Update: December 2018
Intestinal dysbacteriosis, a very common diagnosis that
establish doctors on the basis of the analysis of feces, while
changes in the species composition of intestinal bacteria, then
есть violation микрофлоры intestine. When dysbiosis occurs
decline in beneficial lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and the number of
conditionally pathogenic or pathogenic microorganisms.
As such, the diagnosis of “dysbiosis” does not exist. He sounds
как избыточное микробное обсеменение тонкой кишки и violation
microbe composition is thick. But this does not mean that there is no disease.
The manifestations of this pathology are often seen by therapists and especially
pediatricians. And write off all these symptoms only on pseudomembranous
colitis caused by clostridia fails. After all, often in sowing
feces for dysbiosis plentifully grow completely different
- For a large number of children up to a year, this is a real scourge of modern times.
is Staphylococcus aureus drowning in its growth literally
all living things in the intestines.
- In second place on the pathogenicity is Klebsiella.
- This is followed by pathological strains of Escherichia coli, proteus and
only somewhere in the last roles are the culprits of the pseudomembranous
colitis, most often growing after a course of strong antibiotics
(for example. macrolides).
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis occur against the background of concomitant
diseases of the digestive system, after uncontrolled or
forced long-term antibiotic treatment, while taking
immunosuppressants, under the influence of other harmful external and
Signs of dysbiosis in children and adults can occur in
varying degrees of intensity is diarrhea, or vice versa, constipation,
loss of appetite, abdominal pain, in young children expressed
anxiety, poor sleep, skin rash. In severe cases
when GI bacteria are detected in the blood, it threatens
the occurrence of sepsis. For the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis read in
The main functions of the normal intestinal microflora
In an adult, the intestine contains about 500 species.
различных микроорганизмов, что составляет 2-3 килограмма, это
considered normal. These include bacteria symbionites, without which
impossible normal digestive processes.
The main obligate form of intestinal microflora is
bacteroids and bifidobacteria, they make up 90% of the flora,
lactobacilli and enterococci occupy 9%, and the accompanying flora
represented by E. coli or E.coli (Escherichia coli).
Conditionally pathogenic flora occupies only 1%, in which in different
the ratio are yeast-like fungi, pyocyanic stick,
протеи, клостридии, стафилококки и пр. Normльная микрофлора
The intestine performs the following functions in the body:
- All biochemical processes in the intestine occur under
exposure to intestinal microflora – drug activation
drugs, deactivation of poisons and harmful substances, the formation
biologically active substances, signal markers.
- Performs trophic function, that is, provides
nutrients all organs and tissues of the body.
- Peristaltic function is the regulation of normal
intestinal peristalsis by chemical means.
- Energy function is the energy of the epithelium
- Regenerative function – the normal intestinal microflora should
differentiate cells during epithelial renewal.
- Protective function – supports nonspecific immunity,
participates in the formation of local immunity, provides
intestinal resistance to carcinogenic and pathogenic factors.
The production of immunoglobulins occurs only when exposed to
normal microflora, as well as the capture and destruction of viruses,
recognition of the genomes of pathological microorganisms.
- The beneficial intestinal bacteria produce lactic, amber,
formic acid, antimicrobial substances that inhibit
development of putrefactive processes in the intestines.
- Responsible for adjusting the gas composition and ion balance in
- Intestinal microflora is involved in the metabolism of bile acids,
жиров, белков, синтезирует витамины Group B, пантотеновую,
folic and nicotinic acid, supports normal absorption
vitamin D and iron.
- Normльная микрофлора кишечника препятствует развитию
oncological process and maintains consistency
химико-физической среды intestine.
Causes of intestinal dysbiosis in children and
adults, provoking factors of its development
Дисбактериоз никогда не бывает первичным violationм, а
It occurs only as a result of any pathological processes,
occurring in organs or body systems. Most often this
caused by taking drugs or substances that have
negative, detrimental effect on microorganisms, in addition,
The causes of dysbiosis in children and adults are various
intestinal infections, food poisoning, long-term infectious and
The composition of the intestinal microflora in a healthy person is always
is in a state of physiological equilibrium, and his violation
may be due to the following reasons:
Iatrogenic intestinal dysbiosis appears from the application
of the following drugs – antibiotics, hormonal
drugs, sulfa drugs, cytostatics, chemotherapy,
radiation in cancer – all this suppresses
vital activity of microorganisms.
Diseases эндокринной системы, нарушения обмена веществ
(diabetes), immune disorders, helminthic invasions
(giardiasis, ascoridosis, etc.).
- Infectious bowel disease
This is a complex of various intestinal infections, salmonellosis,
dysentery, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, etc.
Unbalanced, irrational, unhealthy food,
lack of necessary substances in the diet, abundance of chemical additives,
которые подавляют флору, violation режима питания, различные диеты,
abrupt change of diet and the usual products to the unusual.
- Any surgical intervention may also occur.
- Various psycho-emotional overload, permanent
psychological, physical stress.
- Other diseases of the digestive system, such as hepatitis,
pancreatitis, gastritis, cholecystitis, etc.
- Смена климата, воды, продуктов питания, violation биоритмов,
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis
The intensity and severity of symptoms of dysbiosis in children and
adults depends on the degree of imbalance and the
reproduction of which species from pathogenic microorganisms has become
prevailing. Consider the general symptoms and features of the flow.
Against the background of dysbacteriosis, children often appear allergic
reactions to products that previously did not cause any violations
– bronchospasm, urticaria, angioedema, skin rash and
itchiness As well as intestinal disorders – sharp abdominal pain, liquid
foamy stools, nausea, sometimes accompanied by vomiting, decreased
In adults, intestinal dysbiosis may be accompanied
dyspeptic disorders are alternating constipation and diarrhea,
perhaps only diarrhea or persistent constipation, bloating,
flatulence, belching, rumbling in the intestines, unpleasant taste in the mouth,
dry mouth, bitter mouth, lack of appetite. It’s all connected
due to the fact that conditional and pathogenic microbes destroy
digestive enzymes in the small intestine, interfering with normal
digestion and absorption. Read more about dyspepsia.
Impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients, or so
called malabsorption syndrome. It manifests hypovitaminosis,
the deficiency of group B vitamins, the lack of
кальция, появляется железодефицитная анемия,
protein and energy deficiency, the ion balance is disturbed
(see. Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis).
- Reduced immunity
On the background of long-term dysbiosis in humans decreases
immunity, manifested by recurring acute respiratory viral infections, influenza, relapses
herpes infection, fungal diseases (thrush in women,
fungal stomatitis, etc.)
The severity of manifestations of dysbiosis, depending on the type
When fungal dysbiosis, symptoms of microflora
differ in more frothy stool masses, they are often in
form of lumps, with films. Severe septic forms
extremely rarely recorded. Such dysbiosis usually accompanies
candida vagina, oral cavity, accompanied by itching and
burning sensation, redness and white patches of mucous membranes. Candidiasis
intestine often provokes the occurrence or aggravation
available atopic dermatitis or bronchial asthma, as in
children as well as adults.
Staphylococcal dysbacteriosis often occurs as
generalized form with the development of sepsis. Even with mild form
subfebrile temperature occurs, and in severe and moderate
the severity of the process is accompanied by high temperature, spastic
pain, vomiting, nausea, traces of blood in the stools (see
Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella in infants).
Escherichiosis and Pseudomonas purulent intestinal dysbiosis – such forms
diseases are periodic, erased in nature. It manifests itself
signs of dyspepsia, stools with mucus, dull pains in the area
Proteal – accompanied by dyspepsia, as well as prolonged
low-grade fever, ipohodricheskie,
The degree of intestinal dysbiosis
Как и многие прочие заболевания, violation микрофлоры кишечника
may occur with minimal symptoms, have a sluggish
nature, or vice versa, accompanied by severe manifestations and
the consequences. There are several degrees of severity.
- Latent form of dysbiosis
Or compensated form, while slightly reduced
or the quantity of Escherichia coli increases, and bifidoflora and
lactoflora remain normal, with significant intestinal
no dysfunction. In this form, a person is characterized by fragility.
nails, brittleness and hair loss, cheilitis, glossitis, and
possible appearance of food allergies, lack of vitamins Group B,
constipation, frequent colds.
- Subcompensated form
Against the background of a small decrease in the number of bifidobacteria,
change the qualitative and quantitative indicators of Escherichia, and
also an increase in the level of opportunistic bacteria, candida,
- Moderate severity
With this form, the amount of
bifidobacteria, and the conditionally pathogenic flora becomes larger
norms. With this degree, in addition to hypovitaminosis, anemia appears,
caused by iron deficiency, and also calcium deficiency is detected,
decreased appetite, dull pain in the abdomen, nausea,
unpleasant taste in the mouth, rumbling, belching air or bitter,
feeling of fullness, alternating diarrhea with constipation, low-grade
temperature, mucus in stool, change in psychosomatic
nature – fatigue, irritability, depression.
- Heavy degree
Heavy degree дисбактериоза выражаются частым стулом, более 5
once a day, increased body temperature (not always, enterocolitis
can occur without fever), in significant
weight loss. In addition to gastrointestinal dysfunction, can occur
destructive changes in the intestinal walls, as well as sepsis,
since the general, local immunity and
the effect of opportunistic bacteria increases. Frothy
bright golden calories that turn green and smell when standing
cheap perfume. Large amount of mucus in stool. Chair frequent to
20 times a day with severe enterocolitis. Growing fast
dehydration, especially in infants. Klebsiella gives
yellow-orange feces with a lot of blood splashes.
Stool frequency depends on the severity of the process.
Diagnosis of dysbiosis
In gastroenterology, the diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis begin
with determining the nature of the violations on the basis of complaints from the patient.
Sometimes symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis occur on the background
primary disease that is present in the history as well
It turns out what drugs that suppress the microflora were
used for treatment.
The most informative method of laboratory diagnosis of dysbiosis
кишечника – это бактериальный посев кала и анализ на dysbacteriosis.
Coprogram, gas-liquid analysis and biochemistry of feces can reveal
indirect signs of disease.
Indicators analysis of feces for dysbacteriosis in normal
The results of the analysis are evaluated by a gastroenterologist, taking into account
patient age, history, complaints, comorbidities,
|Bacteroids||Менее 10 7|
|Typical E. coli (fermenting lactose)||10 7 – 10 8|
|E. coli lactose-negative||Менее 10 5|
|Non-fermenting bacteria||10 4|
|Staphylococcus (saprophytic, epidermal)||10 4|
|Hemolytic staphylococci (S.aureus, etc.)||Absent|
|Clostridia||Не более 10 5|
|Yeast Mushrooms||Менее 10 3|
|Microbes of the genus Proteus||Менее 10 2|
|Other opportunistic enterobacteria||Менее 10 4|