The common cold – the first signs, causes, symptoms,treatment and complications

The common cold is the collective name of a large group of acute
respiratory infections that manifest as catarrhal inflammation
mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and a very diverse
symptomatology. If a person has good enough health and
good immunity, he falls very rarely. And the body with
weakened by immunity is a permanent source of infection
infected microbes.

In this article we will look at how a cold arises, which first
signs and symptoms, as well as which treatment for adults is most

What is a cold?


Простуда — это вирусное инфекционное заболевание, которое
affects the upper respiratory tract. Immediately note that the term
is conversational, while beneath it lurks infectious
заболевания – ОРВИ (острые респираторные вирусные
инфекции), редко – ОРЗ.

Infection occurs through airborne or contact-domestic
ways, therefore, it is desirable to be next to the infected in
medical mask and daily disinfect all surfaces in

According to the WHO, adults suffer from colds.
a person is three times a year, a schoolchild is about 4 times a year, and a preschooler
– up to 6 times annually

Five percent who catch a viral infection fall ill
only 75 percent feel her symptoms. The same
the pathogen can cause someone only mild headache, and
someone – the strongest runny nose and cough.


The common cold is highly contagious, easy
spreads among people through even minimal
the number of pathogens falling on the integument
respiratory tract. This contagiousness is due to tropism.
(affinity) of the viral agent to the tissues of the human body.

Among the most common causative agents of colds.
являются вирусы – риновирусы, аденовирусы,
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), reoviruses, enteroviruses
(Coxsackie), influenza viruses and parainfluenza.

For заражения простудным заболеванием, или ОРВИ, необходимо
following two basic rules:

  • weakened immunity
  • ingestion of infection.

Weakening of immunity can occur not only when
hypothermia, but in other situations:

  • Strong stress. Nervous shock and experience reduce
    the body’s ability to protect, so they can lead to
    serious illness.
  • Permanent exhaustion. Lack of sleep, excessive load
    running time also reduces resilience.
  • Disorders of the digestive tract. Proper regular food is not only
    helps control weight but also helps protect against colds

Источник инфекции: чаще — это больной с симптомами
cold, sometimes the carrier of the virus (adenovirus, etc.) or bacteria
(pneumococcus, hemophilus bacillus, staphylococcus). Maximum
contagion in the early days of the disease, however, the infectious period may
start 1-2 days before the onset of symptoms and lasts 1.5-2, and
sometimes more than a week (for example, adenovirus infection).

By type of infection:

  1. Вирусная инфекция передаётся только от человека к
    man That is, before the disease should have been contact with
    a sick person.
  2. Бактериальная инфекция может передаваться не только от
    человека к man Bacteria are everywhere around us. Sometimes even in
    acute respiratory disease is to blame for those bacteria that are
    so far lived peacefully inside the body. But immunity weakened in
    the result of hypothermia, and the usual bacterium caused the disease.

Инкубационный период простуды (от попадания инфекции на
mucosa and until the first signs) is about 2

First signs

A cold rarely begins suddenly with a high body temperature and
weaknesses «сбивающей с ног». It usually starts suddenly
с болей в горле, за которыми следуют другие признаки:

  • Watery nasal discharge
  • Sneezing
  • Increased fatigue and weakness
  • Cough – сухой или мокрый

The malaise increases gradually, temperature indicators
increase during the first days after the onset of symptoms
colds. There may be pain in the muscles and joints.

Symptoms простуды у взрослых

So, the general list of symptoms for any kind of cold is:

  • General weakness, malaise;
  • Muscle and joint pain;
  • Tickling and sore throat, redness of the throat;
  • Cough;
  • Eye pain, tearing;
  • Headaches;
  • Increased body temperature up to 38.5 ° C;
  • Повышенная потливость, озноб;
  • Lack of appetite;
  • Insomnia;
  • Swollen lymph nodes.

During a cold, the glands responsible for
separation of protective mucus that is stored in several cavities
the skull. When the immune system begins to fight viruses,
a lot of “waste” is formed – toxins that need to be flushed out of
organism. As a result, the amount of mucous secretions
increases several times, but the glands can not normally
regulate, so fluid stagnates in the sinuses.

That is why cold is at the same time strong
runny nose with which the body seeks to get rid of

In the table, we take a closer look at each of

Temperature Temperature при простуде – один из основных признаков
diseases. Depending on the size of the numbers, it is customary to single out:

  • low-grade values ​​(37.1-38.0 ° C),
  • febrile (38.1-39.0 ° C),
  • pyretic (39.1–40.0 ° С) and hyperpyretic (above
    40.0 ° C).

Temperature response depends on the functioning of the immune system.

In one case, it can practically not rise, and in another
– sharply “jump” in the first hours of the disease.

Intoxication Symptom due to exposure to organs and tissues of toxins
pathogens or their own substances developed to combat

Intoxication is manifested in the form:

  • myalgia (muscle pain),
  • dizziness
  • weaknesses
  • nausea
  • sleep disturbance.
Cough Cough редко становится первым признаком colds. More often
it begins some time after a runny nose, pain
throat and fever.
Sore throat Soreness can vary in intensity – from
tolerant to very strong, making it difficult to swallow food and talk.
Patients are also worried about sore throat, coughing.
Runny nose Nasal congestion is not only the first, but almost
the main sign of a cold for which it can
отличить, например, от ангины. On the first day of progression
disease detachable secret transparent and liquid. Abundant discharge,
quite often cause sneezing, as well as itchy nose with redness


If symptoms such as:

  • Pain on the right and left of the nose, in the nose;
  • Nasty voice;
  • Nasal congestion does not go away even after taking

So, the usual runny nose turned into a serious complication –
sinusitis, frontalitis, etc. in this case, you must assign

Headache It can be constant, increase with increasing
temperature Agonizing headache peculiar to aggravation
синусита и является одним из типичных symptoms.

On the second or third day – the symptoms begin to subside, and the patient
starts to feel better. На третий день больной
простудой начинает идти на поправку. For full recovery
from the moment of illness, it takes 5-7 days, depending on
degree, state of the immune system and approach to the treatment of disease.

So, to summarize all of the above, the reason for going to the doctor
for colds should serve:

  • early childhood of the patient (up to 3 years, especially the chest
  • non-locking temperature over 38 ° more than 3 days;
  • unbearable headache, throbbing local headache
  • rash on the trunk and extremities;
  • the appearance of the bacterial component of the discharge (yellowish and
    greenish color of mucus from the nose, sputum, severe sore throat),
    barking cough;
  • the appearance of severe weakness and pain in the chest when
  • elderly patients over 65;
  • persons with chronic bacterial foci (chronic
    bronchitis, sinusitis and others);
  • people with comorbidities (cancer, hematology
    patients, hepatic, renal pathology).


The common cold is a disease; complete recovery from
which occurs in the vast majority of cases, but complications
all the same happen. The most frequent is a prolonged cold under this.
implies the presence of symptoms after two weeks.

Possible complications of colds in adults:

  • The appearance of severe pain in one or both ears, worsening
    hearing, temperature rise indicates the development of otitis media. Symptoms
    mean that the infection from the nasal cavity has passed into the cavity
  • Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis,
    фронтит) – ещё одно осложнение colds. Man at the same time
    experiencing severe nasal congestion, a runny nose does not pass for a long time,
    but only getting worse. The voice becomes nasal, pains appear
    the site of the disease (in the forehead and nose, on the left or
    right side of the nose).
  • For бронхита как последствия простуды характерен
    aggravated cough at night. At first it can be dry and
    rough, then it is moistened and the formation of sputum begins. With
    bronchitis, unlike tracheitis and laryngitis, appear rough,
    wheezing and buzzing dry rales, hard breathing, and
    large bubble moist rales.
  • Complications of the common cold include inflammation of the lymph nodes.
    – лимфаденит. Most often affects the lymph nodes in the neck.


With наличии или только подозрении на развитие простуды следует
without delay for a long time to seek the advice of such doctors
as a therapist. The doctor usually diagnoses a cold based on
description of symptoms and outcomes during physical

Laboratory tests are usually not conducted, if not
concerns about another health condition like bacterial
disease or potential complications.

Cold treatment at home

In fact, the healthy body itself is able to cope with the disease,
so all that a patient has to do is help his body
deal with the affliction. It is necessary to provide bed rest,
eliminating serious physical exertion.

There are a few rules that are not worth it. disrupt during treatment

  1. Bed and half bed mode. It is necessary for
    accumulation by the body of forces to fight infection, as well as for
    prevent admission to the person of a secondary infection. Also this
    is a preventive nonproliferation measure
    pathogenic microflora in places of frequent stay
    the patient;
  2. If the exit to work is inevitable, then you should beware
    increased physical exertion as it may negatively
    affect the activity of the heart and blood vessels;
  3. Abundant warm drink – green or black tea, herbal teas
    – promotes the elimination of toxins from the body;
  4. A balanced diet with an increase in the amount of vitamins,
    refusal of alcohol, spicy, fatty, fried foods. Option
    cooking is also important – so as not to injure the inflamed
    throat, it is better to choose broths, soft food of moderate temperature,
    which will not irritate the mucous membrane;
  5. You can not shoot down the temperature if it has not reached 38 degrees.
    Although its increase is associated with chills and other unpleasant
    sensations, it is with its help the body fights bacteria and
    viruses. With ознобе организм вырабатывает интерферон – это белок,
    effectively resist infection. The higher the temperature, the
    more, and the faster the body cope with the disease;
  6. В случае сильной заложенности носа и кашле важно во время
    night of rest, place your head higher, that is, sleep in the position
    half-sitting With таком положении тела слизь из носа и кашель досаждают
    far less.

Drugs for treatment

On the pharmacy shelves are antiviral drugs,
prescribed for colds:

  • Amizon;
  • Anaferon;
  • Arbidol;
  • Ingavirin;
  • Influcid;
  • Kagocel;
  • Oseltamivir;
  • Rimantadine;
  • Tamiflu.

Постоянно следим за температурой при простуде, если она не
rises above 38 and well-being is normal –
do not take antipyretic drugs, fever kills viruses and
microbes.  Withбегать к жаропонижающим лекарствам для лечения
colds are needed only in cases where the temperature is above 38 ° C

Common and effective means to reduce
temperatures are soluble based drugs

  • Coldrex;
  • Theraflu;
  • Ferwex;
  • Pharmacytron.

With выраженном рините и/или заложенности носа рекомендуются
vasoconstrictor nasal drops:

  • Nazol – spray is convenient, it is applied 2-3 r / day;
  • Nasol Advance – convenience in the form of a spray, contains essential oils,
    applied 2 p / day;
  • Nazivin – convenient forms for adults, babies;
  • Tizin – drops, contain essential oils, effective at viscous
    nasal discharge.
  • Lasolvan nasal spray (dilutes the mucus of the nose).
  • Pinosol (oil solution) drops and spray.

Feature of the reception of vasoconstrictor nasal drops: the course should not
exceed 5-7 days, otherwise the drugs will no longer act, and
nasal mucosa atrophy.

Антигистаминные препараты — препараты, используемые при
treatment of allergies. They have a pronounced anti-inflammatory
effect, therefore, remove signs of inflammation: swelling
mucous, nasal congestion. Drugs new generation
такие как семпрекс, лоратадин (кларитин), зиртек,
фенистил сонливости не вызывают.

Cough. With сильном сухом кашле применяют: «Коделак»,
�”Sinekod”. For liquefaction of sputum – “Ascoril”, “ACC” (ACC). For
removal of sputum from the respiratory tract – plantain syrup,

Antibiotics are used only when the appearance of bacterial
for viruses, they are absolutely useless.
Therefore, they are not prescribed during the cold.

The fact is that antibiotics inhibit the immune system,
destroy the intestinal microflora, so only a specialist
may decide if the expected benefits exceed the
antibiotics they harm.

Nose flushing for colds

  1. Isotonic (salt) solution. Dosage should
    make 0.5-1 tsp per 200 ml of boiled water. Salt
    interferes with growth and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms,
    dilutes sputum and promotes its abduction.
  2. Soda or iodine solution. Preparing for a similar
    concentration. Soda creates an alkaline environment in the nasal cavity
    unfavorable for the growth of colonies of pathogenic microorganisms.


For полоскания горла при простуде в домашних условиях можно

  • Salt, soda solutions;
  • Breast fees harvested independently or purchased in
  • Propolis tincture;
  • Caress throat with hydrogen peroxide. It needs to be diluted by taking 2
    teaspoons in 50 ml of warm water. On the day you need to use
    means 3-5 times until you feel that it became easier.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies от простуды практически всегда входят в схему
treating respiratory diseases thanks to its beneficial

  1. With первых симптомах для лечения полезно приготовить морковный
    juice and stir in the gruel 3-5 cloves of garlic. Withнимать
    half a cup of medicine 3-4 times a day for an hour before meals for
    five days.
  2. Foot baths. If the disease is accompanied without
    temperature, then mustard can be added to the water. For этого добавьте
    one tablespoon of dry powder per 7 liters. Dip your legs in
    water and hold until the water begins to cool. After
    wipe them well and put wool socks on your feet.
  3. Mix 30 g of sea buckthorn oil, 20 g of fresh calendula juice, 15
    g of melted cocoa butter, 10 g of honey, 5 g of propolis. With насморке
    moisten a cotton wool in this composition and put it in the nose for 20 minutes.
  4. Залить 1 чайную ложку сухих измельченных корней одуванчика
    1 cup boiling water, insist in a closed container on boiling water
    bath for half an hour, cool, strain. Withнимать так же, как
    and infusion for colds.
  5. Viburnum berries are able to provide a unique therapeutic effect.
    For получения положительного эффекта из продукта можно делать
    decoction, using a spoonful of berries in a glass of water. Drink
    The obtained juice is desirable in the form of heat and with honey.
  6. With насморке закапывать по 3-5 капель алоэ в каждую ноздрю 4–5
    once a day, head thrown back and massaging after instillation
    nose wings.
  7. Linden flowers will help relieve sore throat and get rid of cough.
    Linden tea: two teaspoons of lime blossom per cup of water.

How to protect yourself from a cold?

A cold is the result of a temporary decline.
иммунитета и контакта с infection. Accordingly, prevention
aims to prevent these risk factors.

What can you do to avoid colds?

  • Avoid crowded places where the risk of infection is much higher.
  • If possible, stay away from people with
    a cold.
  • Do not touch your nose or eyes after you have been to
    physical contact with a person who is sick.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly, especially during a runny nose.
  • Ventilate your room well.

If you do not start treatment for a cold in time, then there is a risk of getting
complications that may eventually turn into chronic
diseases. Therefore, take care, at the first symptoms start
help your body and generally monitor your health
all year round.

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