Update: October 2018 Many people purchasing new furniture
or who decided to repair the apartment, faced with this concept
like formaldehyde. It turns out that this colorless gas can for years
stand out in the air and adversely affect health. what
является источником formaldehyde и чем он опасен, рассмотрим в
Brief description of the substance
Formaldehyde (methane, formic aldehyde) is colorless,
toxic, highly soluble in water, polar solvents and
Alcohol gas with a pungent odor, hazard class 1. Water,
стабилизированный карбамидом раствор formaldehyde применяется в
furniture and woodworking industry in the production
Chipboard and other “plywood” materials. Used in manufacturing
thermo-plastics and in industrial organic synthesis.
Widely used in light industry, medicine, cosmetology,
agriculture. It is characterized by good antiseptic,
bactericidal, tannic and preserving properties.
The norm content of formaldehyde in the air:
- Maximum single maximum permissible concentration (MPC)
formaldehyde (Россия) – 0,05 мг/м³;
- The average daily MPC (Russia) is 0.01 mg / m³;
- MPC substances in the air of residential premises (European countries): 120
- Порог запаха: 0,07-0,2 мг/м3;
- Порог рефлекторного ответа организма животных: 0,04-0,098
- Threshold of irritating effects on the mucous membranes of the organs of vision
personа: 0,012 мг/м3.
Опасность для personа
Formaldehyde is a major air pollutant.
Накапливается в организме personа и очень трудно выводится из
him The most dangerous is the prolonged exposure of the substance to
an organism in which it exerts an allergenic, mutagenic and
carcinogenic effects. Clinical manifestations may develop in
a different period of time, which largely depends on the state
immunity. Some people have months, others have years. Strong
children, the elderly and people who suffer
- Has severe toxicity and adversely affects
reproductive organs and genetic material. Danger like
mutagen is that the substance not only leads to
development of somatic mutations, but also the body itself accumulates
these mutations and subsequently they are transmitted to offspring.
- Poisons the lungs, irritates the airways and makes it difficult
breath. Able to cause asthma and provoke asthmatic
- Irritating to eyes and skin, provokes development.
- It causes the development of gastrointestinal ulcers, kidney damage and
liver, leads to a gratuitous weight loss.
- It has a pronounced negative effect on the central
nervous system: causes fatigue, headaches, depression,
depression. Worsening performance and general well-being.
Included in the list of carcinogenic substances. International
linkage risk assessment agency proved
formaldehyde, который используется в производстве пластиков, смол,
paints, textiles, as well as
preservative and disinfectant with increased risk
cancer of the nasopharynx.
Источники выделения formaldehyde в быту
Our houses and apartments, which are a place for the rest of the soul and
bodies, ourselves or the hands of negligent builders and workers can
Turn into a real chemistry lab! In addition to dangerous
formaldehyde, в воздухе жилых помещений могут находиться фенол,
toluene, xylene, benzene, styrene, etc. If to neglect
elementary airing, the concentration of harmful
Chemistry can grow 2 times.
According to WHO statistics, the air in urban areas is 4-6 times
dirtier than outside, and the main contribution to the chemical “bouquet” is made
finishing and construction materials and furniture.
Пары formaldehyde – это продукт горения органических веществ,
which are present in:
- exhaust gases of cars (therefore excess more often
are registered in the apartments of houses located along large
- tobacco smoke, including electronic cigarettes;
- evaporating from fireplaces, gas stove.
Chemical vapors evaporate into the air from construction
- DSP, DVP, FRP from which the prevailing quantity is made
modern furniture. Plates impregnated with urea-formaldehyde and
phenol-formaldehyde resins (which make up 6–18% of the total
массы материала), являются основным строительным материалом –
источником formaldehyde в доме. For those who do not know the smell
formaldehyde, есть простой способ «познакомиться с ним» –
Go to the market where the chipboard is sold, and smell it
- MDF, OSB, plywood with phenol-formaldehyde resins in the composition,
used for interior decoration and insulation of residential buildings;
- adhesives, mastics, paints, varnishes, sealants (especially cheap ones);
- Market, non-certified finishing materials: wallpaper,
laminate, linoleum, plinth, etc., which are the most vivid
from finishing materials.
Also the source of the substance can be:
- all slots that are sealed with sealant. Prevailing share
sealants made on the basis of resins that emit harmful
- soundproof materials and insulation foam, cheap
resin bonded components;
- beds, mattresses, sofas and other upholstered furniture, carpets, heavy
curtains. Formaldehyde from furniture stands out if it was used for its
production (at any stage of technological production). BUT
here formaldehyde in fabrics (carpets and curtains) can accumulate from
other sources and subsequently released into the air.
One of the first signs of the presence of elevated levels
substance in the air is the appearance of a sharp characteristic odor,
which can be described as hospital or pharmacy. This
the smell is noticeable even at a concentration of 25 times less than permissible.
Some believe that it smells like new furniture, but in fact,
this is the smell of formaldehyde.
Symptoms of acute and chronic formaldehyde poisoning
Serious poisoning when taking the solution internally
formaldehyde and substance ingestion to the skin, as well as its poisoning
pairs are possible in the conditions of chemical and other production, in
this chemical is part of the technological
process. At home, inhalation takes place.
ingress of formalgid into the body during breathing.
Formaldehyde poisoning can develop in three ways:
- when ingested;
- in contact with the skin.
Accordingly, the symptoms will also vary, dominating with
side of a particular system: more ingested when swallowed
Gastrointestinal tract, with inhalation hit – respiratory organs.
Short-term release of a large amount of substance in
the body leads to the development of acute poisoning, and long-term
intake in small doses, even slightly higher than the MPC,
causes chronic poisoning. Signs of poisoning vary and
different people have their own way.
|Symptoms of acute formaldehyde poisoning||Symptoms of chronic poisoning|
|Nervous system||Severe headache, complete loss of power, violation
coordination, hand tremors, convulsions, impaired consciousness, coma
|Sleep disturbance, mental agitation, persistent headaches,
chronic fatigue, drowsiness, lethargy, lethargy,
coordination disorder (see chronic fatigue syndrome)
|Reproductive system||–||Violation of the menstrual cycle in women|
|Vegetative manifestations||Severe chills||Shivering, chills with normal T, impaired sweating and
|Respiratory system||Runny nose, cough, shortness of breath, choking, swelling of the pharynx and lungs||Persistent dry cough, irritation of nose, throat and seizures
|Leather||Blanching of the skin, blisters on the skin (with contact
substances on the skin)
|BUTллергия, раздражение кожи, вплоть до экземы, дерматиты,
|Organs of vision||Tearing, eye pain, acute conjunctivitis, dilation
|Digestive organs||Increased salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps,
diarrhea, severe pain along the esophagus (with an internal pathway
|Decreased appetite, weight loss, dyspepsia|
|The cardiovascular system||Учащение пульса, резкое паление BUTД||Скачки BUTД|
Internal intake of 60-90 ml of an aqueous solution of formaldehyde
(formalin) leads to death! The concentration of a substance in the air,
равная 20 мг/м3, приводит к смерти в течение 30 минут
If not provided timely first aid for acute
poisoning, the following conditions develop that carry a direct
- Gastrointestinal bleeding. This is a consequence of the internal
ingress of a substance into the body (accidental or deliberate
use), which develops when coronary walls are eroded
submucosal layer of the stomach and duodenum. Patient notes
growing weakness, dark vomiting or vomiting of blood appears,
black loose stools.
- Acute liver failure, toxic hepatitis.
It also develops when ingested. Visibly yellow
skin and mucous membranes, there is severe pain in the right hypochondrium,
- Acute kidney damage: edema, complete lack of urine.
- Acute circulatory failure.
- Swelling of the mucous membrane of the larynx, lung develops with poisoning
pairs and leads to choking.
First Aid for Victims
The most important thing – immediately call an ambulance! From her time
arrival often depends on a person’s life.
- The victim should be provided with fresh air and rest.
If inhalation poisoning occurs, withdraw / remove
person from this room.
- Drink the victim with clean cool water (if he is
consciousness and there are no signs of substance ingested).
You can not independently try to wash the stomach, cause vomiting:
doctors will do it using special
- Rinse the affected skin with cool running water.
15-20 minutes, another formaldehyde solution got on the skin.
- Ensure airway patency in case
person unconscious: put him on his back and turn
head to the side.
Inpatient treatment of acute formaldehyde poisoning
As a rule, the first aid brigade is still on the scene.
carries out activities to prevent further
осложнения и сохранить жизнь personу:
- Probe washing of the stomach cavity with water or physiological
- The introduction of hemostatic drugs in the event of
signs of bleeding from the digestive tract.
- The introduction of painkillers with severe pain (often with a burn
esophagus), drugs, stabilizing vital signs:
heartbeat, pressure, breathing.
- Setting dropper with solutions to reduce
- Intubation and artificial respiration for edema of the larynx.
The victim is hospitalized in the intensive care unit.
or in the toxicology department, where he is diagnosed and
- the introduction of ammonium carbonate or 3% chloride – antidotes
- hemodialysis (with kidney damage);
- surgery in the presence of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract;
- other infusion therapy in the required amount.
The forecast depends on the timeliness of the
medical care. Anyway, it’s life threatening.
a condition requiring serious inpatient treatment. After
poisoning significantly increases the sensitivity to
formaldehyde, so a subsequent similar situation may become
How to check the air of residential premises for maintenance
Suspect trouble is easy: if at home you feel
bad, not getting enough sleep, there is constant irritability and
discomfort – it’s time to take measurements of the air in the apartment. People
react differently to a chemical for some
characterized by increased sensitivity. Special vigilance should be
manifest if you recently moved to a new home or made repairs
in the apartment.
Концентрация formaldehyde, которая создается в помещениях,
depends not only on the sources of its isolation, but also on the temperature
and air humidity, type and speed of ventilation (frequency
ventilation), type of heating (central or stove) and availability
other sources using combustion processes (smokers,
- New materials – active chemicals in the air.
- Выделение formaldehyde уменьшается по мере «старения»
materials and reaches background values after 3-5 years. However if
we are talking about upholstered furniture, the release of chemistry can occur and
after 10 years of operation.
- High temperatures and high humidity, furnace
heating, gas stoves determine the increased release of matter in
How and when to start analyzing the air environment in
Most often, people go to the lab immediately after purchase.
furniture or carrying out repairs. But it is better to wait 1-3 months. Even
after the highest quality repair is recommended well
air the apartment for a few weeks. Same
It also applies to when new furniture is purchased.
- You should not contact the organization on the basis of which operates
laboratory (even if accredited) and which themselves conduct
repairs of apartments. There is a high probability that the results will be
falsified to impose your repair and “safe”
- Representatives should take measurements.
sanitary epidemiological service or independent
- Household appliances for home air control give
only a rough estimate!
How are measurements taken? The most common laboratory specialists
conduct air research in the apartment and on the street at the same time, and
сразу на несколько самых распространенных загрязнителей –
formaldehyde, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon, phenol and hydrogen sulfide. Average
The procedure takes 30-40 minutes. With the help of instruments pumped
air through special liquid reagents that are placed in
sorption tubes (for each chemical – its own).
BUTнализ отобранных проб проводится разными методами уже в
laboratories, one of the modern ones is gas chromatography with
mass spectrometry detection
How to check the furniture for formaldehyde?
Chemical analysis of the sample material is carried out in laboratories and
requires the provision of this very sample. those. with a piece of furniture
will have to say goodbye. Well, if the furniture was custom made, and
preserved sample. In other cases, have something
Those who believe that you can save on materials and then
check them for “cleanliness”, passing the examination, we hasten to disappoint
– исследование материалов на наличие в нем formaldehyde недешевое
pleasure, so that in the end the purchase can be golden, and if
it also turns out that the material is of poor quality, it will be insulting
How to protect yourself from harmful chemicals
Unfortunately, to ensure the purity of indoor air is 100%
no preventive measure can. However, the observance of simple
safety rules will minimize the chance that
you breathe a mixture of chemicals, not pure air:
- Carefully choose construction and finishing materials and
Buy them in stores, not in the markets.
- If possible, give preference to products from the array
wood or metal. When buying materials from pressed
Wood should choose laminated products or coated
- Ask vendors for documents that are
a mandatory requirement of technical safety regulations
- certificate or declaration of compliance with the prescribed
manufacturer and place of production;
- quality passport;
- technical documents on safe use.
- certificate or declaration of compliance with the prescribed
- Be sure to keep copies of certificates and checks. If in
further toxic substances will be detected in the indoor air
the source of which were certain materials for 2 years
You can make a claim to the store.
- Do not use materials for interior repairs.
which are intended for external use! Yes, they are often
cheaper, but they have other security requirements,
- Do not buy on the words “ecologically clean”, “ecologically clean
safely”. They are not regulated by law and are not
guarantee that the material is safe. the main thing
safety evidence – relevant documents!
- Also, do not buy fast-drying, ultra-flexible,
extra strength and other materials with improved properties. More often
all of these additional effects are achieved through a variety
- Do not move into the apartment / house immediately after repair and
�”Packing” her new furniture: at least your first 3 months
cozy home is nothing but a small
ecological disaster. Even если по отдельности каждое
chemical substance does not exceed the norm, but their combined effect, and
порой и взаимное усиление отрицательного влияния на personа,
create dangerous air pollution.
- Maintain a healthy indoor climate: more often
Ventilate the room and do not abuse heaters.
- Wash cloth before use.
- Get indoor plants that can absorb
�”Chemistry”: dracaena, fern, spray chrysanthemum, ivy.
- When purchasing air purifiers, give preference
photocatalytic devices. It is scientifically proven that they are capable
remove formaldehyde from the air.
- As for the protective polyurethane coating on products from
pressed wood that the substance is able to trap
inside the product and eliminate its evaporation into the air, then it
relative protection. For effective protection such coatings must
completely cover the surface of the product, including the corners, edges,
edges, which is not always feasible.
In addition to chemical air pollution, render negative
health effects and radiation can worsen people
electromagnetic radiation, bacterial contaminants, allergens,
dust mites and a number of other environmental factors, therefore
It is recommended to conduct a comprehensive environmental impact assessment of residential
premises, which, unfortunately, will cost expensive.
BUTвтор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог