Symptoms, treatment and prevention of botulism

БотулизмBotulism is a serious and dangerous disease that
occurs as a result of ingestion of botulinum toxin.
The nervous system is affected, paralysis and problems with
breathing. The main danger of the disease lies in its complications.
Without timely treatment, the patient develops respiratory
failure and disturbed heart rhythm. Even possible
death. It is important to correctly diagnose botulism so that
time to start therapy.

Description of the pathogen

The causative agent of botulism is the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. She is
able to maintain its properties in a dried form for
decades. For her normal life need some
conditions: lack of oxygen and air temperature of 35 ° C.
Botulinum toxin is well preserved in canned, spiced foods
and brines. It is one of the most potent toxic substances, but a toxin.
does not affect the taste.

Clostridium botulinumBotulinum toxin may die with
boiling. Vegetative form is destroyed by boiling on
over 5 minutes, and the spore is destroyed only after 4–5 hours.
The spore form of botulism is quite resistant to the effects
the environment. She is остаётся жизнеспособной даже при самой
high concentration of disinfectants. Such disputes are not
die during freezing and drying. Therefore doubtful
Products should be subjected to prolonged heat treatment.

A feature of botulinum toxin is that it can
absorbed through the digestive system and mucous membranes
eye or respiratory membranes. With toxin poisoning often
there are family lesions. In most cases, infect
people from 20 to 25 years.

Disease classification

There are 4 main types of the disease. All of them
different causes of infections, but the clinical picture at the same time
remains the same. По способу заражения выделяются
The following types of botulism:

  1. Food The most common type. Infection occurs when
    eating foods that contain botulinum toxin.
  2. Wound. The toxin penetrates the wound upon contact with the infected
    ground.
  3. Children’s. Observed in children under 6 months. In the gastrointestinal
    tract baby creates all favorable conditions for the toxin.
    The source of infection is soil, dust, or honey.
  4. With unclear etiology.

Продукты ботулизма

Infant botulism is different from an adult. Incubation
period is quite long. In most cases, infection
occurs not by vegetative forms, but spore-forming.
Children’s botulism manifests itself in the form of:

  • general weakness of the baby;
  • problems with the chair;
  • hoarse crying;
  • weak swallowing and sucking reflex.

In children, more often a complication in the form of pneumonia, the percentage
death rate is also higher. Depending on the degree of damage
the disease can be divided into mild, moderate, and
heavy

Further treatment depends on the form of the disease. For correct
making a diagnosis the doctor must know the cause of the infection.

Детский ботулизм

Causes of development

Botulism can be transmitted by the oral-fecal mechanism.
The main cause of the disease – eating infected
products. The main source of toxin is food in
canned form that did not go through the correct thermal
processing. Dangerous banks are considered to be preserved with swollen
lids. Most often poisoning caused by the use of home
products. Sometimes botulinum toxin is found in honey. In this way,
children who consumed mashed potatoes with
adding honey.

Маринованные грибыWhen ingested, the toxin does not
changes neither color, nor taste, nor smell. This is the main
danger, because initially a person cannot understand that he
consumes dangerous food. In rare cases, the pathogen can penetrate
into the body through a wound or airway.

If the cause is consuming contaminated foods, then
all who ate such food should contact a specialist. Even
there are no obvious symptoms, the doctor must carry out prophylactic
arrangements to ensure there is no risk of spread
diseases.

Incubation период и симптомы

Incubation период ботулизма может длиться от нескольких часов
before the day. Its duration depends on the number
infections in the body. Sometimes the term from eating contaminated food
before the first signs may be 2−3 days. In rare
In cases of incubation lasts up to 10 days.

The first signs appear suddenly and may resemble symptoms.
severe poisoning. The toxin is quickly absorbed into the intestines, and further
enters the blood and spreads throughout the body, while
affecting organs. The first signs of the disease
following:

  • sharp pain in the abdomen;
  • persistent vomiting;
  • nausea;
  • severe diarrhea.

Ботулизм симптомыEarly signs are similar.
poisoning, so most patients do not go to the doctor,
thereby aggravating the situation. In a day, dryness appears.
mouth, severe bloating and constipation. After a while
patient’s eyesight deteriorates: reading becomes impossible, objects
split into two. There is a paralysis of the muscles of the face. The most dangerous symptom
are breathing problems since it is indicative of
neglect of the disease and possible serious deviations. In rare
In cases of death, the patient cannot
breathe.

Diagnostic methods

Routine blood and urine tests will be powerless in diagnosis.
botulism Before making a diagnosis, the doctor must conduct
a series of studies. Treatment is prescribed for the following.
data:

  • epidemic information – whether homemade food was consumed
    conservation;
  • clinical indicators;
  • laboratory research.

Выявление ботулизма

The physician must conduct a bacteriological examination of emetic
masses and feces. In the process of diagnosis, to put the right
diagnosis, the specialist must find out what food the patient consumed,
whether he had a fever. Important indicators
являются following:

  • bloating;
  • presence of muscle weakness;
  • changes in voice timbre;
  • stool retention;
  • development of respiratory failure.

Вздутие живота

Even with a pronounced clinical picture, the doctor may
make a mistake when making a diagnosis, as botulism
is extremely rare and most specialists never
did not encounter. Иногда такая болезнь может быть ошибочно
adopted for:

  • mushroom poisoning;
  • food intoxication;
  • hypertensive crisis;
  • myasthenia gravis;
  • encephalitis.

In the initial stages, botulinum toxin infection can be confused with
gastritis, general intoxication or enteritis. However, all these
diseases differ from botulism by the presence of fever and
feces with green admixture. In this case, held
differential diagnosis.

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Features of treatment

If a patient’s botulism is suspected, they are hospitalized. In the department
The ventilator must be present. First thing
washed stomach. For this special thick is used.
probe.

Neutralization of botulinum toxin occurs with a single
the introduction of polyvalent protivobotulinic sera. If this
turned out to be insufficient, and the symptoms continue to develop,
serum is administered a second time.

Protivobotulinic препарат Protivobotulinic
the drug is a rather rare medicine since it has a very
short shelf life, so it is not present in all
hospitals. Most commonly used to suppress toxin.
protivobotulinichesky immunoglobulin.

Further treatment depends on the severity of the disease and
present symptoms. With the development of respiratory
acute failure the patient is transferred to an artificial
pulmonary ventilation.

For problems with urination, the patient is prescribed.
catheterization. Therefore, urinary development is not allowed.
infections. If breathing disorders are observed, then the specialist
conducts detoxification. She is заключается в промывании желудка и
intestine. These manipulations will remove a toxin that is not yet
managed to soak up. The first washing is carried out using a simple
boiled water. Then her samples are used for
specific analysis.

Кормление через зондLaxatives in this case
contraindicated, as there may be neuromuscular
расстройство или парез intestine.

Feeding takes place with a thin probe, or patient
translated into parenteral nutrition. In order to speed up
the process of recovery and recovery can be assigned to various
physiotherapeutic procedures that are aimed at improving
work of the muscular system.

Botulism is a dangerous disease, so it can not
treat at home. However, there are a number of actions that
need to perform before the arrival of the ambulance. Can do
cleansing enema from diluted potassium permanganate or decoction of
herbs It will be useful washing the stomach. For this recommended
use 2% soda solution. It helps create an alkaline environment,
which has a destructive effect on the toxin. This procedure will be
effective only in the first few days after infection, so
as the stomach may still contain particles of an infected
product.

Клизма

Complications and Rehabilitation

With the wrong or late treatment of botulism possible
complications. They represent the greatest danger not only for
health, but also for human life. To frequent negative
consequences include:

  1. Вторичные бактериальные complications. It could be pneumonia,
    sepsis, purulent type tracheobronchitis or atelectasis.
  2. ПневмонияSpecific manifestations. The patient may
    observed myositis, affecting the occipital, femoral and gastrocnemius
    muscle. Movement becomes difficult and painful. maybe
    also the formation of arrhythmias.
  3. Post-medical manifestations. These include atrophy
    intestinal, serum sickness and hyperglycemia.

A dangerous complication is anaphylactic shock, which can
occur during treatment. He may appear suddenly out
зависимости от симптомов и лечения botulism There are times when
the patient practically recovered, but complications began and his
condition has deteriorated sharply.

A patient who has had botulism for 2 weeks after
recovery should be under the supervision of a physician. When appearing
residual effects should immediately contact a cardiologist (at
миокардите), окулисту (at ухудшении зрения) или к невропатологу.
If there are certain indications, then the drug
therapy may continue during the recovery period. In most
cases are prescribed drugs for the treatment and prevention of atrophy
зрительных нервов и развития сердечно-сосудистых diseases. For
general body strengthening is recommended to take vitamin
complex.

Диета при ботулизмеWithin 3 months the patient should
refuse excessive exercise. Can not engage
sports, hard physical labor, as well as work that
suggests a strong strain of the optic nerves.

A person who has been ill with botulism must
follow your diet. It is recommended to eat 4 times a day.
day. It should be completely excluded from your diet, spicy and oily.
food, and also need to limit the amount of salt consumed.
Animal fats can be replaced by vegetable. It is also important to take
complex vitamins to compensate for the lack of beneficial
substances in the body. For этого отлично подойдёт Витрум, Компливит и
Alphabet.

For быстрого восстановления рекомендуется делать
physiotherapy: shower or bath. Will be useful
also oxygen inhalations. Such manipulations are necessary in order
to completely get rid of the effects of hypoxia if
the disease was acute.

Great benefits will bring therapeutic gymnastics and wellness
massage. All these procedures are aimed at restoring normal
work of the muscular system. Most doctors recommend passing
recovery in sanatoriums.

Forecast and preventive measures

After recovery from the patient for a long time
the period remains residual paralysis. Completely he passes
only 1-2 months. After recovery, a person must
Six months to undergo an ECG and donate blood for tests. If present
neurological residuals then the patient remains
disabled for another 2 weeks.

Профилактические меры при ботулизмеTo prevent
infection, simple rules should be followed. Food
need to be properly processed before use. It is impossible
eat preservation with a bloated lid. If there is
the suspicion that the product may have a toxin in it
boil for 15 minutes or completely abandon it
use.

It is also important to properly store food that is not
amenable to heat treatment. Persons who ate the same
food with a sick person, you need to consult a doctor. During
two weeks, they should be supervised by specialists as well as
a special antibiotic is introduced.

Persons who have been in contact with the patient should be
vaccinated. This vaccination is done in three stages. Second injection
done only 45 days after the first, and the third – after 2
month after the second.

Гимнастика

Persons who have or are in contact with
ботулотоксином, должны быть vaccinated. Vaccination is carried out
polyanatoxin in three stages. Any folk remedies can
be used only after consultation with a specialist. For
prophylaxis or recovery stage can be used decoction
based on echinacea and nettle. A decoction of
cinnamon On a glass of boiling water is recommended to take 1 tsp. seasonings.
Drink is taken chilled.

It is important to notice the symptoms of botulism in humans and in time
diagnose the disease. The faster the treatment begins, the
less risk of complications and death. You should also know where
может развиваться палочка botulism Preventive measures will help
prevent the development of such a dangerous disease and prevent
complications.

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