Symptoms пищевого отравления у детей иadults

Update: October 2018

See also: Treatment of food poisoning

Symptoms пищевого отравления знакомы каждому – vomiting, diarrhea, а
also general weakness with temperature makes a person think
over what he ate the day before, since it was the alimentary
history of the doctor initially finds out when interviewing the patient.

Many people do not seek help from doctors when eating
poisoning, but such heroism can end sadly
especially when it comes to small children.

Understand the difference between food poisoning and acute intestinal
infections, learn to recognize the symptoms characteristic of
or other food poisoning – this is what will be discussed in our
article.

Food poisoning classification

The concept of food poisoning implies acute
polyetiological non-communicable disease resulting from
eating food in which there was a reproduction of certain
microbes and (or) accumulation of toxins, both microbial and
non-microbial nature, as well as toxic chemical or
natural origin.

By type of pathogen that caused the disease, food poisoning
classified into:

  • microbial – microbial poisoning is divided into two main
    groups – food toxicoinfections and food toxicosis or
    intoxication
  • non-microbial (poisonous mushrooms, chemicals, poisonous
    plants)
  • and unknown etiology.

Differential diagnosis of intestinal infections, food
toxicoinfections and intoxications

Intestinal infection Foodborne Disease Infection Food intoxication

Pathogenesis

Develops due to ingestion of a living person
pathogenic causative agent of viral or bacterial disease
of nature
Develops due to ingestion of a large number of
living cells of a specific opportunistic pathogen and
toxins of microbial and non-microbial origin.
Develops due to ingestion of toxin,
accumulated in the product due to the vital activity of a certain
microorganism. Live microbes may be negligible.
quantity and do not play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Pathogens

Rotavirus (или желудочно-кишечный грипп), энтеровирус,
salmonella, shigella and others
Klebsiella, Escherichia, enterobacter, proteus, campylobacter,
pseudomonad and others
Clostridium botulism, Staphylococcus aureus, fungi of the genus
Aspergilus, Fusarium, Penicillinum

Pathogen transmission

Through food, water, household items, dirty hands Only through products Only through products

Reproduction of the pathogen in humans

Is always Never (die with the release of toxic products
decay)
Not excluded (botulism)

Pathogen transmission от больного человека

Going on Is excluded Is excluded

Incubation (asymptomatic) period

Few days 2-4 hours 30 min – 4 hours (staphylococcal toxicosis) 12-24 hours
(botulism)

Characteristic, distinctive symptoms

Enterocolitis, intoxication Dyspeptic syndrome, intoxication Acute gastritis, intoxication (staphylococcal toxicosis);
Dyspeptic syndrome, visual disturbances, swallowing and breathing
(botulism)

Temperature

Significantly higher than 37.5С, up to 39-40С Minor – up to 37.5С Minor – up to 37.5 C

Mass flow

Probably Very characteristic Characteristically among small groups of the population (family)

Disease duration

1-3 weeks 1-3 days 1-3 days

 Causes of food poisoning

  • Eating foods produced in violation of
    production technology;
  • Eating improperly stored foods;
  • Eating expired, spoiled foods;
  • Eating chemical poisonous substances (with products
    accidental contact with food, with alcohol);
  • Eating Toxic Animal and Plant Substances
    origin (mushrooms, berries, fish).

Among the products of the greatest etiological importance are:

  • cream pastry;
  • unpasteurized dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, sour cream,
    especially homemade);
  • smoked products (fish and meat);
  • mayonnaise-filled salads;
  • home canned food (vegetable, meat, fish);
  • mushrooms;
  • seafood;
  • fresh fruits and vegetables.

Signs of poor quality products

  • Expired or borderline expiration date. No matter how trite it is
    It sounds, but not everyone pays attention to this indicator.
    Moreover, many ignore these terms, believing that in a day or two
    nothing happened with the same yogurt. In fact, this behavior
    – direct route to the infectious diseases hospital.
  • Atypical, unpleasant, sharp smell;
  • Unusual, strange taste, not characteristic of the product;
  • Mold stains and foci or color discoloration;
  • Bubbles of foam or gas, visible in liquid food;
  • Wet and sticky patina with unpleasant odor on the surface
    product;
  • Bombing lids of canned products, the release of gas at
    opening the banks.

Many people believe that simple warming or boiling
poor quality product make it safe and usable in
food. However, this is a very dangerous tactic – poisonous mushrooms remain
poisonous and after boiling, toxins are golden staph is not
die when boiling and botulinum toxin can be inactivated
only after half an hour boiling!

Common symptoms characteristic of food poisoning

With a diagnosis of acute food poisoning, symptoms can be the most
diverse, but emit common symptoms characteristic of almost
for any kind of poisoning: Meat poisoning, грибами, творогом, рыбой

  • nausea;
  • abdominal cramps and intestinal colic;
  • diarrhea; stool disorder;
  • vomiting;
  • hypersalivation;
  • hyperthermia;
  • dehydration;
  • hypotension;
  • CNS dysfunction, in severe cases – coma.

Symptoms отравления пищевыми продуктами у детей

Symptoms пищевого отравления у детей, особенно маленьких,
they are more acute and flow with a clear picture
общей intoxication. If we are talking about children up to a year, then already
several hours after onset of symptoms
development of a critical condition up to a renal failure
and hypervolic shock. Therefore, at the first sign of food
poisoning, especially if the disease makes its debut with diarrhea and vomiting,
you should immediately call an ambulance and the only way is self-treatment
in this case is tantamount to irreparable harm.

Symptoms наиболее опасных отравлений

Confectionery poisoning

Most often in confectionery the staphylococcus breeds,
highlighting the enterotoxin in the product, which does not change the taste and
appearance of food. Hidden период составляет 30-60 минут. Symptoms
intoxication:

  • nausea;
  • неукротимая vomiting;
  • режущая abdominal pain;
  • lethargy;
  • dizziness;
  • незначительная diarrhea;
  • loss of consciousness.

Fish poisoning

Caviar, liver and milt of fish are considered potentially dangerous. Many
species of fish and mollusks are completely inedible, therefore such poisonings
characteristic during the stay in exotic countries. Hidden
the period is about half an hour. Symptoms intoxication:

  • vomiting;
  • colic in the stomach;
  • dizziness;
  • lack of coordination;
  • удушье, loss of consciousness.

Meat poisoning

The use of substandard meat causes signs
food poisoning whose symptoms are divided into 4 groups, in
depending on the pathogen that led to the poisoning. Hidden период
mostly short and rarely exceeds several hours (exception –
botulism). Rotten meat with enterovirus or paratyphoid toxins
sticks is very dangerous because with the development of exhaustion
likely to be fatal:

  • fever;
  • general weakness;
  • упорная diarrhea;
  • упорная vomiting.

Typhoid meat causes:

  • chills;
  • fever;
  • general weakness;
  • loss of consciousness

Meat with putrid toxins provokes the symptoms of paralysis:

  • dilated, fixed pupils;
  • dry mouth;
  • tachycardia;
  • lack of coordination;
  • intestinal paresis.

Meat with botulinum toxin leads to the development of botulism, signs
which begin a day after poison in the body, and
with delayed care this pathology ends
lethal:

  • незначительная vomiting и понос;
  • visual impairment;
  • swallowing disorders;
  • respiratory disorders.

Poisoning with cottage cheese and other dairy products

Cottage cheese – such poisoning is typical for the warm period
of the year. The most dangerous thermally uncooked cottage cheese
origin. Hidden период очень короткий (до получаса).
Symptoms intoxication:

  • epigastric pains like contractions;
  • colic;
  • nausea with vomiting;
  • severe weakness;
  • болезненная diarrhea.

Other dairy products – all dairy products are included in
the category of perishable, so the slightest delay, non-compliance
temperature conditions and the technological chain of preparation lead
to the fact that favorite foods become hazardous to health.
Hidden период невелик, 30-60 минут.

Symptoms intoxication:

  • epigastric pains like contractions;
  • diarrhea;
  • vomiting.

Mushroom poisoning

Symptoms пищевого отравления у взрослого, связанные с
the use of poisonous or conditionally poisonous species of mushrooms,
свидетельствуют от развитии тяжелой, угрожающей жизни intoxication.
Hidden период длится от 20-40 минут (при отравлении мухоморами) и
up to 12-24 h (with poisonous toadstool poisoning), on average
makes 4-6 hours. If the following symptoms and
the fact of eating mushrooms should immediately call an ambulance.
Symptoms intoxication:

  • pain in the muscles of the body;
  • nausea;
  • fever;
  • острая abdominal pain;
  • hypersalivation (characteristic of amanita poisoning);
  • diarrhea с примесью крови;
  • yellowing of the skin;
  • urinary retention;
  • drop in blood pressure and pulse rate;
  • convulsive syndrome;
  • suffocation;
  • delirium.

 Alcohol poisoning

Alcohol can cause poisoning if it is excessive.
in the case of counterfeit products in itself
acts as a poison. Symptoms отравления наступают по мере опьянения.
The danger of this condition is the development of alcohol
coma, in which acutely developing hypoglycemia can lead to
of death.

Symptoms intoxication (по мере проявления):

  • euphoria;
  • incoherence of speech;
  • coordinated violations;
  • vomiting;
  • stupidity;
  • depression of reflexes;
  • poor pupil response to light;
  • sticky, cold sweat;
  • loss of consciousness (it is important not to be confused with sleep).

 Food poisoning additives

Such intoxication occurs due to the action of additives.
artificial or vegetable origin, introduced into food.
Most typical when eating oriental dishes. Hidden
the period can vary from half an hour to several weeks (with
the gradual accumulation of dietary supplements in the body). Symptoms
intoxication:

  • rash;
  • swelling of the face and limbs;
  • itchy skin;
  • colic and abdominal pain.

 Canned food poisoning

The greatest danger is botulinum toxin, symptoms
poisoning which is described above, enteroviruses are less dangerous and
staphylococcus. Symptoms intoxication:

  • increasing headache;
  • dry mouth;
  • general weakness;
  • colic;
  • vomiting;
  • diarrhea.

Comparative characteristics of the most common intestinal
infections – dysentery, salmonellosis and rotavirus infection

Dysentery  Salmonellosis Rotavirus infection (intestinal flu)
pathogen Shigella Salmonella Rotavirus
hidden period 2-3 days 6-24 hours 10-36 hours
temperature Up to 40C Up to 39C 37-38С
abdominal pain In the lower part, first blunt, then cramping Spastic pain all over the abdomen Spastic pain all over the abdomen с урчанием
vomiting Minor at the beginning of the disease 1-2 times a day 1-2 times a day, зачастую только в первые сутки
diarrhea Up to 10-30 times a day, with blood and mucus, painful urge to
defecation
Up to 10 times per day, with foam and specific odor Up to 10 times per day
disease duration 2-8 days 5-10 days   2-7 days

With the initial signs of any food poisoning should
to assess the severity of the condition of the diseased person and immediately
seek medical attention.

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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