The causes, symptoms and treatment of enterobiosis

ЭнтеробиозHelminthic invasion characterized by
parasitism in the intestines of human roundworms Enterobius
vermicularis (остриц), называют enterobiasis. Running forms
This disease can cause intestinal dysbiosis,
digestive disorders, gastritis, gastroduodenitis, enteritis,
appendicitis, proctitis and other pathologies. That is why the disease
requires timely and comprehensive treatment under supervision
specialists.

Characteristics of the pathogen

Pinworms are small nematodes with a milky white spindle.
body (rounded in diameter and decreasing in diameter to the ends
torso). For members of the genus Enterobius vermicularis
sexual dimorphism is characteristic. So, in adult females, the length of the body
varies from 5 to 12 mm, and in males it does not exceed 4
mm

Pointed lateral carinae, running along the body of the helminth,
form head vesicles in its front part. Digestive
pinworm tract is represented by a mouth with three lips, esophagus
cylindrical shape, bulb, intestine and anus.
The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, uterus and vagina. AT нижней
part of the vagina is sphincter, preventing the selection
eggs in an oxygen-free environment. AT свою очередь, репродуктивная система
the male consists of a testicle and an elongated spicule.

Паразиты острицыОстрицы паразитируют в тонком и толстом
кишечнике
. ATозбудители enterobiosisа фиксируются на стенках этих
organs using a special apparatus formed by vesicles and
esophageal bulbus. They feed the worms with the contents of the intestines.
The number of individuals parasitizing in the body of one person,
can vary from 2−3 tens to several thousand.

Pinworms mate in the ileal cavity. After coitus
males die, and in the uterus of females from 5 to 17 thousand
elongated eggs covered with a smooth colorless shell.
Fertilized parasites lose their ability to hold onto
mucous epithelium and under the influence of peristalsis are moved to
the rectum.

After 2-3 days, female pinworms overcome the resistance of the anal
sphincter and crawl out of the patient’s anus. Once on Wednesday,
rich in oxygen, they lay eggs in the skin folds
perianal zone. After completion of the process of reproduction helminths
perish. The total life expectancy of pinworms in humans
не превышает 30 суток.

Eggs laid by females become invasive after 4−6
hours after laying. They get under nails when combing
itchy places, get on personal belongings, lingerie of the patient. Persons not
hygiene-conscious people put them in their mouths, promoting
autoinvasions. AT кишечнике заражённого человека из яиц остриц выходят
after puberty the larvae acquire the ability to
reproductions. Thus, cyclic autoinvasion contributes
развитию хронического enterobiosis.

Pathogenesis of the disease

Pathogenic effects on the human body have as
pinworm larvae as well as adults. Getting into the digestive
tract, immature helminths begin to produce
hyaluronidase, proteases and other compounds that activate the system
complement, accelerating the synthesis of prostaglandins and provoking
development of inflammatory processes.

ATзрослые острицы оказывают механическое воздействие на слизистую
intestinal lining.

Заболевания желудочно-кишечного трактаConstant irritation
meano- and chemoreceptors of the ileocecal zone
promotes:

  • impaired motor and secretory functions of the digestive
    tract;
  • development of gastroduodenitis, enteritis, gastritis and other
    inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract;
  • the appearance of limited areas of necrosis and infiltration,
    point hemorrhages, erosions and granulomas on the intestinal walls.

Prolonged parasitization of pinworms in the intestine can
cause dysbacteriosis. Кроме этого, enterobiosis
is one of the factors contributing to the development of infectious
заболеваний ЖКТ и аллергических reactions.

Clinical picture

Symptoms of the disease depends on many factors (the number of
pinworms parasitizing in the patient’s body, duration
pathological process, frequency of repeated invasions, individual
patient reactions to stimuli, etc.).

Однако типичными признаками enterobiosisа
are:

  • unbearable anal itching, worse in evening and night
    time;
  • Головные болиirritation, redness, oozing dermatitis,
    eczema in the perianal area;
  • loss of appetite, weight loss;
  • transient colicy pains in the right part of the ileal zone
    or in the paraumbilical region;
  • nocturia is a pathology where night diuresis prevails over
    daytime;
  • somnologicheskie violations;
  • недержание мочи в ночное time;
  • bruxism (teeth grinding in a dream);
  • unstable stool (constipation, diarrhea);
  • false urge to defecate;
  • bloating;
  • growth retardation, physical and mental development in
    children;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • allergic reactions manifested by bouts of bronchial
    asthma, conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis;
  • emotional instability, increased
    irritability;
  • headaches;
  • memory impairment reduced concentration;
  • general weakness;
  • Общая слабость организмаfatigue, decrease
    performance;
  • fainting;
  • epileptic seizures;
  • increased need for masturbation (including small
    children);
  • leukocytosis;
  • increase in the number of eosinophils in the peripheral
    blood.

One of the symptoms of enterobiasis in women is long
non-passing vulvovaginitis, vulvitis, cystitis and urethritis.
Infection with scratching in the perianal area can lead to
development of pyoderma, proctitis and sphincteritis.

Diagnostic measures

A preliminary diagnosis of “enterobiasis” is made on the basis of complaints
patient for abdominal pain and itching in the anus. AT
the doctor further directs the patient to undergo laboratory
research that can detect pinworm eggs left behind
females of helminths on the skin around the anus. With
examination of children most often used the method of Graham.

With проведении этой диагностической процедуры
doctor:

  • Исследование анализовcuts off a piece of transparent
    plastic tape with a sticky layer (for example, an operating film
    LPO) of length from 80 to 100 mm;
  • applies it with a sticky side to the perianal folds of the skin
    child;
  • peels off the film and transfers it onto a glass slide with sticky
    layer down;
  • cuts the protruding edges of the tape;
  • peel off a part of the film from the slide and insert it under it
    2 drops of glycerin or vaseline oil (this eliminates
    optical defects);
  • examines the imprint on the tape under the microscope.

The collection of biological material for this study produces
in the morning (immediately after waking up, but before
hygiene measures). The procedure is performed three times with an interval
in 7−10 days. This approach improves accuracy.
research results up to 91−93%.

With диагностике enterobiosisа у взрослых чаще всего применяют
method of rectal perianal scraping. For taking biological
material from the folds of the skin surrounding the anus,
use a wooden spatula. Collected scraping shake off
glass slide and carefully examined under a microscope.

With необходимости, шпатель заменяют ватной турундой, пропитанной
solution of soda (1%) or glycerin (50%).

ATрач, проводящий диагностику:

  • Соскоб на анализswabs the perianal folds
    patient;
  • rinses cotton wool with a scraping tube filled with
    water;
  • centrifuging the resulting liquid;
  • emits sediment and places it on a glass slide;
  • performs microscopic examination of the resulting
    material.

Less commonly, infectious diseases use diagnostic techniques.
Gimmelfarba. AT перианальную зону больного человека на ночь
lay a tampon of cotton wool. In the morning the turunda is placed in a test tube,
rinsed with water, rinsed and centrifuged.
ATыпавший осадок исследуют под микроскопом. With обнаружении в нём
pinworm eggs in a patient diagnose enterobiosis.

Traditional treatments

Enterobiasis is a highly contagious disease. therefore
обследование на этот гельминтоз должны проходить все люди,
in contact with the patient. ATсе инвазированные лица в одном очаге
(for example, in a family or children’s team) must undergo a course
therapy at the same time.

AT основе успешного лечения enterobiosisа лежит соблюдение
sanitary and hygienic regime.

Persons in whom pinworms were discovered
recommend:

  • Мыть рукиwash hands thoroughly before eating, when returning from
    the streets or from the toilet, after contact with objects, on surfaces
    which can remain the helminth eggs (banknotes and
    coins, door handles in common areas, handrails in
    urban transport, alien children’s toys, etc.);
  • get rid of the habit of gnawing nails, put your fingers in your mouth;
  • sleep in “closed” shorts (with tight rubber bands around the waist and
    legs);
  • daily change underwear;
  • thoroughly wash the perianal zone with warm water and soap each
    times after waking up and before bedtime;
  • make cleansing enemas based on soda solution (½ h.
    spoons of sodium bicarbonate to a glass of warm boiled water) with
    itching;
  • take a shower twice a day;
  • change bed linen every day or iron it
    hot iron.

Compliance with the sanitary and hygienic regime allows most
patients to get rid of enterobiosis without taking anthelmintic
drugs.

Drug therapy

Chronic enterobiasis requires medical treatment.

Most often, persons who have been identified
the disease is prescribed:

  1. ПирантелПиперазин — препарат, выпускаемый в форме
    pills. The drug is approved for use in any
    age Each tablet contains 500 mg of the active ingredient –
    piperazine adipate. The drug is taken twice a day for 5
    days The cycle of therapy is repeated three times at weekly intervals. Single
    dose of medicine depends on the age of the patient.
  2. ATормил — жевательные таблетки на основе альбендазола.
    The drug can be used by adults and children over 2 years.
    Лекарственное средство принимают раз в сутки на протяжении 5 days
    Single доза ATормила — 1 таблетка.
  3. Пирантел — противогельминтный препарат, выпускаемый в
    pill form. The tool is used for the treatment of adults and
    children older than 6 months. With enterobiosisе лекарство принимают
    once in a dosage of 10 mg of pyrantel embonate per 1 kg of body weight
    patient (1 tablet contains 250 mg of the active ingredient).
    Pregnant women and mothers who are breastfeeding, the drug is prescribed
    only in exceptional cases.
  4. Гельминтокс — суспензия на основе эмбоната пирантела.
    The drug is intended for the treatment of children weighing more than 12 kg and
    adults. With enterobiosisе суспензию принимают однократно. Dosage
    determined from the ratio of 12.5 mg / kg body weight of the patient.
  5. ГельминтоксНемоцид — лекарство, выпускаемое в
    pill form. The active ingredient of the drug is
    pyrantel pamoat. AT каждой таблетке содержится 250 мг действующего
    substances. With выявлении симптомов enterobiosisа лечение сводится к
    a single dose of Necocide. The dose is determined at the rate of 5−10 mg
    pyrantel pamoat per 1 kg of body weight.
  6. Медамин — противогельминтный препарат на основе
    carbendacy The drug is released in the form of tablets, each of
    which contains 100 mg of the active ingredient. Therapeutic dose
    medications for persons who have pinworms identified, determined from
    calculation of 10 mg carbendacy to 1 kg of weight. The medicine is taken in
    for 1 day, divided into 3 equal portions.

Preparations for the treatment of enterobiasis have a range
contraindications and may provoke the development of adverse
reactions.

therefore перед применением любого из этих средств важно
read the instructions developed for him
by the manufacturer.

Folk remedies

There are many unconventional methods and means of combating
enterobiasis. Traditional healers recommend to persons who have had
обнаружены острицы, использовать следующие
recipes:

  1. Pour 2 tbsp. tablespoons of crushed bitter wormwood with a liter of boiling water and
    put in a water bath. After 25 minutes, skip the decoction through
    cheesecloth and cool the resulting liquid to room temperature.
    Withнимать лекарственное средство трижды в сутки по 2 ст.
    spoons.
  2. Резать лукGrind a small onion and pour it with a glass
    boiling water. Put the mixture in a warm place for 12 hours. Ready infusion
    drink during the day, dividing it into 2 receptions.
  3. Sleep in a thermos 1 tbsp. spoonful of dried flowers of tansy and pour
    a glass of boiling water. Insist the resulting composition for at least 2 hours.
    Withнимать лекарственное средство четырежды в день по 3 глотка.
  4. Pour a large handful of dry thyme with boiling water (450 ml) and
    insist 2-3 hours. Strain the resulting liquid and drink it.
    on an empty stomach After 2 hours, take 100 ml of a weak salt solution.
    Repeat the procedure daily until symptoms disappear.
    enterobiosis.
  5. Withготовить лекарственный сбор из листьев вахты, травы
    centaury and tansy flowers (all ingredients should be taken in
    equal quantities). Pour 2 handfuls of vegetable raw materials into
    thermos, pour a liter of freshly boiled water and insist not
    less than 8 hours. In the morning after waking up take 1 glass.
    filtered infusion. After 1 hour, drink 2 tbsp. spoons any
    vegetable oil. Repeat the procedure for 5 days in a row.
  6. Сушеная кора дубаCover a handful of dried bark in a pot
    oak and 2 tbsp. tablespoons chopped valerian root, pour a liter
    water. Bring the mixture to a boil, boil for 10–13 minutes on a small
    fire, cool and strain. In the morning on an empty stomach drink 10 gulps
    broth. After 1 hour, take 3 teaspoons of sunflower oil.
    Repeat the described manipulations daily until
    recovery.
  7. Pour a handful of peeled pumpkin seeds and 1 hour into the bottle.
    spoon dry bitter wormwood, pour 400 ml of vodka. The resulting mixture
    настоять в тёплом тёмном месте 8 days Withнимать настойку трижды в
    day 20 drops.

ATажно понимать, что использование средств и методов народной
medicine can not replace the drug treatment or
соблюдение sanitary and hygienic regime.

therefore применять их можно только в качестве дополнения к
traditional treatment regimen drawn up by a doctor.

Enterobiasis Diet

For persons suffering from enterobiasis, it is very important to comply with therapeutic
diet

AT рационе больных в обязательном порядке должны
present the following products:

  • raw garlic;
  • shredded horseradish root;
  • Тыквенные семечкиpumpkin seeds;
  • mustard;
  • grenades;
  • onion;
  • flax-seed;
  • ramson;
  • beet;
  • ginger root;
  • walnuts;
  • carnation;
  • hot peppers;
  • vegetable oils;
  • cranberries, lingonberries, lemons and other berries and fruits that have
    sour taste.

ATо время лечения людям, у которых были выявлены острицы, следует
minimize the consumption of sweets, sweet pastries, products
from puff pastry, animal fats, fried foods and sweet
carbonated drinks. In addition, it is strictly prohibited.
drink alcohol.

Preventive measures

Infectionists developed a whole range of activities
направленных на профилактику enterobiosis.

Persons at risk
it is necessary:

  • ATлажная уборкаwash hands thoroughly before meals, after the street and
    toilets, use disinfectant sprays and gels;
  • keep your body clean;
  • daily change underwear;
  • refuse to use towels and other items
    hygiene belonging to strangers;
  • keep an eye on manicure;
  • regularly (at least 3 times a week) spend in residential premises
    wet cleaning;
  • wash children’s toys weekly;
  • bathe pets after every walk.

Continuing to follow these guidelines allows
minimize the risk of enterobiasis and other parasitic
invasions.

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