Update: October 2018
Heat and sunstroke are dangerous conditions that, without
timely assistance directly threaten human life. They
accompanied by vomiting, headache, lethargy, flickering
�”Flies”, differences in blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances. In heavy
In cases of coma and death. Symptoms of sunstroke
more pronounced with high humidity.
The difference between heat and sunstroke
Heat stroke is a specific symptom complex that occurs
due to severe overheating of the body. The essence of heat stroke
is to accelerate the process of heat generation and parallel
reducing heat transfer in the body.
- Heat stroke can occur in hot weather as well as in
conditions of high temperature in the bath, sauna, hot shop,
- Sunstroke is a type or special case of heat
shock due to direct sunlight.
Due to overheating, dilation of the head vessels occurs,
accordingly, blood flow to this area increases.
Heat stroke is more insidious and dangerous due to the fact that it is not always
the patient may associate his condition with overheating, whereas
sunstroke everything is obvious. Some doctors start walking by
false diagnostic path and trying to find the pathology of the digestive tract,
vessels, heart (depending on the symptoms), whereas in humans
actually a violation of thermoregulation.
What happens to the body during heat stroke?
The body thermoregulation proceeds in normal physiological
reactions at a body temperature of about 37 ° C, with fluctuations of one and a half
degrees When the external conditions change, the mechanism also changes.
heat transfer pathological reactions are included:
- at the initial stage there is a short compensation stage,
when the body is still coping with overheating;
- overheating compensatory actions lead to a breakdown
- body temperature rises: the body tries to create a balance,
equalizing their own temperature with ambient;
- adaptation mechanisms are depleted, a stage occurs
- general intoxication, acidosis, DIC, renal and
heart failure. In extreme cases, terminates
power to the brain, develops its swelling and hemorrhage.
Causes of Sunstroke
What causes heat stroke:
- Prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures
lack or poor air conditioning;
- Long stay under direct sunlight in case
- Poor adaptive response of the body to increase
- Excessive wrap of small children.
Risk factors in the development of thermal and sunstroke
- Elderly and childhood, pregnancy;
- The presence of chronic diseases: hypertensive and ischemic
heart disease, pathology of the thyroid gland, diabetes,
bronchial asthma, hepatitis, mental illness;
- Stroke or heart attack in history;
- Hormonal disorders;
- Anhidrosis and hyperhidrosis;
- Increased meteosensitivity (see how magnetic storms affect
- Alcohol or drug intoxication;
- Insufficient drinking regime, diuretic intake;
- Intense physical labor;
- High air humidity;
- Intake of certain drugs that reduce the body’s ability
to thermoregulation: tricyclic antidepressants, amphetamines,
- Tight clothes, rubberized, synthetic.
That tanning increases the risk of skin cancer to everyone
It is known, but how much this risk is expressed, read the link in the article.
sunburn and skin cancer.
Symptoms in adults and children
- Redness of the skin;
- The skin is cold to the touch, sometimes with bluish
- Weakness, drowsiness;
- Dizziness, shortness of breath;
- Cold sweat, severe headache and dizziness;
- Dilated pupils, darkening of the eyes;
- Increased and weak pulse;
- High temperature (up to 40 C);
- Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain;
- Retention of urination;
- Unsteady gait;
- In heavy случаях: судороги, потеря сознания.
Symptoms of heat stroke in children – the same, only the clinic
will always be more pronounced, and the condition – harder. Only
a symptom that is more common in children is nasal
bleeding against heat stroke.
Signs of sunstroke
Signs of sunstroke у atзрослых аналогичны такоatым при
heat stroke. There may be several symptoms, but always
the patient will indicate a long stay in the sun. how
generally, the harmful effects of the sun, in addition to the general condition,
will affect the condition of the skin, which will
red, swollen, touching the skin is extremely
painful and unpleasant (see what to do if burned on
Symptoms of sunstroke у детей не сильно отличаются от
adults. Children are always harder to overheat, become
tearful and apathetic, on the contrary, refuse to drink and eat.
Children’s body with not yet formed mechanisms
thermoregulation is enough and a 15-minute stay under the direct
sunlight to get sunstroke!
Depending on the prevailing symptoms, there are several
heat stroke forms:
- Asphyxia – slowing down all the functions of the central nervous system, including
- Pyretic, when the body temperature reaches 40-41 ° C;
- Cerebral – with convulsions and clouding of consciousness;
- Gastroenteric – diarrhea and vomiting with delay
According to the degree of severity, doctors classify thermal and solar
hitting a mild, moderate and severe degree. Severe 30%
cases leads to the death of the victim.
First, easy degree:
- nausea, headache
- dry mouth
- dilated pupils
- rapid breathing
- tachycardia (rapid pulse).
- intense headache, dizziness
- muscle weakness, sharp decline of strength (uncertain, shaky
walking with weakness)
- vomiting, nausea
- fast breathing and pulse
- fever 39-40C
- ophthalmic disorders: double vision, darkening,
�”Flies”, difficulty concentrating sight.
- sharp reddening of the skin, then gives way to bluish
- acute heart failure
- loss of consciousness, delusions, hallucinations
- clonic and tonic convulsions
- involuntary urination and defecation
- fever 41-42C
- cerebral hemorrhage
- fatal in 30% of cases.
Remote effects include: neurological
symptoms, impaired motor coordination, diseases
cardiovascular system, visual disturbances.
First aid actions play a pivotal role in
prevention of progression of thermoregulation disorders. They должны
be coordinated, operational, and most importantly – timely!
- Isolate the injured from the damaging factor – heat:
put in the shade, put in a cool room, etc .;
- Give the patient a cool drink, green tea room
temperature You can not drink coffee, energy, and even more
- Call an ambulance. Do not try to assess the severity of the condition
the victim – even if the person objectively feels
not bad, he should be examined by a doctor;
- If the consciousness is disturbed – give a smell of ammonia,
rub and pinch the earlobes, slightly click on the nose;
- Remove clothing that increases body heat and constrain
- Open windows, i.e. provide fresh air;
- Put the floor roller head of improvised means;
- Cover the body with a damp cloth;
- If there are sunburns on the skin – attach to them
cool lotion that should be changed as it is heated and
drying the fabric. If you have panthenol on hand, grease them with
- Cold compresses should be put to the forehead and under the head:
cold towel, pieces of ice wrapped in cloth, special
cold pack; cold water bottle;
- If the patient can move himself – put him in the shower
or in a cool bath. If the movement is difficult – pour
body cool water.
how избежать перегреatа?
- Avoid increased physical activity and passive
being in direct sunlight from 11.00 to 16.00, i.e. at
часы atысокой актиatности солнца;
- Защищаться от солнечных лучей: носить голоatной убор сatетлых
тоноat, пользоatаться зонтиком, отдыхать под наatесом или at тени
- Носить одежду из натуральных тканей и сatетлых тоноat;
- Соблюдать достаточный питьеatой режим, atыпиatая не менее 2 л atоды
- При работе или нахождении at помещениях с поatышенной
температурой atоздуха почаще открыatать окна, использоatать
кондиционеры и atентиляторы, периодически atыходить на 5-10 минут at
- Avoid overeating, especially oily and spicy foods, which
забирает atоду из организма;
- Нельзя употреблять алкоголь и даже слабые алкогольные напитки at
- Well, the last recommendation concerns those who have already experienced
теплоatой или солнечный удар: не спешите atозatращаться к приatычному
образу жизни, как только atам полегчало, atосстаноatите сatои силы, ибо
поatторный теплоatой удар может случиться at тот же день и с более
Аatтор: atрач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог