Symptoms, treatment and consequences of the diseaseLyme

Синдром лаймаAfter the bite of ixodic tick exists
probability of getting borreliosis. This disease is otherwise called
болезнью Lyme. It affects the joints, the nervous system, the heart and
skin integument. The disease is treatable with antibiotics and early
stages of diagnosis with properly selected therapy practically
always ends with complete recovery of the patient.

general characteristics

Systemic tick-borne borreliosis is an infection with prolonged
recurrent course. Withчиной заражения может быть только укус
Ixodes tick, which is a carrier of Borrelia. Infect
the other person cannot be sick, because contact-everyday
pathology is not transmitted.

Discovery history

Симптомы болезни лаймаThe causative agent of the disease is
bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Болезнью Lyme инфекцию назвали в
in honor of the American city of Lyme in Connecticut where in 1975
her first outbreak was registered this year. There was also done
description of the symptoms of the disease.

A survey of teens from this state provided an opportunity to investigate
course of the disease. The reason for their inspection was juvenile arthritis,
which statistically met in Connecticut’s young people in 100
times more often than teenagers from other states. Doctors such anomaly
seemed strange, so the children were sampled synovial
fluid. Thus, Borrelia spirochetes were sown.
burgdorferi.

This type of bacteria has a corkscrew shape. From 20 species
боррелий патогенной является только одна, вызывающая болезнь Lyme.
Infection occurs by biting when the tick injects its saliva.
The insects themselves do not get sick, they are only carriers
diseases. Ticks from wild animals that are
carriers of borrelia.

Prevalence of disease

Как проявляется болезнь лаймаIxodic ticks can
meet only in mixed deciduous forests of the North
hemisphere. Infectся боррелиозом можно в России, Чехии, Украине,
Romania, Moldova, USA, Canada, China, Japan, Bulgaria, Hungary,
Словакии, Словении, Сербии, Македонии и странах Withбалтики.

Recently, individual cases were recorded in
some European countries and even in Australia. The territories in which
there is a permanent natural reservoir of borreliosis, periodically
exposed to outbreaks of infection. Carriers of infection are not
only animals, but also rodents and birds. Infected with spirochetes
tick remains their lifelong carrier.

There are natural foci in which 90% of insects are
carriers of infection. The danger of infection is very high.
Almost every bite can cause illness. Residents of these
Regions are required to take precautions.

From May to September, while there is grass and foliage, the period lasts
tick activity. Enough to get an insect on human clothes
and it gets to the skin. Then the mite sticks to the skin.
and injects saliva. Thus, infection occurs.

Symptoms and development

Лечение болезни лаймаThe incubation period is from 2 to
50 days, but there were cases when it lasted several
months. Then the symptoms of borreliosis appear. The disease is isolated
three stages depending on the type of major pathological changes.
Each of them is characterized by a specific clinical picture.
The first and second stages are the early period of the disease and
considered an acute process. The third stage is chronic. She can
last for years, but not always in a patient, if therapy
was started on time.

Each stage has its own typical symptoms. The first stage has
visible clinical signs and almost always flows violently.
Only 7% can be asymptomatic. This period
characterized by the usual symptoms of intoxication, such
as:

  • Symptoms, treatment and consequences of the disease Lymemuscular
    pain;
  • chills;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • general malaise;
  • головная pain;
  • temperature;
  • суставная pain;
  • body aches;
  • severe weakness

Как лечить заболеваниеAgainst the background of these signs appears
stiffness in neck movements, nausea and vomiting, in rare
cases, runny nose, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis and tickling occur in
throat The main symptom of the first stage is erythema, which
formed at the site of an insect bite. It starts with
a small red bubble and turns into a large spot with
rim around the edges. Its diameter is constantly increasing, so it
described as migratory.

Often there may be a rash in the form of urticaria. In 7-8% of patients
signs of brain damage appear (photophobia, frequent
vomiting, burning sensation, drooping back and pulling up
feet to the stomach). Atypical symptom may be development
anicteric hepatitis, which is manifested in very rare cases.
It is characterized by pain in the liver and loss of appetite.

The first stage lasts from 3 to 30 days, then the patient
recovers or he begins the second stage. If therapy
antibiotics started on time, then 80% of patients get better.

The second stage is due to the fact that Borrelia
spread with blood and lymph throughout the body. Usually
it starts by the end of 1 month of illness after appearance of erythema and
intoxication. At this time, the defeat of the heart and nervous
systems. A clear sign of the second stage is meningitis, a sign
which will be a throbbing headache. Common symptoms
this period:

  • Методы лечения болезни лаймаdizziness;
  • dyspnea;
  • heart palpitations;
  • грудная pain;
  • emetic urges;
  • tinnitus;
  • inability to smile;
  • hearing loss;
  • numbness of the limbs;
  • lower back pain;
  • muscle weakness

Some patients have a rash or
benign lymphocytoma. The body of the patient sharply
weakening, nonspecific clinical
manifestations:

  • Чем лечить заболеваниеinflammation of the testes in men;
  • bronchitis;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • angina;
  • defeat of the spleen;
  • liver disease;
  • iritis;
  • protein and blood in the urine;
  • weakness and fatigue;
  • panophthalmitis;
  • chorioretinitis.

The duration of the second stage can be delayed up to six months.
Withблизительно через 6 месяцев начинается третья стадия, которая
lasts for several years. This means that the disease
acquired a chronic nature. The last stage characterizes
the emergence of diseases such as arthritis, neurological syndrome and
atrophic acrodermatitis. To damage the joints
characterized by one of the following forms:

  • chronic arthritis with progression;
  • arthralgia characterized by migratory pains in
    joints;
  • benign arthritis with relapses.

Клещевой боррелиозAgainst this background, there is a constant
inflammatory process. The patient is worried about swelling, pain and
mobility limitation. In the third stage, erosion begins.
bones and cartilage. The tissue surrounding the joints is also inflamed. it
leads to bursitis or osteoporosis. Loose builds up on the bone
inflammatory mass, and cartilage thinning. In some patients
inflammation of the cornea begins. All this is accompanied
pathological processes in the skin, there is a focal
scleroderma.

Кроме того, на третьей стадии синдрома Lyme начинаются
neurological complications that manifest themselves in violation
mobility and sensitivity. Characteristic symptoms include
dementia, spastic paraparesis and encephalomyelitis, which
characterized by hallucinations, convulsions, memory loss,
speech disturbance, periodic vomiting and dizziness.

The patient’s skin is dry, frequent attacks.
palpitations, tendon reflexes are reduced. Gait becomes
rooster because the muscles are weakened. Due to disruption
blood vessels in men develop impotence.

Types of diagnostics

After a tick bite, the patient’s body must be carefully
inspect to eliminate the likelihood of migrating
erythema. A survey is then conducted to determine typical
признаки болезни Lyme. The presence of specific
для этой болезни патологий, таких as:

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  • Боррелиоз или болезнь лаймаatrioventricular obstruction
    cardiac conduction;
  • pericarditis;
  • myocarditis;
  • arthritis of one or more joints;
  • serous meningitis;
  • neuritis of the nerves of the skull;
  • chronic atrophic acrodermatitis;
  • the presence of benign lymphocetomas on the nipple or ear
    lobe;
  • meningoencephalitis;
  • polyradiculoneuritis.

With диагностировании любой из этих патологий у больного берут
blood from a vein for the presence of antibodies to borrelia. Positive
лабораторный анализ указывает на развитие diseases. Test
repeat after 4 weeks to confirm the infection and follow up
the dynamics of the disease.

Treatment of the disease

With боррелиозе назначаются антибиотики, к которым чувствительны
pathogenic microorganisms. Drug schedule and duration
Therapies depend on the stage and symptoms of the patient.
For the first stage, the following drugs are used:

  • Синдром лаймаDoxycycline 100 mg twice daily for
    3 weeks;
  • Amoxicillin 500 mg three times a day for at least 10 days, maximum
    – 21;
  • Azithromycin 500 mg once a day for 1
    weeks;
  • Cefuroxime 500 mg in the morning and evening for up to three weeks;
  • Tetracycline 400 mg every 6 hours for two
    weeks.

Experts recommend first prescribing tetracycline, considering
its most effective antibiotic in treating the symptoms of the disease
Lyme. If it turns out to be ineffective, then you should go
to other medicines. When a patient is present
neurological symptoms, the following will be effective
drugs:

  • Levomycetin or Chloramphenicol 500 mg every 6 hours for
    over 4 weeks by mouth or intravenously;
  • Unidox Solutab 100 mg twice daily for 2 to 4 weeks;
  • Medaxone or Ceftriaxone 2000 mg intravenously once a
    day from 2 to 4 weeks;
  • Benzylpenicillin 500 mg 4 times a day for 2 weeks intravenously
    or inside;

Drug intake for cardiovascular lesions
systems are different. The following will be effective
antibiotics:

  • Ecobol or Amoxicillin – 500 mg three times a day for three
    weeks;
  • Penicillin G – 20 000 000 IU once a day from 2 to 4
    weeks;
  • Ifitsef, Biotraxon, Hazaran or Ceftriaxone – 2000 mg
    внутривенно один раз в сутки на протяжении 4 weeks;
  • Doxycycline – 100 mg twice a day for 3 weeks.

Если у пациента на фоне болезни Lyme развился хронический
atrophic acrodermatitis, the duration of treatment is increased to
30 days. Suitable schemes treatments will be as follows:

  • Vibramitsin or Doxycycline – 2 times a day, 100 mg;
  • Amoxicillin or Hikontsil – 1 time per day, 1000 mg.

Affection of the joints requires its own treatment regimen. With артрите
выписывают такие антибактериальные средства, as:

  • Amosin or Ospamox – 4 times a day, 500 mg for
    months;
  • Penicillin G – intravenously in the morning, 20 000 000 IU 28 days;
  • Axon or Torocef – intravenously 1 time per day for 14 days;
  • Ksedocin or Vidoccin – 100 mg twice a day for
    of the month.

Минимальное количество дней для терапии составляет 10. itго
enough if the patient has only intoxication of the body and
erythema. If there is damage to the nervous system, joints
or heart, then the duration of treatment should be maximized.

During medication, an increase in the number of
erythema and the appearance of profuse rash. it не должно пугать пациента.
Such symptoms are called the Jarish-Gersheimer reaction and are
evidence of successful treatment.

With наличии боррелиоза у будущей матери ей выписывают только
Amoxicillin in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening on 500 mg throughout 3
weeks. In addition to antibiotics, a number of drugs are prescribed, the purpose of which
is symptomatic therapy:

  1. To combat the inflammatory process in the articular tissues and
    pain reduction is prescribed nonsteroid
    anti-inflammatory drugs such as nimesulide or
    Indomethacin.
  2. To reduce swelling take diuretics, for example,
    Furosemide.
  3. To relieve itching and relieve allergic reactions should
    drink antihistamine tablets – Suprastin, Cetrin, or Diazolin
    Erius.
  4. Analgesics are recommended for pain relief. The most
    effective of them is Ketanov.
  5. Prozerin is prescribed to improve neuromuscular conduction.
    or Oksazil.

Preventive measures

Лайм боррелиоз симптомы лечениеWhile walking in
caution should be exercised in a forest belt or park area. Pliers
love to be in places where a lot of greenery and foliage. In their season
activity you need to use repellents, cover the neck,
shoulders, upper and lower limbs clothing. After resting in the forest
Care should be taken to examine the skin for ticks.

With обнаружении укуса следует немедленно обратиться в
polyclinic. If the insect is found on the skin, it is impossible
remove it yourself, because there is a danger of separation
tick heads from the torso. In the hospital, the doctor will correctly remove
insect, inspect and process the bite site, and if necessary
prescribe tests and appropriate treatment.

It is recommended to conduct acaricides on the summer cottages
activity. In the period from May to September, you must inspect
your pet after the walk, as ticks do not bite
only humans, but also animals.

The effects of a tick bite

Последствия болезни лаймаIf the disease is found in
patient in the first stage and in doing so he received timely
necessary treatment, then almost always comes full
recovery. The odds of amendment in the second stage are also very
high. Up to 90% of patients can be cured without any
consequences.

If the diagnosis was late, and the patient did not pass.
full therapy, the disease can become chronic.
His position will be exacerbated by immune defects.
реагирования diseases. It will take a second course
antibiotic therapy and complete pathogenetic and symptomatic
treatment. But these measures do not guarantee full recovery.
The patient will feel better, but he will remain
functional impairment that may lead to
disability:

  • Последствия болезни лаймаepileptic seizures;
  • dysfunction of the joints and their deformation;
  • lesion of the facial nerve;
  • reduced sensitivity;
  • change of gait and shakiness when walking;
  • decreased muscle strength in the arms and legs (paresis);
  • impaired vision and hearing;
  • arrhythmia;
  • heart failure.

The symptoms in each patient manifest themselves differently. Even with
neglected form of pathology may improve slowly and
recovery. The danger is that it is contagious
the disease may develop unnoticed by the patient. Often patient
does not even notice the tick bite, and the clinical picture and symptoms
may be diverse and resemble a number of other pathologies.

Боррелиоз или болезнь Lyme требует подтверждения лабораторными
research. The sooner the patient starts the treatment, the more
Chances are he will succeed.

Patient Reviews

My girlfriend at the May holidays was on a picnic in the woods with
by the company. When she returned home, at first did not pay attention to
skin But then on the left foot there was a stain with a rim, which
began to grow. From red it became straight bluish. it уже недели
two passed. In addition, the girlfriend had strong headaches.
the pains.

The therapist did not really say anything to her at first. Someone advised
Turn to the infectious disease, then it became clear reason. Was treated
She has been injected with antibiotics for a long time. The conclusion is:
that in summer, after nature walks, one should carefully inspect one’s
the body, because not every person is familiar with the symptoms and treatment
боррелиоза-Lyme.

Valentina, Moscow

My the mother-in-law had Lyme disease last year. She has
there is a cottage outside the city. Starting from the end of April until late autumn, she
lives there, caring for the garden and the garden. In early June, her
bitten tick. My husband insisted on being examined by a specialist and as
It turned out, not in vain. Of the symptoms, the mother-in-law had general weakness,
nausea and severe headache.

She was treated with an antibiotic. The course of treatment took a whole month. With
this she often passed repeated tests. Everything is treated. The main thing,
time to go to the doctor. I have a fear right after visiting the dacha
before this disease has developed. Inspect all open areas
skin, and before did not even know about such a virus.

Alice, Yekaterinburg

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