Update: October 201eight
Calcium (Ca) is one of the most important macronutrients for the body.
human involved in the construction of tissues and metabolism. Element
ranks fifth in the list of all minerals available in
body, accounting for about 2% of human weight.
The role of calcium in the body can not be overemphasized. Besides all
known building material for bones and teeth, macronutrient
regulates the contractile function of the heart, nourishes the nervous tissue and
participates in impulses, lowers cholesterol,
regulates blood pressure, takes part in
transporting nutrients through the cell membranes and much
Calcium is extremely important for pregnant women – only with proper
its receipt ensures the physiological development of the fetus and
normal state of health of the future mother.
Calcium norm in the body
In newborns in the body is about thirty grams of calcium.
Gradually, the amount of calcium increases in adults and
is approximately ten00-1200 grams (on an average weight of 70 kg). Norms
daily calcium intake with food depends on
age and sex:
|Children up to 6 months.||four00 mg|
|Children 6-12 months.||600 mg|
|Children 1-ten l||eight00 mg|
|Children from 11 l, young people up to 25 l||1200 mg|
|Women 25-50 l||eight00 mg|
|Nursing and pregnant women||1200 mg|
|Women with 50 l||1200 mg|
|Women with 50 l, получающие гормонозаместительную терапию||ten00 mg|
|Men 25-65 L||eight00 mg|
|Men over 65 l||1200 mg|
|Athletes of both sexes||1ten0 mg|
Causes of calcium deficiency
- Inadequate intake of calcium with food that
often observed with certain diets,
unbalanced diet, vegetarianism, fasting,
neglect of dairy products, etc.
- Low calcium in water.
- Smoking, excessive coffee infatuation (accelerate elimination
- Violation of the absorption of the macro in the intestine, which
occurs on the background of dysbiosis, candidiasis, food allergies,
chronic enterocolitis, etc.
- Diseases of the kidney, hematopoietic system, pancreas
(pancreatitis), thyroid gland (familial, idiopathic,
postoperative hypoparathyroidism in which hypocalcemia
develops due to the increased production of parathyroid hormone parathyroid
- Osteoporosis (treatment)
- Lack of estrogen
- Lactose digestibility (dairy and other products,
- The excess in the body of the following elements: lead, zinc,
phosphorus, magnesium, iron, cobalt, potassium and sodium, which
promote the excretion of calcium.
- Deficiency in the body of vitamin D3, which is involved in absorption
element and embedding it in the cell structure (the norm for an adult
ranges from four00 to eight00 IU).
- Increased need for an element that is observed in the period
accelerated growth, during pregnancy and lactation (calcium goes to
fetal tissue construction or enrichment of breast milk), elevated
physical and mental stress (accelerated consumption), menopause
(lack of estrogen, absorbing calcium).
- Advanced age (impaired calcium absorption).
- Treatment with diuretic and laxative substances (accelerated
Symptoms of calcium deficiency in the body
- Weakness, fatigue, decrease
- Nervousness, irritability.
- Dry and flaky skin, brittle nails. Elevated
sweating of the scalp.
- Tooth decay, caries.
- Numbness of the fingers, face, cramps, pain in the legs and hands.
- Signs of osteoporosis – brittle bones, frequent fractures or
cracks, bone deformation.
- Violation of cardiac activity up to the development of cardiac
- Subcapsular cataract (with prolonged hypocalcemia).
- Increased bleeding, blood clotting.
- Reduced immunity, which is expressed by frequent
- Elevated чувствительность к холодной погоде (ломота в костях
and muscles, chills).
- Signs of calcium deficiency in children: impaired formation
teeth and bones, pathological changes in the lens of the eye,
nervous system disorders, excitability, convulsions, poor
Diagnosis of hypocalcemia
The condition is diagnosed based on the patient’s complaints and
laboratory determination of the element in serum (norm 2,15 –
2.50 mmol / l).
Treatment – how to fill the lack of calcium
- Therapy of the acute state of hypocalcemia is carried out in conditions
hospital because This situation is life threatening.
- Chronic macro deficiency requires taking medications
calcium, vitamin D3 and other elements, the normalization of the diet and
exclusion of behavioral factors and products impairing absorption
Ca or contributing to its loss.
Therapeutic drugs are prescribed so as to
the daily intake of the element was approximately 1.5-2 g
Vitamin D preparations are selected in individual dosage, based on
of needs organism. The course of treatment is usually long,
set individually. Modern Pharmaceutical
industry produces combination preparations containing and
calcium, and vitamin D3 and other pharmacologically necessary
Pharmaceutical preparations are prescribed for the treatment and
prevention of conditions and diseases associated with
hypocalcemia, as well as to accelerate the healing of bone fractures.
Features of calcium preparations:
- The composition must contain the number of elementary, pure
- Better digestibility is achieved while taking with
- Caffeine, carbonated drinks and alcohol significantly impair
- Poor digestibility is also characteristic when combined with antibiotics.
from the group of tetracyclines, laxatives, anti-inflammatory and
- Calcium preparations often cause side effects in the form of pain.
in the stomach, nausea, constipation.
- Each drug has a number of strict contraindications.
(pregnancy, urolithiasis, tuberculosis, chronic
renal failure, childhood, etc.).
All drugs from this category can be divided into 3 groups:
- The monopreparations containing a macrocell in the form of salt: calcium
carbonate (four0% of the element), calcium citrate (21%), calcium gluconate
(9%), calcium lactate (13%) and others.
- Combination drugs, including calcium salts, vitamin D and
other minerals. Vitamin D is involved in calcium metabolism, synthesis and
maintaining bone architectonics, therefore such medicinal
forms are more effective: Calcium D3 Nycomed, Calcemin, etc.
- Multivitamins. Contain several vitamins and minerals in
prophylactic dosages and are intended to prevent
hypocalcemia, as well as appointed as an additional
element source: Multi-tabs, Alphabet, etc. (calcium content
1 tablet 150-200 mg).
Renny 170 -250 rub. (menthol, orange, mint). Contains calcium in
associated systemic form, 6eight0 mg of calcium eight0 mg of magnesium
hydroxycarbonate in 1 chewable tablet. It is applied for
eliminate the shortcomings of these elements, and also provides
antiacid action. Designed for use by adults and children.
over 12 years old – 2 tab. after eating, dissolving in the mouth (maximum 11
In 1 ml – 0.1 g of calcium chloride. Medicine,
prescribed for hypocalcemia, diseases of the thyroid gland,
vessels. Available as an intravenous solution.
adults (15 ml 2-3 r per day) and children (5-ten ml 2 r per day), in
diluted with glucose or sodium chloride.
- Calcium D3 Nycomed (500 mg + 200 IU 350-four00 rubles)
- Complivit Calcium D3 (500 mg + 200 IU 3thirty rub)
- Vitrum Calcium with Vitamin D3 (500 mg + 200 IU 500 rub.)
- Натекаль Д3 (600 mg+ four00 ме four20 руб)
- Neyches Bounty (600mg + four00 IU 650 rub)
Popular combination drugs that compensate for deficiency
element and improves its absorption. Under the action of the drug
elements absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is regulated;
synthesis of parathyroid hormones, increases bone resorption
tissue. For therapeutic purposes, the dosage is selected in
individual order. With prophylactic:
- children four-11 years old – 1 t 2 r per day
- children over 12 l and adults 2 t 3 r per day.
thirty pieces fourfour0 rubles, 120 pcs. eight50-900 rubles. Calcium citrate + carbonate
500 mg, vitamin D3 5 mcg – a complex drug intended
to eliminate calcium deficiency and prevent conditions in adults
and children from 12 yrs. Contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, boron,
colecalciferol. Accepted 1 ton 2 times a day.
ten0 pieces. ten0 rub. Available in several variations – with magnesium,
zinc, selenium, vitamin C, iodine. Belongs to the category of dietary supplements and
acts as an additional source of these elements in the period
pregnancy, lactation and menopause in women, intensive growth in
adolescents and others
During the entire period of treatment must be monitored.
serum calcium level – every week for the first
month, then the multiplicity is reduced.
Eggshell from lack of calcium in the body
Many sources of traditional medicine promote consumption
eggshell as a natural source of calcium.
Indeed, the egg shell is 90% calcium. But
recent studies have shown that the digestibility of an element from
the shell is very low, even when consumed with lemon or else
somehow. Therefore, consider the eggshell as an alternative
balanced nutrition or therapeutic drugs not
Sources give the following recipe for cooking egg
shell: thoroughly washing and removing a thin inner film from it,
the shells are dried and crushed into powder. Take with meals
half a teaspoon per day by adding a couple drops of lemon
juice. The course is 1.5-2 months, 1 time in half a year.
Calcium for the elderly – myths and reality
As you know, in older people, the risk of developing
osteoporosis, and many, caring for their health, increase
consumption of dairy products for sufficient calcium intake
into the body. Butвозеландские ученые поставили под сомнение
the need for increased calcium to strengthen bones for
people over 50 years old.
- Mark Bolland with a team of University researchers
Auckland analyzed 2 studies that related to the impact
кальция на плотность костной tissue. One of them covered
age group over 50 years old (13790 people). As it turned out,
regular intake of calcium preparations and products with high
elemental content increased bone density of the whole
- Another study found a relationship between
bone fracture rate and calcium intake. Participated in the survey
более four5000 человек. It turned out that the regular reception of the macro
does not reduce the likelihood of bone fracture.
Thus, the scientists summarized that no expediency
take calcium supplements or switch to diets with elevated
the content of the element in the products is not (in this case, calcium should
do with food in daily needs).
But enough physical activity, in particular, jumping into
2 minutes daily is a good preventive measure
osteoporosis for the elderly. But не будем забывать, что
this is just one study for a specific group
людей без учета сопутствующих патологий и особенностей organism.
If your doctor recommends taking Ca medications with confirmed
hypocalcemia or susceptibility to such, it should be performed
Prevention of hypocalcemia
Prevention of this pathological condition for healthy
people not suffering from diseases that lead to a deficiency of Ca,
consists in a number of elementary things, feasible to everyone.
- Daily consumption of foods containing sufficient
the amount of macronutrient able to satisfy daily
the need for it;
- Eating foods rich in vitamin D, providing
transformation of sa in the body and its best absorption (fermented milk,
vegetable oils, eggs, seafood, fish liver, fish oil,
- Prophylactic vitamin D supplementation for children in autumn and winter
period (as recommended by the doctor);
- Enough sunshine in safe hours
excluding the period from 12 to 15.00, which provides the synthesis of vitamin D in
- Periodic use of a balanced vitamin and mineral
complexes, but on the advice of a doctor and respecting the physiological
dosage. Honeyикаментозная профилактика гипокальциемии особенно
relevant for pregnant, lactating and elderly women;
- Compliance with proper physical activity, sport possible.
Good nutrition with enough calcium is best
prophylaxis and hypocalcemia, and diseases associated with
macronutrient deficiencies. Calculate due consumption of those or
other products easily, knowing the daily rate and the amount of the element in
ten0 гр продукта. Much calcium in dairy products, however with
age, their digestibility is deteriorating, so rely only on
этот источник элемента не worth it. Also in large amounts of calcium
found in vegetables, seafood, nuts.
- Усвояемость Са из молока составляет всего thirty %;
- Products of plant origin are characterized by 50%
- The diet should be rich in foods containing vitamins D, C
- Nicotine, alcohol, coffee, soda (especially cola), sausages,
smoked foods contribute to the leaching of Ca and impair its absorption;
- Salt also contributes to the removal of macronutrients from the body and
negatively affects the gastrointestinal tract, worsening absorption.
- Average daily intake of calcium for an adult should
составлять ten00-1500 мг. This amount is due to the fact that
all calcium listed on food is digested
by the body.
What foods contain calcium – table (amount of calcium –
мг на ten0 гр продукта)
|Skim milk powder||1155||Sardines, canned||3eight0|
|Dutch Cheese||tenfour0||Salmon fish||2ten|
|Cheese “Cheddar”, “Russian”||ten00||Crabs||ten0|
|Swiss Cheese||eight50||Oysters, anchovies||eight2|
|Natural dry cream||700||Squid||four0|
|Goat cheese||500||Milk Sausages||35|
|Condensed milk||thirty7||Beef liver, fatty pork||eight|
|Soft cheese||260||Pork fat||2|
|Bold cottage cheese||150||Sesame||7eight0|
|Fat kefir (3.5%), acidophilus, yogurt, whole cow
|Сливки жидкие ten %||90||Hazelnut||170|
|Liquid cream 20%||eight6||Brazil Nut, Arugula||sixteen0|
|Сметана, жирность thirty %||eight5||Beans, Figs||150|
|Mayonnaise 50 %||57||Parsley||13eight|
||Green onions, seeds, beans||ten0|
|Tea||four95||Raisins, dried apricots||eight0|
|White chocolate||2eight0||Green salad||77|
|Milk chocolate||220||Garlic, peanuts||60|
|Coffee beans||1four7||Red Cabbage||53|
|Oat groats||6four||White cabbage fresh, sauerkraut||foureight|
|Chicken egg (yolk)||55||Kohlrabi, yellow carrot||four6|
|Tomato Paste||20||Grapefruit, Orange, Brussels Sprouts||3four|
||Cauliflower, green peas, pumpkin||26|
|Black bread||ten0||Cucumber, asparagus beans||22|
|Wheat Cereal Bread||four3||Peach pear||20|
||Ground Tomato, Watermelon||1four|
|Cocoa с milkм||71||Potatoes||ten|
|Grape juice||20||Green pepper||eight|
|Apple juice, tomato||7||An Apple||7|
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог