Update: October 2018
Myocardial infarction is a serious illness, for
which is characterized by the death of some part of the contractile cells
cardiac muscle with further replacement of dead cells is not
capable of contraction of connective tissue.
Myocardial cell death occurs due to ongoing
ischemia of the heart muscle and the development of irreversible pathological
changes in cells due to metabolic disorders. In fact,
if a person survives, a scar is formed on the heart, which
significantly impairs the work of this important body.
Why do women suffer from heart attack less often than men?
According to statistics, women suffer from this pathology in 2 times
less than men. This is explained by the action of estrogenic
hormones that contribute to the expansion of the coronary vessels,
however, in postmenopausal women, the amount of these hormones
reduced and this ability is lost. Daily due
myocardial infarction leaves about 250 women. Signs of
myocardial infarction in women need to know to all representatives
the weaker sex, especially over 50, because of this insidious
No one is insured for pathology.
Signs of приближающегося инфаркта
Signs of приближающегося инфаркта разделяют на отдаленные,
which are threatening in the development of this pathology, and
neighbors, after which a heart attack occurs after a short time
interval (from several minutes to several hours).
Remote symptoms allow a woman to prevent a heart attack
myocardium is the most terrible complication of ischemic heart disease today. Being
attentive to their health and timely contact a doctor,
this pathology can be avoided.
- Snoring, sleep apnea
And sudden apnea and respiratory failure
(snoring) cause disruptions in oxygen supply to the heart and
accordingly, cause constant ischemia of the heart muscle.
Unlike men, women have a harbinger of approaching
heart attack can be prolonged, unmotivated fatigue
not only at the end of the day, but also after sleep and rest, as well as insomnia,
indigestion (gastric upset, nausea, vomiting)
- Bleeding and sore gums
The cause of periodontal disease is poor peripheral
blood supply due to abnormal heart function. Such
a distant symptom may indicate cardiac
- Swollen feet and legs
This phenomenon is due to fluid retention in the body, which
often occurs due to weak cardiac activity.
The most common cause of arrhythmia is dysfunction.
coronary artery that feeds the heart, but also the heart itself
failure leads to arrhythmias, causing the heart to beat
- Pain in the left shoulder
Feeling of squeezing and soreness in the area of the left shoulder and heart
(see pain in the heart). This is the most likely sign of angina pectoris,
which puts additional stress on the heart.
- Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing
This is a sign of heart failure, as the heart, working
insufficiently powerful, leads to difficulty breathing.
- Frequent headache
This symptom may be accompanied by an increase in pressure – significant
risk factor in the development of acute ischemia of the heart muscle.
- Frequent urination at night
This phenomenon is one of the signs of heart failure.
When such untypical signs are found, each
a woman should consult a doctor as soon as possible so that
correct the work of the heart and prevent myocardial infarction.
Symptoms of heart attack in women
The first signs of heart attack in women begin before irreversible
tissue changes. It is at this stage that the possibility still remains.
stop the death of myocardial cells, if in time to get
necessary medication therapy.
- Pain in the left side of the chest, behind the sternum, in
upper abdomen or in the shoulder in the form of sensations of tightness,
gravity, burning and stinging. Recurrence of this symptom is characteristic.
for half an hour for hours on end and no effect
from taking nitroglycerin. May appear and gradually disappear
jaw pain, toothache, maybe pain in the back of the head, pain can
irradiate, in the left hand (elbow, wrist), neck.
- Dyspnea attacks on the background of insignificant physical activity.
Characterized by increased shortness of breath even when the body turns.
Dyspnea and sternum pain are the most frequent and most likely.
signs of heart attack in women. If there is a combination of these
symptoms – you can not hesitate no minutes and urgently call an ambulance
- Drop in blood pressure relative to typical
indicators for a particular woman.
- Excessive perspiration that occurs even in cool
indoors. Sweat makes the skin sticky and cool on
- Numbness of the hands in the form of tingling and loss of sensation,
from the phalanges to the elbow and forearm area.
- Nausea accompanied by dizziness which may
arise at rest.
- Indistinct speech and incoordination of movements. Outwardly it
very similar to alcohol intoxication, however in fact is
dangerous symptom indicating the onset of acute ischemia
- The feeling of fear of death, anxiety and panic.
The Americans created a system that warns the owner about
approaching heart attack. This device consists of an implant,
recording the electrical activity of the heart muscle, and the external
parts, signaling violations of the heart. Yes given
moment in the clinical trials of this cardiac monitoring system
more than a thousand volunteers from US citizens are participating. Completely
It is possible that this invention will soon receive the world
Symptoms resembling others are less common.
diseases (asthma, pancreatitis or
neurological symptoms). So, for example, among other things
symptoms can occur and such atypical manifestations
approaching heart attack in women like:
- Приступ, напоминающий астматический — бронхоспазм, отек
light, shortness of breath
- Приступ, напоминающий обострение панкреатита — тошнота,
weakness, vomiting, pain in the upper abdomen
- Neurological symptoms – neurosis, impaired consciousness,
vision changes, dizziness, headaches
Как оказать первую help женщине при инфаркте
Первое, что необходимо сделать – это вызвать скорую help. Than
faster doctors will start their work (optimally – within half an hour),
the greater the chance for a woman to survive and remain full
- The woman must be laid on a flat surface with a slightly
raised upper torso and create all conditions for
resume normal breathing – unbutton the collar, belt,
open the window. The victim should not be sitting or
standing position as the heart cannot push the blood out of
- The victim should be given one tablet of nitroglycerin and
aspirin. In half an hour, if the ambulance did not arrive, it is necessary
repeat taking nitroglycerin.
- For the relief of panic attack is given something from the group.
sedatives: Corvalol, Valerian tincture,
- To relieve a painful attack, you can give a pill.
All this time you should be close to the victim and
closely monitor breathing, pressure (rate) and work
hearts. If there was a cardiac arrest, should be held
- short and strong punch to the area
the location of the sternum, which is effective in the very first seconds
- indirect heart massage;
- Ventilate the lungs using mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose techniques.
Is myocardial infarction possible during pregnancy?
During pregnancy, the production of estrogen hormones
carried out at increased risk and also increases
minute volume of perfusion of the heart muscle, so the probability
heart attack is very small. But still such cases are recorded in
medical practice. The risk of myocardial infarction during pregnancy
women subjected to long-term contraceptive
pills (oral contraceptives) that adversely affect
vascular wall condition.
Provocative factors of heart attack in women
In women, heart attack develops on average 10-15 years later than
in men, and recorded in the age group over 50 years. But
A number of factors provoking this pathology can significantly
accelerate its advance and generally increase the likelihood
- vascular atherosclerosis, excess cholesterol (see atherosclerosis
brain vessels, how to lower cholesterol without drugs)
- alcohol abuse
- chronic kidney disease
- low physical activity
- genetic predisposition
- heart attacks in the past
Causes of myocardial infarction in women
Immediate causes of myocardial infarction in women are known.
long and fairly well studied:
- Coronary artery thrombosis in the area of
atherosclerotic plaque (95% of all heart attacks)
- Obturation of the blood vessels after surgical procedures
(artery ligation, angioplasty)
- Spasm of the cardiac arteries against the background of stenocardia
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог