Update: December 2018
Bowel cancer is characterized by the appearance of neoplasms.
malignant nature in the wall of its mucous. Currently
oncological diseases in different parts of the intestines
diagnosed in 9-12 people for every 100 thousand people (total
population) per year.
According to statistics onopathology of the intestine occupy the third place
among other cancers affecting the Russians, with a couple more
a dozen years ago they were sixth. It is likely that later
some time, it is possible to reach its leading position, as it is
already happened in the USA (in 1998).
Causes of malignant tumors in the intestine
- in the first place is smoking
- on the second – food features
- on the third – family forms (heredity, Crohn’s disease and
nonspecific ulcerative colitis)
- The diet of the modern man is rich in protein foods (meat and
meat products) and is depleted in coarse fiber (whole grains,
fresh vegetable food), it contributes to
constipation and a general increase in the presence of food lump in the cavity
- Some products formed in the process of digesting food
animal origin, are carcinogenic (skatole, indole),
with prolonged contact with the intestinal mucosa, they
provoke its metaplasia.
- The abundance in the human diet products with preservatives,
emulsifiers (see emulsifiers cause intestinal inflammation),
dyes, flavor enhancers, fried foods (carcinogens),
spices, fish (due to small bones) – for a long time
time also contributes to the development of oncological processes in
Diseases of the digestive tract
- Polyps in the intestines (benign growths) can
become malignant (75% of cases), so they are considered
zero stage oncology and recommend removing.
- Inflammation and
ulcers in the mucous wall, Crohn’s disease and other diseases
- Celiac disease – gluten intolerance is also one of
provocateurs of oncology development in the intestines.
The clinical picture of intestinal cancer
For oncology patients, it is important to identify the disease in the early
stages, so everyone needs to know the signs and symptoms of cancer
intestine. The intensity of the manifestations and the frequency of their occurrence
varies depending on the site of malignant
опухоли и стадии рака intestine. The disease can occur by
several types, the symptoms and manifestations of which are given below:
The expanding tumor narrows the lumen of the intestine, and can completely
block its cavity, creating a serious obstacle to
fecal masses. It is clinically expressed in permanent constipation,
intestinal colic, increased gas formation. The patient is tormented
вздутие и боль, которые проходят после акта defecation.
In the case of the location of the tumor focus on the left (in this area of
fecal mass removes excess fluid) provoking occurs
liquefaction of the intestinal contents and its fermentation. Patient complains
on loose stools, recurrent bouts of diarrhea, alternating
prolonged constipation (see symptoms of enterocolitis).
Early symptoms of intestinal cancer may result in a change
taste in the mouth (it can be bitter or sour), heartburn,
belching. Pain is absent or mild, but
there is discomfort that indicates digestive disorders.
Read more on symptoms and treatment of dyspepsia.
The cause of anemia in intestinal cancer is to reduce
absorption of trace elements (namely iron). Also
micro bleeding that occurs during the development of the tumor process,
reduce the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia возникает также из-за
immunity failures. The body is trying to fight cancer
independently and tries different options, anemia consequence
one of them.
There are symptoms of the inflammatory process, up to
peritonitis: body temperature rises rapidly, chills begin, can
feel nausea or be bouts of vomiting. All this involves
strong pain syndrome.
Often, manifestations of intestinal cancer may resemble pathology in
organs of the urinary system: pain when emptying the bladder,
appearance of blood streaks in urine or on linen after
- Many patients with a malignant tumor experience
feeling of fullness in the intestines even after a successful act
- Some note unexplained weight loss with full
nutrition and normal lifestyle.
- On the bowel cancer can indicate the presence of blood in the stools.
(see bleeding from the anus, blood in the feces).
- The first signs of cancer are mild and may resemble
temporary indigestion or general malaise (fast
fatigue, general weakness, drowsiness). Over time they
amplified and complemented by others.
In the intestine there are several sections: the rectum, the large
intestine, small intestine. The predominance of some symptoms may
tell the doctor where the cancer is located.
Signs of cancer direct guts
На рак прямой guts указывает:
- the appearance of false urge to empty the bowels (they
are called tenesmus)
- discharge from the anus in the form of pus, mucus or
- bouts of severe pain in the crotch area and slightly higher in
abdomen may be preceded by the act of bowel movement or
accompany it (caused by nerve damage)
- in case of damage to muscle structures, failure occurs
hold gases or stool
- due to constipation and prolonged exposure
жизнедеятельности в полости прямой guts может стать общая
intoxication of the body (headaches, fatigue,
weakness) or inflammatory process.
- due to the proximity of the last intestine and
organs of the genitourinary system can affect the work
the latter (inflammation of the bladder, urinary incontinence).
Признаки рака толстой guts
Colon cancer (the formulation is used in medicine
�”Colon”) is manifested:
- pain in the abdomen (in the hypochondrium, displaced in
right or left side) having a dull or aching character
- abdominal distention, seething, feeling of fullness, due to specificity
работы толстой guts (преимущественно происходит всасывание воды)
thinning of the stool and diarrhea
- intestinal obstruction often occurs (feeling of acute pain,
bouts of nausea and vomiting, which may contain fragments of feces in
- possible signs of accumulation in the abdominal cavity
fluid (ascites), which excessive pressure contributes
dysfunctions of all intra-abdominal organs.
Признаки рака тонкой guts
Cancer of the small intestine (in medicine the formulation is used
�”Small intestine”) is manifested predominantly dyspeptic
- bowel cramps, nausea and vomiting, heartburn, belching, changing
- pain occurs in any area of the abdomen
- the patient has no appetite, there is an aversion to
- in the presence of bleeding, feces may turn dark
The doctor can alert any manifestation of a violation in
functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, not passing after the normalization of nutrition and
dieting If symptoms persist, then more
Diagnosis of intestinal cancer
Анализ of blood
Primarily on the intestinal cancer can indicate any mild
feeling of abdominal discomfort in conjunction with the patient’s age
более 50 лет и изменением анализа of blood:
- reducing the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin (see the causes
- increased white blood cell count
- high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (see reasons for increased
- high rates of C-reactive protein
- наличие в кале скрытой of blood (см. анализ копрограмма)
- increased clotting parameters (see thrombocytopenia and
- tumor markers (see how to determine cancer by analysis)
Instrumental diagnostic methods
To clarify the diagnosis, all the possibilities of modern
instrumentation. The first is done:
- Colonoscopy or retromanoscopy
Intra intestinal sensors allow the physician to “see” the condition
mucous, and in the latter case – to take a sample of suspicious
biopsy tissue. This technique allows you to identify the most
initial stages of development of a malignant tumor. Planned
studies can significantly increase the chances of patients on
successful treatment, since the early stages of the disease do not
exhibit. The use of an intrarectal sensor is possible.
ultrasound machine for research (see how to prepare for
If it is impossible (more often for psychological reasons) to hold
an intraintestinal examination can be applied barium X-ray or
irrigoscopy: using a special method
X-ray sensitive solution (with a dye in
case of irrigoscopy), which allows to detect pathology
intestine. The doctor may also resort to the help of an ultrasound
apparatus along the abdominal wall or make a virtual
- MRI, CT
Perhaps the use of MRI, PET-CT and CT for a more complete
examination of surrounding tissue for the presence of metastasis.
Modern diagnostic measures allow enough
accurately determine the location of the tumor, its size and stage
development, germination rate and other parameters that allow the doctor
determine the most effective treatment tactics.
Traditional treatments for cancer do not eliminate – it should know
each. Such remedies may reduce the intensity of the symptoms, but
they do not affect the growth of malignant cells. Much more prudent
if you suspect pathology, consult a doctor who
the early stages of cancer can get rid of it
Modern medicine allows for the treatment of intestinal cancer,
but one extremely important condition is necessary: disease
must be detected at an early stage. In the diagnosis of pathology
in the late stages, only half of the patients remain
Chance to get rid of the disease. This is unfortunate since now
less than a quarter of patients receive timely assistance, and each year from
bowel cancer kills over 35,000 people in Russia.
In the early stages of cancer in the intestine, it can be
remove surgically with the restoration of its patency (by
splicing technique). The intestine after such treatment is completely
fulfills its function and retains the possibility of a natural act
defecation. Thus, in the postoperative period, a person may
comfortable to exist.
The location of some foci of malignant cells is not
allows you to restore intestinal patency, in this
case, the free end of a healthy bowel is brought out through
hole in the peritoneum (superimposed colostomy). In the following
It is necessary to use disposable kalopriyemniki, it allows
maintain a relatively comfortable existence.
Radiation and chemotherapy
The use of ionizing radiation and chemotherapy drugs allows
prevent metastasis and suspend the growth of tumors on
long term. Methods are used in the postoperative period and
if it is impossible to perform a surgical intervention.
Life expectancy after treatment
How much live after treatment of bowel cancer? In medicine adopted
the term “five-year survival” is statistical data
indicating the number of patients who lived more than 5 years after
treatment with a positive result. Indicator
depends on many factors, primarily on the stage of cancer, on
which started the treatment:
- The first stage – about 95% of patients live more than 5 years.
- The second stage – about 75% of patients live more than 5 years.
- The third stage – about 50% of patients live more than 5 years.
- The fourth stage (with the presence of metastases) – about 5% of patients
live more than 5 years.
The age of the patient himself, the overall level
immunity, comorbidities, penetration depth
pathogenic cells, disease recurrence, tumor size and other
Do not despair if in your case the cancer showed up on
the last stage – hope that you will find yourself in the number
cherished 5% of patients (a negative attitude may not be for the better
change the forecast). Medicine does not stand still, scientists are looking for new
treatment techniques that can significantly prolong life