The causes, symptoms and treatment of pneumonia inadults

ATоспаление легких симптомыPneumonia – pathological
condition characterized by the development of the inflammatory process in
lung tissue, lesion of the mucous membrane of the organ and accumulation
exudate. As a result, all vital functions are impaired.
lungs and the human condition is deteriorating. Symptoms of inflammation
легких довольно часто появляются у adults и детей, отличаются
severe and require proper treatment.

Causes of disease

The disease is severe or different.
minor clinical manifestations, which largely depends on
reasons provoking it. Most common
The following are considered:

  1. Heavy viral or простудные болезниHeavy viral or
    catarrhal diseases that significantly weaken the immune system
    the system. As a result, the body is unable to cope with
    causative agent of pathology and that goes down to the lung tissue, where and
    inflammatory process develops. It all starts with a simple
    runny nose or mild angina, which leads to rapid
    the spread of pathology.
  2. The lack of appropriate treatment for pathologies of the upper
    respiratory tract. Quite often a person suffers a disease on
    legs, that is, goes to work and is engaged in the usual things,
    neglecting bed rest and drugs. it
    certainly provokes the development of pneumonia. Treatment in this
    case is difficult and delayed.
  3. Premature discontinuation of antibacterial drugs.
    Patients with sore throat, tonsillitis and bronchitis are usually severe.
    prescribe drugs from the group of antibiotics. Prerequisite
    recovery will be their reception even after the disappearance of acute
    symptoms. However, there are cases where the patient willfully cease
    прием, что приводит к осложнениям в виде pneumonia.
  4. Chronic нарушения со стороны сердечно-сосудистой системыChronic
    disorders of the cardiovascular system in the form of ischemic
    diseases or heart failure provoke stagnation in small
    circulation, which leads to reproduction in the lung tissue
    pathogenic microorganisms.
  5. Long bed rest for spinal injuries,
    limb fractures, cerebrovascular accidents also
    leads to stagnation in the lungs. The phlegm does not depart, and in it
    develop bacteria that provoke an inflammatory process.
  6. Chronic болезни органов дыхания, например, тонзиллит,
    bronchitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, tonsillitis are characterized by the fact that
    pathogenic bacteria are constantly present in the body. At any
    disorders of the immune system they provoke the development
    diseases.

Additional factors

Sinusitis is also considered to be one of the provoking factors
since mucus constantly gets into the lungs and causes inflammation.
При остром течении гайморита пневмония развивается редко, но
chronic forms almost always lead to similar disorders.

Многолетнее курениеPerennial smoking is also important
factor, since the lung tissue of a heavy smoker is more susceptible
inflammation, because its protection is weakened and not capable
resist infection.

Penetration of staphylococci and streptococci plays
important because these bacteria cause many diseases
which as a result can cause pulmonary injury
tissue.

Frequent overcooling significantly reduces defenses.
organism. As a result, the disease develops rapidly, proceeds
with temperature. Признаки пневмонии у adults в этом случае
obvious and do not require long-term diagnosis.

Wrong lifestyle in violation of the diet, physical
loads and alcohol abuse on a constant
basis often provokes pathology.

HIV also refers to probable causes, since more than 80%
patients with this diagnosis suffer from pneumonia quite often, and in
some it becomes chronic.

It is worth noting that some types of disease are contagious and can
be transferred while communicating with a sick person. Contamination also
may occur if it enters into any ward of the hospital because
almost every one of them has patients with one form or another
pathological condition.

Varieties of pathology

Depending on what the symptoms of pneumonia are
adults проявляются наиболее ярко, различают осложненную и
uncomplicated form of pathology. The first is characterized brightly
severe clinical manifestations and usually provokes
various violations of the internal organs. The second passes
pretty fast, easy flowing and does not require
mandatory hospitalization.

There are other classifications of violation. Given the severity
состояния больного различают следующие
varieties:

  1. Varieties of pathologyMild characterized
    minor abnormalities of the heart and respiration. Sick
    usually does not pay attention to a slight malaise, writing it off to
    fatigue.
  2. The average degree is characterized by more pronounced symptoms and
    deterioration of the patient’s general condition.
  3. Severe impair not only respiratory function, but also
    the work of other systems in the body of the patient.

The treatment in each case is somewhat different. AT depending on
how much the affected lung tissue produces three
types of pathology:

  1. Focal unilateral is characterized by the presence in the right or
    the left lung of a small focus of inflammation, often occurs
    asymptomatic.
  2. Bilateral differs by identifying several foci of inflammation
    in every lung.
  3. Total implies multiple foci in both lungs with
    severe clinical picture. The most dangerous of this group
    considered lobar.

AT depending on вида возбудителя выделяют грибковую,
bacterial, infectious, viral and mixed form. Disease
happens primary and secondary, developing as a result
any other violation.

ATыделяют также два вида течения пневмонии — острый и
chronic. The first is determined simply by the bright symptoms, the second
quite difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

Clinical picture

Pneumonia manifests itself differently in each person. ATо многом
clinical signs depend on concomitant disorders
other organs, patient immunity, and age. Noted
that the child has acute symptoms, but recovery is faster
за счет восстановительной способности детского organism. Have
adults же симптомы менее выражены, но вылечить патологию довольно
difficult.

Clinical picture пневмонииThe first sign of pneumonia is
adult will increase the temperature of the body to + 39−40 degrees.
Such hyperthermia lasts several days and is difficult to reduce.
without the use of serious drugs. Have пациента наблюдается боль
in the joints, muscle and whole body. He becomes sleepy, quickly
tired, can not concentrate on a specific task. ATсе это
becomes the result of intoxication of the body with food
vital activity of pathogenic bacteria.

The patient’s appetite almost always deteriorates, and in severe cases, and
disappears altogether, he feels thirsty, which is considered normal
reaction to fever. During exercise
a person has shortness of breath, the body is constantly experiencing
lack of oxygen, which negatively affects all of its
functions. Additional symptoms will be nausea and vomiting,
which also becomes a consequence of severe intoxication.

A few days after the onset of the pathology, a cough appears,
since the accumulated exudate interferes with normal breathing. AT
As a result, the lungs try to push him out by coughing.
The intensity of cough syndrome depends largely on the degree
поражения легочной tissue.

Disease progression

Hyperthermia, oxygen deficiency and persistent coughing becomes
cause severe headache that often worries the patient
throughout the day and can not be eliminated by ordinary
drugs. With a sharp rise a person feels
dizziness or darkness in his eyes, which is also related
with hypoxia of brain cells. For the same reason, fingers and
the patient’s legs turn blue, become cold, despite the general
fever.

Disease progression

If at this stage the necessary measures are not taken to eliminate
clinical manifestations, cough worse. AT выделяемой мокроте
red blood clots may appear
blotches that indicate the development of the lobar form
pneumonia. it очень опасная форма, отличающаяся тяжестью
course and development of many complications.

As the pathological process progresses in a patient
there is severe pain in the chest, there is
strengthening the work of sweat glands, especially at night. AT тяжелых
cases begins delirium, hallucinations or clouding of consciousness
cause critical fever and severe
intoxication.

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The severity of the clinical picture depends largely on the degree
inflammatory process in the lungs. If symptoms are pronounced and
the patient’s condition is quite serious, it says about the running form
bilateral lesion of the lungs.

ATозможные осложнения

In the absence of the necessary treatment, the disease quickly passes
in chronic form with frequent relapses. Gradually the patient
pulmonary insufficiency develops and hypoxia becomes for him
habitual condition. Gradually, the death of some
cells and tissues, functioning of certain departments is disturbed
brain. it плохо влияет на общее состояние больного.

ATозможные осложненияOne of the common complications
the appearance of chronic cough, which even after
recovery is bothering the patient. Noted что подобный симптом
more typical for heavy smokers. Often in patients
heart failure develops, memory deteriorates,
disturbed sleep. ATозможно также развитие абсцесса легких — довольно
severe pathology, difficult to treat and characterized by
the appearance of a capsule in the lungs, filled with purulent contents.

The most dangerous complication will be fatal. More often
this is observed in lobar pneumonia in patients with weakened
immunity. Нередко больные с диагнозом СПИД или ATИЧ, которые
pneumonia, dying due to persistent fever, when
body temperature impossible to reduce nikami means.

Diagnostic methods

The first stage of the diagnostic examination – inspection and survey
patient in order to identify the possible causes of the development of pathology.
Inspection begins with a visual determination of the patient’s condition,
examination of the skin and mucous membranes. In patients with
pneumonia skin usually looks pale, sometimes with bluish
shade. The face may also have a blue tint or be too
red.

Diagnostic methods болезниWhen interviewing, the doctor finds out
the likelihood of patient contact with the carriers of the disease, as well
basics of the patient’s life, his diet, psycho-emotional state and
level of physical activity. After this, it is imperative
take a urine and blood test to determine the extent of the lesion by level
лейкоцитов и скорости оседания эритроцитов.

Urinalysis helps to determine the degree
lesions of other organs such as kidney or digestive
system. The presence of protein and a large number of red blood cells in the urine
speaks of neglect of the pathological process and severe damage
the kidneys.

The next step is auscultation or hearing the patient’s breathing.
by means of a phonendoscope. This is necessary for prior
determine the source of inflammation and the degree of organ tissue damage. how
this is usually sufficient for setting up a preliminary
diagnosis.

One of the additional diagnostic methods is the analysis.
sputum It helps to identify the pathogen and select the appropriate
antibacterial agents. To clarify it necessarily
X-rays are carried out to help determine the exact location of the outbreak.
Quite often this is the only method that allows for
a short time to make an accurate diagnosis and quickly
start treatment

Bronchoscopy is rarely performed – instrumental method
research, consisting in the introduction into the cavity of the bronchi
special probe through the nose. The method helps to determine the degree
lesions of the alveoli and other tissues. It is only resorted to.
complications or pneumonia, which was the result of running
bronchitis.

Drug therapy

Treatment of the disease should be comprehensive. In some cases
doctors allow the patient to be at home during therapy, but more often
just need around the clock observation in the hospital
pulmonary or therapeutic department. Standard
медикаментозная терапия предполагает использование
the following medicines:

  1. Drug therapyNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
    funds are needed to improve the overall condition, reduce
    body temperature, relieve chest pain and slow down
    development of the disease. The most commonly used Diclofenac, Diclac and their
    analogs. At home, Ibuprofen tablets are suitable;
    In the hospital, intramuscular injections are more often prescribed.
    Patients with severe bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer disease,
    gastritis, enteritis or colitis is absolutely contraindicated
    use funds, especially on their own. Long lasting
    use is also not recommended, enough 5−7 days.
  2. Mucolytics to make sputum less
    viscous and take it out of the lungs – Mukolvan, Lasolvan and others
    facilities. They are often appointed as an intravenous solution.
    injection because the tablet form is not absorbed in
    sufficiently. The minimum rate of such drugs is not less
    10 days. If necessary, it is extended to 2−3 weeks.
  3. Antibacterial drugs are almost always needed in therapy.
    pneumonia. Quite rarely, treatment is without them. To receive
    third-party antibiotics are used for a quick therapeutic effect.
    injection generations, for example, Ceftriaxone from 1 to 2 g per
    day depending on the severity of the condition. In severe cases
    fourth generation tools are used, for example, Zefepim in
    the same dosage. Duration of drug use varies
    from 10 to 21 days.

Препараты при пневмонии

Elimination of consequences

In addition to the main therapeutic drugs, the necessary funds
helping to eliminate the effects of the disease. To them
relate:

  1. Drugs from the group макролитов,Drugs from the group
    макролитов, например, Азитромицин, Сумамед и их analogs. Available in
    tablets and solution for intravenous administration by
    droppers. In a hospital setting, the second is usually chosen.
    option. They belong to potent drugs, are assigned
    3–5 days short courses with daily treatments. Similar
    funds are used only in severe cases, as often
    пациенты тяжело переносят droppers.
  2. Aloe solution in 1 ml ampoules for intramuscular injection
    helps the resorption of foci of inflammation. Appointed by courses of 10
    days with the introduction of 1 ampoule daily.
  3. Reosorbilakt solution in vials of 200 ml is usually assigned
    with severe pathology. Helps relieve symptoms
    intoxication, purifies the blood and greatly facilitates the course
    diseases. how правило, достаточно 3−7 дней с ежедневным введением
    dropper products to speed up the process
    recovery.

The final stage

ATведение препаратаDexamethasone in the form of a solution is also often
используется в терапии pneumonia. Hormonal medicine is injected
внутримышечно, внутривенно или в составе droppers. Assigned
patients with asthma or severe shortness of breath, eases
breathing and promotes healing. If medicine is included in
the composition of the dropper, it is mixed in a vial of saline volume
200 ml with 2 ampoules of Mukolvan or Lasolvan. On 1 dropper
1 to 4 Dexamethasone vials with a volume of 1 ml will be required. Dosage
determines the doctor taking into account the condition of the patient and related
pathologies.

Means to restore the intestinal microflora, for example,
Linex. It is used in almost every case where the treatment includes
antibacterial agents. Helps to normalize the bowels
and prevents cramps, loose stools and other unpleasant symptoms,
which often appear with prolonged antibiotic therapy.

Quite often body temperature does not drop when used.
antipyretic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In that
In the case of inpatient treatment, the patient is prescribed Infulgan solution,
which is packaged in bottles of 100 ml and helps to quickly reduce
body temperature. Used in the form of a dropper no more than 3 days
contract.

After the patient has completed the main therapeutic course, he
It is recommended to take any vitamin complex that
will help restore strength, strengthen the immune system and improve overall
state. The best will be the complex Alphabet or Complivit. Not worth it
choose the means yourself, it is better to turn to
a specialist.

The effectiveness of physiotherapy

During the recovery period, it is usually recommended to undergo a massage course.
in the conditions of a hospital. The special technique will allow to normalize
general condition and will be the best way to accelerate the evacuation
the remaining sputum from the lungs. You must have at least 20 sessions with
a frequency of 2−3 days and a duration of 25−40 minutes. how
after such manipulations, the risk of complications and
recurrence of pathology.

Лечебная физкультура. Another effective method would be
physiotherapy. Classes are usually held in
physiotherapy room under medical supervision. In training
patients perform simple movements that help
restore tired muscles and normalize blood circulation in
tissues. In addition, classes help to resume normal
oxygen supply to the cells.

To receive результата рекомендуется посетить не менее 10
classes with a frequency of 1-2 days. At runtime should not
be unpleasant sensations or pain. If there is discomfort,
лучше вернуться к тренировкам после полного recovery.

Preventive measures

It is completely impossible to prevent the development of pneumonia because
there is always a risk of infection from the carrier of the infection even when
that a person leads a healthy lifestyle. Recommended
просто придерживаться нескольких правил
и вероятность
The development of pathology will decrease to a minimum:

  • Preventive measuresAvoid hypothermia at constant
    basis, quit smoking in case of harmful addiction.
  • To strengthen the immune system to balance nutrition, increase
    amount of vegetables and fruits, nuts and vegetable oils.
  • Moderate physical activity will help prevent stagnation
    blood in the lungs and the whole body. Timely treatment of nasal pathologies and
    throat is considered the primary rule to prevent
    pneumonia.

Not worth it переносить респираторные инфекции на ногах, чтобы
avoid complications. When the first symptoms of the disease
It is recommended to immediately consult a doctor to prevent
possible complications.

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