Symptoms of measles in adults, treatment,complications

Adults, despite vaccinations, causing them to produce
antibodies to infections, sometimes still suffer from “childhood” diseases.
Most often, those who have not had these infections in childhood and
those that have no protective antibodies in their blood, the absence of which
makes a person vulnerable to pathogens of infectious diseases.
Recently, episodes of outbreaks of this disease in Russia
are becoming more frequent, and every Russian should know all about the symptoms of measles in
взрослых и симптомах кори у children. Measles is highly contagious.
infectious disease, the causative agent of which is a virus
containing RNA (paramyxovirus family). Measles manifests itself:
high temperature, inflammatory processes in the respiratory system
and in the oral cavity, skin rash, conjunctivitis, common symptoms
intoxication of the body.

Despite the fact that this virus is unstable in the environment
environment (outside the human body does not live), he is able
cause disease. Transmission of the virus from a sick person
healthy airborne, it is possible with
mucus when coughing or sneezing from a sick person to
healthy. After transferring measles, a person forms a stable
immunity, repeated incidence of measles is rare.
The virus enters the body through the mucous membranes of the organs
respiration, then enters the bloodstream and circulates in the bloodstream.

Before mass measles vaccines are introduced 95
% случаев болезни было у children до 16 лет. With immunization management
The incidence of this severe virus has significantly decreased. But,
in recent years, limited outbreaks have become frequent
measles in the regions of Russia and there is a tendency to their growth. Withчем, на долю
Vaccinated population accounts for up to 70% of all outbreaks, more often
all of these are adolescents weakened by chronic diseases
adults, students, schoolchildren and military personnel. Doctors associate
an increase in measles cases these days with vaccination failure, falling
immunity 10-15 years after vaccination and general deterioration
public health.

Withзнаки кори у взрослых

The incubation period for measles is 1 to 2 weeks. Source of
infection is an infected person who is on the final
stages of the incubation period up to 5 days from the moment of appearance
skin rashes. Adults rarely get measles. More often
the disease is tolerated at 2–5 years of age. Repeated cases
measles diseases are caused by a pathology of the immune system.
The main symptoms of measles in adults are:

  • fever (fever) to 38 – 40 ° C Симптомы кори у взрослых
  • headaches, weakness
  • loss of appetite
  • conjunctivitis, rhinitis, photophobia
  • dry cough
  • hoarseness
  • measles enanthema – large red spots on soft and hard
    the sky
  • skin rash (on face, torso, arms, legs)
  • possible delusions, impaired consciousness
  • intestinal dysfunction, etc.

The course of measles includes several subsequent stages.
(stages):

  • Catarrhal

In adults, measles, since the early days of the disease,
manifested by runny nose and conjunctivitis. Body temperature of the patient
high, reaches 40 ºС. He is worried about a painful dry cough,
may appear discharge from the nose mucous or purulent
character With аускультации легких слышны отчетливые хрипы, дыхание
tough. Cervical lymph nodes are increasing in size. Also
the patient may experience swelling of the face, signs of catarrhal
tonsillitis in the form of redness of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Possible manifestations
bronchitisа и трахеита. The temperature of a patient with measles is kept somewhat
days, after which it subsides slightly (the patient feels
improvement of state), however, from the 5th day of the disease, when on the body
rash appears, the temperature rises again. Starting from the second
day of illness, a particular sign of measles in adults becomes noticeable
и children — пятна Бельского — Филатова – Коплика, которые имеют вид
small white spots surrounded by a red beater, located on
cheek mucosa in the projection of molars. Catarrhal period measles
Lasts 3 – 4 days, throughout this period symptoms
the disease is increasing.

  • Stage of formation of rash

On the fifth day, rashes appear on human skin. They
spread from top to bottom – first a rash appears on the face, behind
ears, on the scalp, then goes to the torso and
hands, after which it spreads to the legs. Measles manifests itself
typical for her abundant bright red rash in the form of spots that have
tendency to merge. The rash keeps on the skin for 1 – 1.5
недель и носит пятнисто-папулезный character Pigmentation which
appears in place of the rash, also has a downward character, that is,
appears in the direction from the head to the legs.

  • Stage of convalescence

Период реконвалесценции наступает с выздоровлением the patient.
Body temperature normalizes, on-site rash appears
peeling of the skin, and sometimes – minor bruising.

Depending on the severity of the clinical manifestations, the symptoms of measles
in adults, there are several the severity of the disease:
light, moderate, heavy. The course of measles can be typical and
atypical. In the atypical course distinguish such forms
diseases:

  • Blurred or mitigated. It is noted in people with special
    immunity, for example, after vaccination or administration
    gamma globulin. The disease manifests as a blurred clinical
    picture and the minimum number of symptoms.
  • Hemorrhagic. With этой форме у больного отмечаются
    multiple hemorrhages, discharge of blood from feces, urine,
    bleeding other localization. They can cause death
    the patient. It is important to timely diagnose this form of measles and
    hospitalize the patient in the hospital.
  • Hypertoxic. Manifested by high temperature, extremely
    severe condition of the patient, severe intoxication. The patient
    there may be signs of acute heart failure and
    meningoencephalitis. The patient is in urgent need
    hospitalize

Difference in measles in adults from measles in children

Any “childhood” infection in adults is significantly
harder than children and measles is no exception. In addition to the general
similarities of measles symptoms, in adults, symptoms are distinctive
features:

  • Body temperature is very high 40C-40.5C
  • A sharp deterioration in well-being, a person instantly needs
    bed rest
  • The rash is very intense, covering the whole body, phasing
    the appearance of the rash persists as with children
  • In adults, measles is difficult, most often with laryngitis,
    bronchitis, sometimes complicated by pneumonia and meningoencephalitis
  • Slower recovery and recovery than
    children
  • Measles in adults requires hospitalization in most cases.
    больного, когда как children чаще всего лечат на дому

Measles complications

Measles complications у взрослых возникают при присоединении вторичной
infections because a viral infection causes the body to
immunodeficiency state. The body is weakened so much that
becomes unable to resist pathogens.
The main possible complications of measles are:

  • Complications affecting ENT organs: otitis media, stomatitis, sinusitis,
    laryngitis, laryngotracheitis, angina
  • Measles complications, поражающие дыхательную систему — пневмония,
    bronchitis
  • Complications affecting the gastrointestinal tract – diarrhea, enterocolitis
  • CNS complications – meningoencephalitis, encephalitis,
    myelitis, polyradiculoneuritis, multiple sclerosis
  • It can also cause liver dysfunction – hepatitis, kidney
    – pyelonephritis

Pneumonia is one of the most frequent complications of measles,
immunocompromised elderly people it can lead to
doom Measles is especially dangerous for pregnant women – the disease
can cause spontaneous abortion or premature
childbirth.

Measles diagnosis

Measles is diagnosed on the basis of a complex characteristic of it.
symptoms supported by laboratory results
research. In the general analysis of the blood of a patient with measles is noted:
decrease in the number of leukocytes, especially fractions: lymphocytes,
monocytes and neutrophils, with the appearance of bacterial complications
leukocytosis appears with an increase in the neutrophil fraction. In blood
the patient has a moderate increase in ESR.

ELISA plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of measles
enzyme immunoassay (serological method of diagnosis), which
effective in the early stages of the disease. With his help in the blood
antibodies (immunoglobulins) IgM, IgG to the virus are detected
measles The concentration of IgM rises from 1 to 2 days of illness,
and IgG – from 10 days of illness.

Immunoglobulins (antibodies) are special proteins
produced by blood cells. When the human body gets
infectious pathogen, immunoglobulins bind to it,
forming a complex, neutralizing, thus penetrating into the body
infection. Sometimes, for the diagnosis of measles use virological
diagnostic methods – virus microscopy, reaction
immunofluorescence and others

In the catarrhal period, the first symptoms of measles should
differentiate from a number of diseases, such as rubella,
influenza, enterovirus, adenoviral, rhinovirus infection,
whooping cough, respiratory allergy.

Difference of measles in the catarrhal period from other infectious
diseases is: the appearance of conjunctivitis, increased catarrhal
signs on day 4, a combination of catarrhal symptoms and general
intoxication, the appearance on the 2-3 day of illness spots Belskiy—
Filatov-Koplika.

Treatment of measles in adults

To date, no drugs have been developed for specific
treatment of measles, so treatment of the disease is symptomatic
character

If measles is mild, the patient is not hospitalized.
needs Ему показан bed rest, обильное питье,
restriction of the light mode, since measles accompanied
photophobia. To improve the process of expectoration are assigned
drugs from the group of mucolytics – bromhexin, ambroxol, ACC (see
list of all cough expectorant) and anti-inflammatory
facilities.

To reduce fever, reduce headaches and symptoms
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for general intoxication.
drugs in tablets and powders: aspirin, nimesulide, paracetamol,
ibuprofen, coldrex, nimesil, etc. (all NSAIDs in the article pills and
pain in the back) and antihistamines (see medications
from allergies).

Conjunctivitis is relieved by instillation into the eyes.
chloramphenicol drops, sodium sulfacyl (see eye drops from
conjunctivitis), washing the eyes with solutions of furatsilina, black tea,
baking soda.

To reduce itching of the skin, it is washed with a solution of a special
powder – Delaskine. For disinfection of the oral cavity using a strong
an infusion of chamomile, oak bark, eucalyptus, chlorhexidine (see how and what
gargle for sore throat). If measles occurs with complications and
bacterial flora is added, antibiotics are prescribed (11
rules how to take antibiotics correctly)

Substantially facilitates the patient’s condition
early stages of measles immunoglobulin disease. With
Severe measles requires hospitalization. In conditions
hospital patient conduct detoxification, anticonvulsant
and anti-inflammatory therapy.

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