Synovitis joints

Synovitis is an inflammation of the synovial membranes that
line the inside of the cavity of one or more large joints.
When the disease in the synovial membranes accumulates
liquid. Expresses discomfort, an increase in the volume of the joint,
pain and weakness. Signs appear during infection
intoxication. For exemption from military service with synovitis
there should be a dysfunction of the large joint.

Our task is to explain to you what this disease is, what
reasons for the development of synovitis and what to do for quick
recovery of the body.

What is synovitis?

Synovitis joints

Синовит — это воспалительное заболевание синовиальной
sheath (cavity) of the joint, characterized by excessive
accumulation in her effusion. The border of the inflammatory process
synovitis is limited to the synovial membrane.

As the cavities lined by the synovial membrane,
involved in this inflammatory process may be
synovial sac (small flattened cavity, lined
synovial membrane, delimited from the surrounding tissue capsule
and filled with synovial fluid), synovial vagina
tendons, articular cavities.

With synovitis in 65–70% of cases the knee joint suffers,
much less often affects the brachial, elbow, ankle,
hip. The disease is widespread, has many
variants of the course, occurs equally often in children and adults
all age groups.

Classification

Given the flow emit:

  • Acute synovitis – accompanied by thickening, plethora and
    swelling of the synovial membrane. Effusion is a
    translucent liquid, sometimes with visible to the naked eye
    fibrin flakes.
  • Chronic синовит – проis an развитием фиброзных
    changes in the joint capsule. In some cases, the synovial villi
    envelopes grow, fibrinous overlays appear on the envelope,
    hanging from the joint cavity (villous synovitis). When separating
    overlays are transformed into so-called “rice bodies”,
    which move freely in the joint fluid and additionally
    injure the synovial membrane.

According to localization secrete synovitis:

  • shoulder joint (shoulder);
  • elbow (elbow);
  • hip (hip);
  • knee joint (knee);
  • ankle (ankle);
  • wrist joint (wrist).

By the nature of the exudate:

  • Serous;
  • Serous fibrous;
  • Purulent;
  • Hemorrhagic.

In addition, depending on the nature of the causative factor, all
synovitis is divided into infectious and aseptic.
Accordingly, infectious synovitis is triggered by
pathogenic microbes in the joint, and aseptic can be caused
all other causal factors except
infectious.

Causes of

Most often synovitis occurs in men, by age,
mainly up to 35-45 years, due to the active physical
activities and age for professional sports, and
also hard physical work. Also, the disease is synovitis
may harass immunocompromised people who often
suffer from infectious diseases.

There are the following reasons for the development of synovitis of the joints:

  • injuries;
  • попадание инфекции в полость сустава;
  • accompanying illnesses;
  • allergic reactions;
  • joint instability;
  • increased body weight.

Non-infectious or aseptic synovitis, depending on the cause
develops in different ways. With traumatic injuries
athletes, people engaged in physical labor, to the fore
stands the mechanical factor.

Immunological disorders
при ревматизме, ревматоидном артрите приводят к
that antibodies produced by the body infect their own
synovial membrane.

And with some metabolic disorders, synovitis leads to
скопление шлаков или солей мочевой кислоты (при подагре) в
joint cavity.

Symptoms of synovitis + photo

Synovitis is characterized by damage to one joint or ligament, in
In rare cases, the disease is multiple.

Common signs of synovitis:

  • swelling and smoothing of the joints
  • pain under load, reduced volume of movement in the area
    defeats
  • general increase in body temperature or local increase
    температуры кожи в области defeats
  • general weakness, feeling unwell.

Some of these symptoms may be more pronounced than others.
but with infectious synovitis, signs will always be expressed in
большей степени, чем при неinfectious.

Symptoms
Acute synovitis
  • With this form of illness, the inflamed area becomes larger already.
    in the first 2-3 hours. This is due to the accumulation of large
    volume of synovial fluid.
  • As a rule, discomfort appears only when
    touching the affected place, and in the normal state the person is not
    experiencing no discomfort.
  • Over time, the inflamed area becomes warm, and the patient
    begins to experience general malaise;
Chronic Chronic синовит отличается тем, что отек при данной форме
not pronounced, and sometimes practically absent.

  • The most characteristic symptom of this form of the disease is an
    stiffness in the affected joint.
  • Also when performing movements in the affected joint appear
    pain sensations.
  • Long movements in the affected joint are impossible due to
    quick fatigue.
  • Ultimately, this form of synovitis can lead to
    joint hydrarthrosis (dropsy), leading to subluxation and dislocation
    joint (due to sprains).

Complications

Possible complications of synovitis:

  • arthritis,
  • reduced movement due to irreversible changes
    synovial membrane or articular surfaces,
  • extension of the process to adjacent areas of ligamentous
    apparatus.

The most formidable complication of infectious synovitis
is an сепсис, представляющий опасность для
of life. Sepsis (the appearance of the causative agent of the disease in the blood) with
infectious synovitis can develop in people with weakened
immune system (for example, with HIV infection) or in the case of
long absence of treatment.

Diagnostics

Objective examination of the patient with joint synovitis:

  • On examination, there is: an increase in the joint in size,
    swelling, smoothing the surface, hyperemia, stiffness
    articular movements.
  • Palpation (palpation) is felt: a local increase
    temperature, pain, swelling, fluctuation (presence
    fluid oscillations in the joint during movement). In some cases
    palpable enlargement of regional lymph nodes.

For accurate diagnosis, the doctor examines the affected joint.
using the following methods:

  • X-ray examination;
  • Ultrasound;
  • punctures during which intra-articular fluid is obtained and
    send it to an extended laboratory research;
  • CT or MRI.

Currently used for this arthroscopy,
type of endoscopy. Through a small hole in the skin in
the area of ​​the inflamed joint is a special optical device,
arthroscope is inserted into the articular cavity.

Arthroscopy allows not only to visually assess the state
articular cavity, but also to carry out some medical manipulations,
in particular, remove the inflammatory fluid.

Laboratory research methods:

  • In general, a blood test has an increased sedimentation rate.
    эритроцитов (СОЭ), увеличенное количество лейкоцитов, выis an
    C-reactive protein.
  • In the study of punctate determine the physico-chemical
    properties, conduct microscopic, bacterioscopic and
    bacteriological analysis.

Synovitis treatment

As soon as a person noticed any symptoms of illness,
he should go to the doctor without delay. The specialist will hold
examination, examine the results of surveys, establish an accurate diagnosis and
prescribe competent treatment of synovitis.

Treatment of acute serous synovitis should be carried out with
initial immobilization of the limb using a gypsum splint.
How to treat synovitis at the initial stage:

  • UHF-therapy,
  • UV irradiation
  • electrophoresis with novocaine,
  • warming compresses with Dimexidum solution.

If synovitis is severe, the doctor prescribes:

  • electrophoresis with lidazy,
  • potassium iodide electrophoresis,
  • phonophoresis with glucocorticosteroids.

If symptoms of synovitis are just a large amount of effusion in
synovial cavity and general weakness then punctures are necessary
joint with the possible addition of antibiotics.

It should be noted that the medical puncture is performed only
case when the infectious nature of synovitis is excluded.

There are the following contraindications for treatment
joint puncture:

  • bleeding disorders;
  • infection of the skin in the area of ​​the needle;
  • the presence at the site of insertion of the needle wounds.

Treatment of chronic serous or serous-fibrinous synovitis
provides for the rest of the affected limb,
joint punctures, physiotherapy
(electrification, paraffin applications, mud therapy and others).
Necessary to identify and treat the underlying disease, which
caused chronic synovitis.

In some advanced cases, you have to resort to
surgical treatment – the implementation of synovectomy, which is reduced to
complete or partial excision of the synovial membrane of the articular
capsules and held under endotracheal anesthesia.

For any type of disease, immobilization is indicated, i.e.
immobilization of the joint with a kneecap or bandage, wear them
need at least a week. It is also sometimes recommended sublime.
limb position.

Drugs for synovitis

Prescription drug therapy is carried out in several
directions:

  1. After joint puncture, intra-articular injection is prescribed.
    broad-spectrum antibiotics. It is necessary for
    prevention of accession of the infection or to eliminate it when
    established bacterial nature of the disease.
  2. Practically all patients with such a diagnosis are prescribed by doctors.
    NPVS (diclofenac, voltaren, ibuprofen, indomethacin) in the form of
    мазей, инъекции или оральных препаратов.
  3. Intra-articular administration of corticosteroids is also possible.
    combination with physiotherapy (magnetic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, ozokerite, UHF,
    paraffin, phonophoresis).
  4. To restore the microcirculation shows the appointment
    Tiotriazolin, Trentala, Nicotinic acid.

Operation

In the absence of a positive effect after the course
drug treatment, as well as with increased symptoms of synovitis
surgical treatment is prescribed. Patient under local or general
anesthesia is performed by opening the joint, cleansing its internal
cavities, washing with antibacterial and drying
solutions.

In the presence of “foreign” structures – bone and / or cartilaginous
formations and bone fragments after joint injury – surgeon
conducts a kind of plastic, restoring uniformity and
uniformity of its inner surface.

Full restoration of the affected joint with synovitis
perhaps no earlier than 2-3 months. Even if the condition
the patient allows you to start a normal life in a more
early terms – it is better to withstand a gentle mode throughout this
time span. This will completely eliminate
inflammatory process, prevent its recurrence and
transition to the chronic form.

Timely diagnosis of the disease and conduct
drug or surgical treatment can significantly
increase the patient’s chances of complete or partial recovery and
restoration of joint mobility.

Folk remedies for synovitis

  1. 1 tbsp. ground bay leaf is poured into
    a thermos where then 150 g of boiling water is poured. After 12 hours
    the infusion is filtered, 100g of any vegetable is added to it
    oils. Rub into the inflamed joint 2-3 times a day, then on
    30 minutes to ensure the joint immobility.
  2. Kalanchoe from synovitis. Put overnight in the fridge 3 big ones
    kalanchoe leaf, and in the morning make a mush, wrap in gauze and
    attach as a compress to the joint, wrap on top
    a handkerchief.
  3. A tablespoon of comfrey herb pour a glass of boiling water and
    insist in a thermos for 30 minutes. Ready infusion filter and
    drink during the day, or use for compresses on the area
    affected joint. Drink an infusion or make compresses should
    every day for a month.
  4. Take a collection of herbs of mistletoe, yarrow, thyme,
    Echinacea, oregano, eucalyptus, birch leaf, walnut and tansy.
    Prepare from this collection infusion according to the following recipe: dining
    a spoonful of grass is poured with two cups of boiling water, after which
    Infused for 1 hour and filtered. The infusion is taken between
    meals in equal portions throughout the day.

Preventive measures

  • Prevention of synovitis is the timely treatment
    inflammatory diseases that can cause it.
  • Care should be taken during sports training,
    avoid falls and injuries, eat rationally for
    укрепления связочного apparatus.
  • When you receive any herbs, you should immediately contact
    the hospital. The fact is that inflammation in a running form is easy
    leads to the development of this disease. It’s necessary
    understand.

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