The first signs of pneumonia in children andadults

Update: November 2018

Pneumonia is a disease that has an infectious
origin and is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue when
the occurrence of provoking physical or chemical factors
such as:

  • Complications after viral diseases (influenza, ARVI), atypical
    bacteria (chlamydia, mycoplasma, legionella)
  • Effects on the respiratory system of various chemical agents
    – toxic fumes and gases (see. Chlorine in household chemicals is dangerous for
    health)
  • Radioactive radiation to which joins
    infection
  • Allergic processes in the lungs – allergic cough, COPD,
    bronchial asthma
  • Thermal factors – hypothermia or respiratory burns
    ways
  • Inhalation of liquids, food, or foreign bodies may cause
    aspiration pneumonia.

The cause of pneumonia is the occurrence of a favorable
conditions for the reproduction of various pathogenic bacteria in the lower
respiratory tract. The original causative agent of pneumonia –
Aspergillus mushroom, the culprit of sudden and mysterious deaths
researchers of the Egyptian pyramids. Poultry owners or
lovers of urban pigeons can get chlamydia
pneumonia.

Today, all pneumonia is divided into:

  • non-hospital, arising under the influence of various
    infectious and non-infectious agents outside the hospital walls
  • nosocomial that cause nosocomial microbes, often
    очень устойчивые к традиционному антибактериальному
    treatment.

The frequency of detection of various infectious pathogens
community-acquired pneumonia is presented in the table.

Causative agent Average% Detection
Streptococcus is the most frequent pathogen. Pneumonia caused by
this pathogen is the leader in mortality from
pneumonia.
30.4%
Mycoplasma – most often affects children, young people. 12.6%
Chlamydia – Chlamydial pneumonia is characteristic of young and
middle-aged.
12.6%
Legionella is a rare pathogen that affects affected people and
is the leader after streptococcus in terms of death rate
(infection in rooms with artificial ventilation – commercial
centers, airports)
4.7%
Hemophilic bacillus causes pneumonia in patients with
chronic diseases of the bronchi and lungs, as well as
smokers.
4.4%
Enterobacteria are rare pathogens, affect mainly
patients with renal / hepatic, heart failure,
diabetes mellitus.
3.1%
Staphylococcus is a frequent causative agent of pneumonia in the elderly
population, and complications in patients after the flu.
0.5%
Other pathogens 2.0%
Causative agent не установлен 39.5%

When confirming the diagnosis, depending on the type of pathogen,
the age of the patient, the presence of associated diseases is carried out
appropriate therapy, in severe cases, treatment is necessary
exercise in the hospital, with mild forms of inflammation
hospitalization of the patient is not required.

Characteristic first signs of pneumonia, vastness
inflammatory process, acute development and danger of serious
complications of late treatment – are the main
the reasons for the urgent appeal of the population for medical care. AT
The current level of development of medicine is quite high,
advanced diagnostic methods, as well as a huge list
broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs significantly
reduced mortality from pneumonia (see antibiotics
with bronchitis).

Типичные первые признаки пневмонии у adults

The main symptom of the development of pneumonia is cough,
it is usually dry, harassing, and persistent at first (see
antitussive, expectorant with dry cough), but in
in rare cases, a cough at the onset of the disease may be rare and not
strong. Then, as the inflammation develops, cough in pneumonia
becomes wet with discharge of mucopurulent sputum
(yellow-green).Первые признаки пневмонии

Any catarrhal viral illness should not last more than 7
days, and a sharp deterioration after 4-7 days after the onset
ОРATИ или гриппа указывает на начало воспалительного процесса в
нижних respiratory tract.

Body temperature can be very high up to 39-40 ° C, and
remain low-grade 37.1-37.5C ​​(with atypical pneumonia).
Therefore, even with a low body temperature, coughing, weakness and
other signs of indisposition, should be mandatory
consult a doctor. Alert must re-leap temperature
after a light period during the course of a viral infection.

If the patient has a very high temperature, then one of the signs
the presence of inflammation in the lungs is the ineffectiveness of antipyretic
drugs.

Боль при глубоком вдохе и кашле. The lung itself does not hurt, so
as deprived of pain receptors, but involvement in the process of the pleura, gives
pronounced pain syndrome.

In addition to catarrhal symptoms, the patient has shortness of breath and
pallor of the skin. General weakness, increased
sweating, chills, loss of appetite are also characteristic of
intoxication and the onset of inflammation in the lungs.

If similar symptoms appear either in the midst of a cold, or
later a few days after improvement, it may be the first
signs of pneumonia. The patient should immediately contact
a doctor to undergo a full examination:

  • To pass blood tests – general and biochemical
  • Make a chest x-ray, if necessary, and
    computed tomography
  • Pass sputum on seeding and sensitivity determination
    antibiotic pathogen
  • Pass sputum on seeding and microscopic determination
    mycobacterium tuberculosis

The main first signs of pneumonia in children

Symptoms of pneumonia in children have several features.
ATнимательные родители могут заподозрить развитие воспаления легких
with the following illnesses in a child:

Temperature

Temperature тела выше 38С, длящаяся свыше трех дней, не
knocked down by antipyretics may also not be high
temperature up to 37.5, especially in young children. Wherein
all signs of intoxication appear – weakness, heightened
sweating, lack of appetite. Small children (as well as older
people) may not give high temperature fluctuations during inflammation
lung. This is due to imperfect thermoregulation and immaturity.
immune system.

Breath

Observed rapid shallow breathing: in children up to 2
month of age 60 breaths per minute, up to 1 year 50 breaths, after
about 40 breaths per minute Often the child spontaneously tries
lie on one side. Parents may notice another sign
pneumonia in a child, if you undress a baby, then when breathing with
the sides of the patient’s lung can be seen in the skin in the intervals
between the ribs and the lag in the process of breathing one side of the chest
cells Respiratory rhythm disturbances may occur, with periodic
stops breathing, changes in the depth and frequency of breathing. Have
shortness of breath is characterized by the fact that the child begins to nod
head to the beat of breathing, baby can stretch his lips and inflate
cheeks, may appear foamy discharge from the nose and mouth.

Atypical pneumonia

ATоспаление легких, вызванное микоплазмой и хламидиями отличаются
the fact that the disease first passes as a cold
dry cough, runny nose, sore throat, but the presence of shortness of breath and
consistently high temperatures should alert parents to
the subject of the development of pneumonia.

Character cough

Because of a sore throat, only
coughing, then coughing becomes dry and painful, which
worse when crying, feeding the child. Later the cough becomes
wet.

Child behavior

Children with pneumonia become moody, whining, lethargic,
they are disturbed by sleep, sometimes they can completely refuse to eat, and
diarrhea and vomiting also occur, in infants – regurgitation and rejection
from the chest.

Blood test

AT общем анализе крови обнаруживаются изменения, указывающие на
acute inflammatory process – increased ESR, leukocytosis,
neutrophilia. Leykoformuly shift to the left with an increase in band
and segmented leukocytes. In viral pneumonia, along with
high ESR there is an increase in leukocytes due to
lymphocytes.

With timely treatment to the doctor, adequate therapy and
proper care for a sick child or adult, pneumonia is not
leads to serious complications. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion
pneumonia should be given as soon as possible medical
help the patient.

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