Update: October 2018
See also: Treatment of food poisoning
Symptoms пищевого отравления знакомы каждому – vomiting, diarrhea, а
also general weakness with temperature makes a person think
over what he ate the day before, since it was the alimentary
history of the doctor initially finds out when interviewing the patient.
Many people do not seek help from doctors when eating
poisoning, but such heroism can end sadly
especially when it comes to small children.
Understand the difference between food poisoning and acute intestinal
infections, learn to recognize the symptoms characteristic of
or other food poisoning – this is what will be discussed in our
Food poisoning classification
The concept of food poisoning implies acute
polyetiological non-communicable disease resulting from
eating food in which there was a reproduction of certain
microbes and (or) accumulation of toxins, both microbial and
non-microbial nature, as well as toxic chemical or
By type of pathogen that caused the disease, food poisoning
- microbial – microbial poisoning is divided into two main
groups – food toxicoinfections and food toxicosis or
- non-microbial (poisonous mushrooms, chemicals, poisonous
- and unknown etiology.
Differential diagnosis of intestinal infections, food
toxicoinfections and intoxications
|Intestinal infection||Foodborne Disease Infection||Food intoxication|
|Develops due to ingestion of a living person
pathogenic causative agent of viral or bacterial disease
|Develops due to ingestion of a large number of
living cells of a specific opportunistic pathogen and
toxins of microbial and non-microbial origin.
|Develops due to ingestion of toxin,
accumulated in the product due to the vital activity of a certain
microorganism. Live microbes may be negligible.
quantity and do not play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
|Rotavirus (или желудочно-кишечный грипп), энтеровирус,
salmonella, shigella and others
|Klebsiella, Escherichia, enterobacter, proteus, campylobacter,
pseudomonad and others
|Clostridium botulism, Staphylococcus aureus, fungi of the genus
Aspergilus, Fusarium, Penicillinum
|Through food, water, household items, dirty hands||Only through products||Only through products|
Reproduction of the pathogen in humans
|Is always||Never (die with the release of toxic products
|Not excluded (botulism)|
Pathogen transmission от больного человека
|Going on||Is excluded||Is excluded|
Incubation (asymptomatic) period
|Few days||2-4 hours||30 min – 4 hours (staphylococcal toxicosis) 12-24 hours
Characteristic, distinctive symptoms
|Enterocolitis, intoxication||Dyspeptic syndrome, intoxication||Acute gastritis, intoxication (staphylococcal toxicosis);
Dyspeptic syndrome, visual disturbances, swallowing and breathing
|Significantly higher than 37.5С, up to 39-40С||Minor – up to 37.5С||Minor – up to 37.5 C|
|Probably||Very characteristic||Characteristically among small groups of the population (family)|
|1-3 weeks||1-3 days||1-3 days|
Causes of food poisoning
- Eating foods produced in violation of
- Eating improperly stored foods;
- Eating expired, spoiled foods;
- Eating chemical poisonous substances (with products
accidental contact with food, with alcohol);
- Eating Toxic Animal and Plant Substances
origin (mushrooms, berries, fish).
Among the products of the greatest etiological importance are:
- cream pastry;
- unpasteurized dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, sour cream,
- smoked products (fish and meat);
- mayonnaise-filled salads;
- home canned food (vegetable, meat, fish);
- fresh fruits and vegetables.
Signs of poor quality products
- Expired or borderline expiration date. No matter how trite it is
It sounds, but not everyone pays attention to this indicator.
Moreover, many ignore these terms, believing that in a day or two
nothing happened with the same yogurt. In fact, this behavior
– direct route to the infectious diseases hospital.
- Atypical, unpleasant, sharp smell;
- Unusual, strange taste, not characteristic of the product;
- Mold stains and foci or color discoloration;
- Bubbles of foam or gas, visible in liquid food;
- Wet and sticky patina with unpleasant odor on the surface
- Bombing lids of canned products, the release of gas at
opening the banks.
Many people believe that simple warming or boiling
poor quality product make it safe and usable in
food. However, this is a very dangerous tactic – poisonous mushrooms remain
poisonous and after boiling, toxins are golden staph is not
die when boiling and botulinum toxin can be inactivated
only after half an hour boiling!
Common symptoms characteristic of food poisoning
With a diagnosis of acute food poisoning, symptoms can be the most
diverse, but emit common symptoms characteristic of almost
for any kind of poisoning:
- abdominal cramps and intestinal colic;
- diarrhea; stool disorder;
- CNS dysfunction, in severe cases – coma.
Symptoms отравления пищевыми продуктами у детей
Symptoms пищевого отравления у детей, особенно маленьких,
they are more acute and flow with a clear picture
общей intoxication. If we are talking about children up to a year, then already
several hours after onset of symptoms
development of a critical condition up to a renal failure
and hypervolic shock. Therefore, at the first sign of food
poisoning, especially if the disease makes its debut with diarrhea and vomiting,
you should immediately call an ambulance and the only way is self-treatment
in this case is tantamount to irreparable harm.
Symptoms наиболее опасных отравлений
Most often in confectionery the staphylococcus breeds,
Caviar, liver and milt of fish are considered potentially dangerous. Many
The use of substandard meat causes signs
Typhoid meat causes:
Meat with putrid toxins provokes the symptoms of paralysis:
Meat with botulinum toxin leads to the development of botulism, signs
Poisoning with cottage cheese and other dairy products
Cottage cheese – such poisoning is typical for the warm period
Other dairy products – all dairy products are included in
Symptoms пищевого отравления у взрослого, связанные с
Alcohol can cause poisoning if it is excessive.
Symptoms intoxication (по мере проявления):
Food poisoning additives
Such intoxication occurs due to the action of additives.
Canned food poisoning
The greatest danger is botulinum toxin, symptoms
Comparative characteristics of the most common intestinal
infections – dysentery, salmonellosis and rotavirus infection
|Dysentery||Salmonellosis||Rotavirus infection (intestinal flu)|
|hidden period||2-3 days||6-24 hours||10-36 hours|
|temperature||Up to 40C||Up to 39C||37-38С|
|abdominal pain||In the lower part, first blunt, then cramping||Spastic pain all over the abdomen||Spastic pain all over the abdomen с урчанием|
|vomiting||Minor at the beginning of the disease||1-2 times a day||1-2 times a day, зачастую только в первые сутки|
|diarrhea||Up to 10-30 times a day, with blood and mucus, painful urge to
|Up to 10 times per day, with foam and specific odor||Up to 10 times per day|
|disease duration||2-8 days||5-10 days||2-7 days|
With the initial signs of any food poisoning should
to assess the severity of the condition of the diseased person and immediately
seek medical attention.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог