Update: November 2018
Атрофический гастрит — воспалительный процесс в слизистой
the shell and glands of the stomach, in which significantly reduced
the number of normally functioning cells.
Atrophy of the mucous membrane and glands is characterized by the fact that
the stomach cells change, their structure is gradually disturbed, then
their dying off and their mucus secretion functions occur,
enzymes, as well as the absorption of nutrients they are not
With chronic atrophic gastritis symptoms of the disease
caused by a significant reduction in the gastric mucosa,
reduced gastric juice production and poor digestion
Causes of disease
Specific reasons for the development of atrophic gastritis medicine
cannot yet determine, but indirect risk factors are
concomitant chronic inflammatory processes of the stomach
diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as natural
inevitable age-related changes in the body in the elderly:
- Autoimmune processes – the production of antibodies to its own
the lining cells of the stomach that produce hydrochloric acid
(at the same time cells die off and the production of hydrochloric acid decreases).
Antibodies to gastromucoprotein can also be formed,
the result is a violation of the binding of vitamin B12 and
gastromukoprotein. Another type of antibody is able to infect proteins,
binding gastrin. As a result, gastrin receptors die,
hydrochloric acid production decreases.
- Helicobacteriosis – enhanced reproduction of bacteria Helicobacter
pylori in the stomach has a devastating effect on the mucous
stomach. However, this kind of bacteria quietly exists in a healthy
stomach, not causing disease, but with a number of provoking
factors such as irritants, an overall decrease in
immunity, unhealthy diet and others. causes inflammatory
- Associated diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such
as pancreatitis, cholecystitis, enterocolitis, etc.
- Alcohol abuse generates development
alcoholic and atrophic gastritis.
- Drugs – uncontrolled use of various
лекарственных средств, влияющих на слизистую stomach.
- Chronic intoxication, severe infectious
- Hereditary factor.
This type of gastritis is considered the most dangerous condition
precancerous, in people over 50, this type of gastritis
recorded in 60% of cases.
Signs of atrophic gastritis
The symptoms of this disease depend on the severity of the atrophic
process. The intensity of this gastritis is divided into bright
pronounced, moderately pronounced and atrophic-hyperplastic.
It begins the death of tissue in the bottom and the body of the stomach, in those departments,
where are the parietal cells. When the destruction process
cells become intense, there is a sharp decrease in production
pepsinogen, hydrochloric acid and gastromukoprotein – the main
enzymes necessary for healthy normal digestion.
The lack of gastromucoprotein significantly affects the development of
patient with B12-deficient anemia, since he is responsible for the absorption
The symptoms of atrophic gastritis include:
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- Gastritis with high acidity: symptoms, treatment
- Treatment of gastritis at home
- Feeling of fullness, heaviness in the stomach after eating
- Only occasionally there is a dull pain in the stomach.
- Frequent symptom – burping with air, and with a pronounced process
There is a rotten taste, bitter taste in the mouth, dry mouth.
- Decreased appetite leads to weight loss, over time with
progression of the process it leads to exhaustion
- Unstable chair – diarrhea gives way to constipation
- Fast saturability
- Clinic B12 deficiency anemia and iron deficiency anemia:
weakness, lethargy, dizziness, drowsiness, fast
fatigue, pallor of the skin. Fragility of hair and nails
stitching pains in chest, shortness of breath in exertion.
- After eating, especially rich in carbohydrates, weakness occurs,
- The language of the patient becomes atrophic – “polished
- When the disease recurs, the tongue becomes thick
- Patients develop dryness during prolonged illness.
skin, pale skin due to anemia
- Vitamin A deficiency can affect visual acuity
- Vitamin C deficiency leads to bleeding gums, brittleness
ногтей, выпадению и ломкости волос
With progressive hypovitaminosis, patients may experience
bumps in the corners of the lips, pustular skin lesions, reduced
immunity affects susceptibility to various viral,
infectious and fungal diseases.
Types of chronic atrophic gastritis
In medicine, there are several terms that characterize
процесс атрофии слизистой оболочки stomach. Under by concept
atrophic gastritis is meant to be chronic
a disease that lasts for years, with periods of remission and
- Subatrophic – gastritis, in which the process of atrophy
mucous membrane is in its initial stage, this term is somewhat
outdated and in clinical practice it is now practically not
use, it’s just atrophic gastritis.
- Focal – gastritis, in which only some areas
(foci) are subject to atrophic changes, while at the site
the number of glands decreases and is replaced by a simple epithelium.
- Autoimmune – gastritis, most often due to genetic
location, and is caused by autoimmune diseases, such
like Addison’s Disease, disorders in the functioning of the thyroid
glands, with B12 deficiency anemia.
- Multifocal atrophic gastritis with hyperplasia foci –
гастрит, при котором отмирают не отдельные очаги и участки stomach.
and most of the glands of the fundal department are depleted
mucous. At the same time in the antarlny department more characteristic processes
hyperplasia. Hyperplastic gastritis develops here.
called polypous and warty, hypertrophic,
lymphocytic granulomatous. But more characteristic
metaplastic changes in the epithelium of the intestinal type, that is
All variants of chronic atrophic gastritis cause
oncological tensions, as with the progression
process increases the risk of cysts, polyps, ulcerations
mucous that provokes the growth of cancer cells.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
The diagnosis of atrophic gastritis can be set to
based on the following diagnostic measures:
- X-ray of the stomach
- Histological examination
- Immunological examination of blood
Treatment of atrophic gastritis is prescribed by a gastroenterologist with
considering the stage of the destructive process, the state
secretory function, the general condition of the patient and taking into account
- Diet – with this type of gastritis shown diet food.
Proper nutrition should be aimed at reducing
thermal, mechanical and chemical injury to mucous membranes
- Food to steam, chop, eliminate coarse
- Exclude cold and hot dishes and drinks.
- Exclude all spicy, sour, spicy, salty, fried,
smoked, dishes, spices, canned
- Exclude alcoholic, carbonated drinks, coffee, use
only jelly, jelly, weak tea, mousse, mineral water, cocoa
- Exclude confectionery – chocolate, sweets,
- It is advisable to eat boiled meat, fish, soups, cereals,
boiled vegetables and fruits, non-acidic dairy products.
- Food to steam, chop, eliminate coarse
- Pain relief. For severe pains, use is possible.
anticholinergic drugs – Metacin, Platyfillin, Gastrocepin, and
antispasmodic drugs – Noshpa, Halidor, Buscopan,
- Стимуляция мышц stomach. Medicines such as
Reglan, Motilium can be prescribed to improve motor
- Replacement therapy. With a serious violation of secretion
hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, you can use natural
gastric juice – Abomin, Pepsidil, Atsidin-pepsin. And
pancreatic enzyme preparations – Mezim, Pankurmen, Creon,
- Vitamins. The doctor prescribes folic acid, vitamin B12, and
other vitamin complexes and iron preparations for anemia.
- Sanatoriums. Patients with atrophic gastritis are recommended.
Spa treatment, especially the resorts of the Stavropol Territory
– Kislovodsk, Zheleznovodsk, Pyatigorsk.
The consequences and complications of atrophic gastritis
It is a known fact that atrophic gastritis has a high risk.
трансформации в рак stomach. Especially oncological tensions
causes atrophic gastritis with low acidity,
statistics on the likelihood of cancer in this disease
approaching 15%. For obvious reasons, with mucosal atrophy
shell creates favorable conditions for negative impact
carcinogens and significantly reduced antitumor protection
stomach. This risk increases fivefold compared to
How to avoid stomach cancer during atrophic gastritis? Answer to
This question is very complex – it is important as soon as possible to learn about
beginning oncological process in order to have time to spend
optimal treatment at an early stage. When monitoring patients
with chronic gastritis is essential to notice the onset
progression of atrophy, and it is more advisable to carry out this
invasive, and in a simple informative way.