Update: February 2019
Kidney cancer is the most common cancer of the genitourinary system, although
and occupies a very modest place in the general oncological series
In the last 20 years there has been a steady and continuous growth of this
diseases and now kidney cancer accounts for about
4.5% of all oncopathology.
Наша статья расскажет о принципах лечения и симптомах рака
kidney, diagnosis and prognosis of survival of patients.
Kidney cancer is most often people aged about 60 years old,
men among patients 2 times more than women. Detection rate
this disease increases from south to north, that is
The lowest number of cases is observed in India, China, South
America and the largest in Canada and Scandinavia. However, it is in Denmark
and Sweden, unlike the rest of the world, there is a significant
reduced detection of kidney cancer
количество заболевших увеличивается примерно на 3% в year.
As a rule, the causes of kidney cancer remain undetected, however
eliminating some risk factors can significantly reduce
the threat of this disease.
- Smoking. This habit is a major factor.
cancer risk in general and kidney cancer in particular. Smoking increases
the likelihood of developing this disease by 30 – 60%. If patient
quit smoking, his condition slowly returns to normal,
although not completely. It is believed that quitting smoking can
reduce the existing risk of kidney cancer by 15%.
- Obesity. Overweight is no less dangerous in terms of cancer
kidneys than cigarettes. Overweight increases the risk of getting sick
by 20%. Also plays a diet role. Vegetarians have kidney cancer
less often than people who consume a lot of animal protein.
- High blood pressure. There is evidence that
hypertension increases the likelihood of cancer
почки by 20%. However, it is not clear yet, cancer causes high blood pressure.
or drugs that the patient is taking in this case.
- Prolonged contact with chemical toxins. Work on chemically
harmful industries increases the risk of renal cancer. The most
weaving, paper and rubber-rubber are considered dangerous
production, as well as professional contact with dyes,
oil products and salts of heavy metals.
- Dialysis. This procedure is used to treat kidney failure.
with their chronic diseases. In patients receiving long-term
dialysis and also after kidney transplantation the risk is significantly
Proved that with kidney stones or cysts in the kidneys,
the risk of oncology of this body is not observed. Conclusion from the above
suggests itself – smokers have the greatest risk of kidney cancer,
obese people with high blood pressure.
The danger of the disease described is that it
for a long time can not manifest itself. Sometimes first
signs of kidney cancer may occur when the disease is already severely
is running. The presence of the following symptoms indicates a tumor.
large size and running process, the presence of only 1 or 2
symptoms of kidney cancer are possible at earlier stages.
- Gross hematuria
This is an admixture of blood in the urine, visible to the naked eye.
The release of blood clots is accompanied by renal colic (see
symptoms of renal colic). With the cancer process running
severe hematuria leads to anemia, acute urinary retention
(urinary tamponade by blood clots), obstruction of the ureter.
In fact, to identify this manifestation of kidney cancer is not very
simply. Women, due to the physiological characteristics of their act
urination, do not often pay attention to the color of their urine, and indeed
males do not always do this if there is little blood.
Guess why urinary system cancers are more often detected
in winter, especially in men? Because the blood in the urine is very noticeable,
if you urinate on snow.
A very non-specific symptom of the disease. Constant pain
aching, dull, not very intense, localized in the lower part
chest with the transition to the upper part of the waist. Pain
is a characteristic symptom of cancer of the right (left) kidney, since
arises on the side of the lesion, it arises due to stretching
renal capsule and compression of the nerve endings by the tumor.
- The presence of visible (palpable) tumor
Kidney cancers quite often grow to very large sizes, and
patients can feel a tumor in their abdomen, or draw
attention to the asymmetry of the abdomen in the mirror. Usually it is already 3-4 stage
process and palpable nodular, dense formation of right or
- Signs of oncologic intoxication
They are not manifestations of kidney cancer per se, but
These are common symptoms of cancer. To them
include: weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, progressive
weight loss, increased sweating, periodic rises
температуры тела до невысоких цифр (до 37 – 37,90С),
anemia. Early temperature rise stages caused by immune
the response to tumor antigens, and already at late ones due to
inflammation and necrosis.
- Other symptoms
Kidney cancer is characterized by compression of the inferior vena cava –
swelling of the legs, deep vein thrombosis of the legs, expansion of the saphenous veins
abdominal wall, liver dysfunction. In the presence of metostasov in
surrounding tissues and distant organs, the symptoms are due to their
localization – with bone metastasis – pathological
fractures and severe pain in the bones, with metastases in the liver – jaundice
(see jaundice symptoms), with lung lesions – cough, sputum with
blood, brain – headache, neuralgia, etc.
Usually, the first sign of a disease is blood in the urine.
visible to the eye, or detected by the laboratory. Also, if you suspect
A biochemical blood test is performed for kidney oncology.
identify possible renal failure, these data may
drastically affect the tactics of treatment.
Of the instrumental research methods, the safest
is a kidney ultrasound. Modern ultrasound equipment
allows you to identify cancer of the urinary system at the very beginning
stage. All patients with more than one risk factor
It is recommended to perform this examination at least once
The gold standard in the diagnosis of kidney cancer is
computed tomography (CT) is the most reliable and reliable
method of identifying this disease. If the patient is scheduled
surgical treatment, a kidney CT scan is almost always performed.
A biopsy of the kidney is performed when instrumental
methods can not distinguish a benign tumor from
malignant. Such situations do not occur often, and therefore
biopsy for this type of cancer is rarely used.
- Stage 1 – a tumor up to 4 cm and does not germinate renal
- Stage 2 – a tumor up to 7 cm, germinates the renal capsule, but not
Injected into neighboring organs, metastases in regional lymph nodes
- Stage 3 – tumor 4 – 7 cm, grows into neighboring organs, as
the rule is the ureter and / or vessels, but does not go beyond
Gerota’s capsules (connective tissue case surrounding the kidney and
kidney cellulose), there are single metastases in the regional
- Stage 4 – the presence of metastases in distant lymph nodes or
Kidney cancer treatment
The treatment of any cancer, of any stage must begin no later than
after 2 weeks from the time of diagnosis – this is the LAW.
- Surgical kidney removal (nephrectomy) – is golden
standard in treating this type of cancer. Only nephrectomy gives
hope the patient for a final cure. The operation is performed
in the open way, sometimes, in the presence of a tumor of small size (up to
4cm), the kidney is removed with a laparoscope.
- Kidney resection – removal of part of the kidney along with the tumor,
performed when there is a tumor of small size in one of the poles.
Shown in the presence of the only functioning kidney.
A reasonable question arises, what to do if cancer strikes
the only kidney and it can not be resected? Modern
replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis,
transplantation) allows the patient to live quite comfortably without
kidney, and much longer than with untreated cancer.
- Embolization – performed when a tumor is removed.
is impossible. Under ultrasound or x-ray control into the vessel,
the feeding tumor is inserted into the probe and the vessel is blocked. Deprived
blood flow the tumor dies.
- Ablation – an instrument and a tumor are inserted into the center of the tumor.
destroyed by ultrasound or cold.
Ablation and embolization is performed when operative
лечение по каким-либо причинам is impossible. Cancer does not cure it
but prolongs the patient’s life by years. Also, indications for data
treatments are inoperable tumors invoking permanent
- Radiation therapy – as an independent method showed
its low efficacy in renal cancer. Used when
inoperable conditions as well as preoperative
preparation for nephrectomy.
- Chemotherapy – used in the presence of metastases or as
preventive measure before surgery.
Wilms tumorя или нефробластома – новообразование,
originating from the germinal tissues of the kidney. Ill only
children most at risk of 2–5 years of age, however
occur in twelve teenagers. The reasons are unknown, but
the hereditary nature of the disease has already been proven.
Symptoms of kidney cancer in children are the same as in adults – a sharp
weight loss, pains of varying intensity and location, increase
kidney size, fatigue. Features of Wilms tumor
in that it can grow without visible signs to large
size, so most often found by parents about
Feeling baby’s belly.
The treatment is only surgical.
Forecast при раке почки, как и при любом онкозаболевании, зависит
on what stage the therapy is started. The usual criterion
treatment effectiveness in oncology is five year old
- With kidney cancer stage 1, it is about 90%
- Stage 2: 65 – 70%
- 3 stages: about 50%
- Five-year survival at 4 stages does not exceed 10%
- Wilms’ tumor has the best prognosis if she did not give
metastasis, then complete cure occurs in 70 – 90% of cases.