely observed in the area below the patella, more often it
observed in the groin area along the entire length of the thigh. When
coxarthrosis impaired pelvic locomotor activity with symptoms
gonarthrosis in this area.
In diagnostics, X-ray images are used.
however, in the early stages of osteoarthritis, the joint changes
may be missing. Along with the non-instrumental examination, the doctor
may resort to studying the results of CT and MRI (see arthrosis
The disease is localized in the internal or external meniscus (rarely
affects both at once) and is characterized by formation in its column
cavity filled with fluid.
Pain in the knee is noted after the load, is localized in zone
articular gap. With the defeat of the external meniscus noted
tumor formation that extends beyond the lateral surface
joint (small cysts may remain unnoticed). Defeat
internal meniscus, due to the anatomical features of the structure,
outside the knee joint is not marked. Discomfort increases with
разгибании колена и немного weakens при его сгибательном
Cavities in the meniscus are clearly visible in the MRI images, on the screen
ultrasound apparatus. It also applies
arthroscopy to diagnose small cysts
Kist Baker (Becker)
Half of the people in the popliteal fossa area
dry drying bags (this is a variant of normal physiology), with
inflammation of their mucous membranes are observed intra-articular
fluid. Such liquid stretches the bag from the inside, as a result
a cyst is formed (see Baker’s cyst).
In the initial stages, the cyst practically does not manifest itself,
only with an increase in the pressure of the fluid does its expansion take place, and
it can form bulging in the popliteal fossa. Such a
the formation of weakly painful with palpation. Squeezing cyst
nerve endings pain spread to the entire knee area, and
when bent or long stay in an upright position
their strengthening is noted. The consequence of pressure vessels is often
numbness of the lower limb and feeling
You can diagnose a cyst with ultrasound.
or an MRI machine. Often have to resort to arthroscopy
Tendonitis of the patellar tendon
Manifested in the form of an inflammatory process in a bundle due to
age changes (in people over 40) or in athletes (up to
With tendinitis, the knee hurts down from the patella. initially
discomfort appears after the load, then begins to be noted in
any time, but intensify directly during work
the joint. Difficulty are extensor movements, noted
general stiffness in the knee.
Diagnosed by radiography, tomography
(computer and magnetic resonance). Informative enough
It turns out ultrasound.
The appearance in the articular cavity of detachment of the area of cartilage (on
late stages completely separated from the bone) is called
dissecting osteochondritis (König disease).
Soreness is aggravated by movement and even
slight load, pain is characterized as aching or dull.
The consequence of the exposure of the bone becomes synovitis (accompanied by
accumulation of fluid inside the joint and inflammation of the synovial
shell). Involuntary blocks of movement may also occur.
appearing simultaneously with sharp pain, caused by “wandering”
plot of cartilage tissue. Often a person changes his gait,
to facilitate the movement – turns the injured leg out.
Possible development of lameness and, as a result, atrophy of the thigh muscles
(visually noted as reducing the size of the thigh). Can
develop synchronously on both knee joints.
In the diagnosis methods are used computer and
magnetic resonance imaging, research in X-ray
Bursitis of the knee
The disease manifests itself in the form of inflammation of the bursa (intraarticular
Periarticular tissues swell, redden, feel warmer to the touch
surrounding, when you click on them marked pain. With
movement of the joint marked stiffness. Possible overall increase
body temperature, muscle weakness.
To make a diagnosis, a visual examination of a doctor is sufficient.
may need a puncture of the fluid inside the articular
bags, to determine the nature of the disease (purulent bursitis,
серозный бурсит и пр. см. бурсит knee joint).
The disease is characterized by the destruction of hilly tissues
tibia in adolescence.
Pain worried with physical exertion on the joint: squats,
including low-amplitude, ascents and descents on the stairs, jumps and
etc. Later discomfort manifests itself even when walking, may wear
the nature of the cut at the bottom of the knee. Often the tissues around the joint swell,
hyperemia and hyperthermia is not observed.
Diagnosis is based on X-ray, CT and MRI data.
The treatment of pain in the knee must necessarily involve
specialists – traumatologists-orthopedists. Should not be alone
choose remedies for pain, they only muffle the symptoms
diseases and lead to temporary relief of the condition. And in this
time the pathology of the knee joint progresses, which may entail
transition of the disease to more advanced stages, which are often
are irreversible. Timely treatment to the doctor and appointment
im medication will help not only relieve pain in the knee
joint, but also to stop the degenerative processes (significantly their