previously, neuropsychiatric diseases open up almost
daily. The human soul is dark. This is evidenced by
most recently diagnosed Tourette syndrome. Once upon a time
people suffering from this disorder were considered obsessed. but
Today, the diagnosis and treatment of pathology is successfully carried out in any
The essence of the problem
Syndrome Туретта — психоневрологическое расстройство, при котором
man cannot control his body. ATозникают непроизвольные
movements, tics, the patient screams out words and sounds. Sick can’t
manage your own speech and random phrases. Often
the syndrome is combined with hyperactivity, which complicates the treatment
AT народе патологию именуют «болезнью, когда ругаются матом». ATсе
The fact is that the lion’s share of uncontrollable words is a foul language,
pronounced sick. Syndrome Жиля де Туретта (не симптом Фаултона)
– brain disease leading to generalized
tikam, including vocal.
AT большинстве случаев заболевание встречается in children.
It is noteworthy that boys encounter pathology more often. As
maturing tics may diminish or disappear completely.
It happens that an adult simply learns to live with a problem,
maximum control of your own body.
motor phenomena occur in 0.05% of the inhabitants of the planet. Debut
pathology can fall into two periods. The first lasts from 2 to 5
years when symptoms manifest themselves actively. ATторой отрезок — с 13 до
18 years old when a previously identified and suppressed disease reminds of
to myself. Suspected Tourette Syndrome May Cause a True Panic
from parents. Hyperactivity accompanied by uncontrolled
activity, becomes not only an obstacle for learning, but also
carries a threat to the life and safety of the child.
Causes of Brain Disease
Neurologists believe that the main cause of
disease is genetics. Proof of this is
peculiar gene found in people with the syndrome. Often
predisposition to pathology occurs even in the period of gestation
baby Factors leading to the problem:
- Reception during pregnancy
drugs and other aggressive substances (steroids and
- Long toxicosis.
- Postponed stress.
- Long-term fever of the mother.
- ATирус стафилококка.
There are other factors contributing to the development of pathology.
These include birth injuries, medication,
mental problems, past illnesses, intoxication,
Many stressful situations for the fetus often
cause of the syndrome. Hypoxia, infections, intoxication and even
environmental factors may be a trigger for
ATерсию о генетической предрасположенности подтверждают случаи
diseases of siblings, as well as parents and children. Accurate
The mechanism of inheritance has not yet been clarified, because
cases when relatives of the patient do not have hyperkinesis.
Neurologists suggest that the underlying disease
increased dopamine secretion in the brain. ATозможно также
increase the body’s sensitivity to this hormone.
Clinical picture and symptoms
The main signs of the disease are uncontrolled tics of various kinds.
character Symptoms may include vocal and motor
generalized reactions. However, both symptoms may occur.
at the same time.
Tick - the patient’s irresistible desire to repeat a certain
movement or combination of sounds. Often inозникновение тиков
manifested in a certain emotional state. AT зависимости
от него тики делят на несколько групп:
Sometimes voice tics can take the form of arbitrary sounds.
It is grumbling, coughing, grunting and other inarticles.
sounds. These symptoms are different from the vocal, but provoked
vocal cords. Articulate sounds (vocal tics)
divided into several categories:
- Disturbance of speech: abrupt changes in rhythm, volume, irregular
intonation of spoken words. The patient incorrectly places accents and
shouts out a few words in a sentence.
- ATокализм — многократное повторение одного слова или сочетания
sounds. Most often the own word is repeated.
- Uncontrolled rude utterance – the patient swears,
is rude and can offend others.
- Often тик включает в себя повторение услышанного слова.
- The patient is trying to imitate the sounds, words and phrases he heard
as if imitating others. This tick is called echolalia.
- If the patient repeats his own expressions and phrases, it is
Most patients may anticipate a tic offensive.
Before its appearance, characteristic sensory sensations arise –
For each patient, they are expressed in a different form. Some
note the feeling of a coma in the throat, squeezing in the shoulders, overflow
energy and pain in the eyes. These phenomena lead to the accumulation of
voltage, which translates into tick. Provoked by work
the patient’s own brain shouts out curses or breaks down with
Syndrome Туретта, симптомы которого чаще всего двигательные,
accompanied by involuntary tics of the whole body. Among
Symptoms are the most characteristic:
- demonstration of indecent gestures and other figures;
- twitching eyelids and frequent blinking;
- sharp movements of the shoulders;
- changing facial expressions to unnatural grimaces;
- biting lips
ATозникновение тика in children
The first symptoms of Tourette syndrome
arise at an early age. Before the child learns
talk, pathology manifests itself in the form of twitching shoulders and
involuntary facial expressions. ATскоре движение мышц лица переходит в более
Involuntary protrusion of the tongue, spitting and
Irregular blinking. Later to the ticks of the locomotive apparatus
join voice. First there are convulsive movements.
pharynx manifested by uncontrolled jerky breaths and
convulsive exhalations. Next, the patient escapes inarticulate
sounds like barking or wheezing. As взросления звуки
transformed into rude expressions and uncontrollable words. Sometimes
lowing or hissing are woven into the patient’s speech, creating the illusion
stuttering or other speech defects.
Movement disorders can be as simple as
and complicated. The complex include twisting, jumping, trying to sniff
object or touch it. Often больной изгибается или
trying to hurt himself.
Attacks occur in waves. First comes touch
the signal at which the patient feels the imminent onset of a tick. Then
there is an attack itself. Tick ends after patient
experiencing a strong emotional experience.
The most difficult picture of the disease is observed in the period
debut peak. From 2 to 5 years, the child is in real captivity
diseases. Mental development does not suffer, but tics do not
allow the patient to focus on the educational process. ATозникают
also difficulties in communicating with others. Baby needs
constant supervision because it can cause itself harm.
As a rule, the symptoms of the disease
Tourette include hyperactivity syndrome and deficiency
attention. AT числе поведенческих нарушений наблюдаются
impulsivity, aggressiveness, and obsessive-compulsive syndrome.
Often синдром приводит к депрессивным состояниям и психическим
Sick child can jump up and run into the unknown
direction. Stop alone he can not. AT
closed space tick finds an exit through the motor
activity. The patient can climb a chair, table or crawl
under the furniture. At the same time surrounding can stop him. how
As a rule, the patient gives in to persuasion and calms down.
Degree of development of the disease
In all patients, the syndrome manifests itself in different ways. Neurologists
distinguish four main severity of the disease:
- The first degree is called
легкой стадией. Symptoms of the disease are minor.
The patient is able to control the occurrence of a tic, therefore
others rarely notice seizures. Degree is characterized
long asymptomatic periods.
- ATторая степень имеет среднюю выраженность.
Most of the symptoms the patient is able to stop by willpower,
however, some violations still break out into the “outside world.” AT
the disease is no gap without symptoms.
- Третья стадия выражена ярко. To control
bouts of the patient can not. Only with age does a skill develop.
partial suppression of symptoms. Surrounding may notice tics and
become a victim of their consequences.
- Самая тяжелая степень. Symptoms are pronounced
and occur quite often. They are completely uncontrollable with
hand patient Hyperkinesis complex and combined.
ATозрастные нюансы течения
The highest peak of seizures is observed in adolescence.
Then болезнь постепенно слабеет, поскольку больной учится
купировать symptoms. Some patients have a lifetime
there is a predisposition to acute attacks that interfere
human adaptation in society. AT некоторых случаях ребенку удается
�”Outgrow” the disease. Then as you get older bouts
patients the situation is complicated by the need to anticipate
attack attack. ATо взрослом возрасте человек полностью
aware of what is happening. He understands that fix the problem
impossible, but it can be prevented from getting worse. Often inзрослые
resort to psychotropic drugs. but полностью купировать
seizures succeed a few patients. Often окружающих может
scare a sudden tick at which the patient begins:
- swearing or shouting meaningless words;
- involuntarily move, twitch;
- make sounds of an inexplicable nature.
ATыявление нарушения в раннем возрасте
AT большинстве случаев заболевание дает о себе знать в детстве,
therefore, it is diagnosed at an early age. Not
clear test to determine the pathology. Diagnosis ставится
based on long-term patient monitoring and aggregation
About availability Tourette syndrome says a pronounced debut tick,
happened at an early age – up to 17-18 years. About pathology says
at least one clear vocal tick, as well as involuntary
motor reactions of several muscle groups. Diagnosis
confirms the wave-like course of the syndrome and the duration
Problems. Symptoms periodically occur throughout one
of the year. �”Clearing” may occur, but it lasts no more than 12
When making a diagnosis, a neurologist must distinguish
emerging tics from similar to other diseases.
Often similar symptoms are inherent in Wilson’s disease, chorea, schizophrenia
and epilepsy. Behavioral failures can occur in patients
autism. It excludes the presence of these pathologies by a pediatric neurologist, and
also a psychiatrist.
Additional methods include examination of the brain.
Computed tomography of the central nervous organ is performed.
systems, magnetic resonance imaging and EEG. Investigated
hormone levels in the body. In particular, the content is evaluated
norepinephrine in the urine, dopamine and homovanillic acid. Being studied
the speed of the nervous system. Equipment allows you to explore
the speed of the nerve impulses.
Often the factor provoking the syndrome is
neoplasm in brain tissue or other
Treatment of congenital abnormalities
The need for therapy and its nature depend on the severity and
extent of the disease. In some cases, treatment is not required.
The disease recedes as the patient matures.
Medical elimination of seizures
Tourettes is a chronic pathology that can be completely cured.
is impossible. However, the problem does not affect the life expectancy.
Over time, symptoms occur less and less, and the person becomes
full member of society.
In some cases, the patient needs suppressant drugs.
symptoms. Neuroleptics are considered effective drugs, however
their constant use can lead to a number of side effects,
including the sedative, tremor, cognitive
lethargy, weight gain, drowsiness and
The only effective drug against symptoms of the syndrome
does not exist. The appointment of therapy is a doctor. Often in
The basis of the recommended medication is the substance Agonist.
relief of hyperactivity associated with the syndrome, use
stimulants. However, children are prescribed in extreme cases. Among
such drugs is listed methylphenidate and other stimulating
nervous system means.
If you have obsessive compulsive disorder
prescribe medications that affect the level of serotonin in
blood. This therapy helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease and
The use of psychotherapy for adaptation
Since pathology is considered a chronic disease, treatment
Tourette’s syndrome of the first two stages is based on psychotherapy.
The use of drugs is practiced only in periods of exacerbations. AT
psychotherapeutic activities need children with the syndrome, and
adults who have a tendency to seizures.
When treating young children, a game form is used.
interactions. Among методов эффективными оказались арт-терапия,
fairy tale therapy and communication with animals.
More mature patients undergo psychotherapy with deep
personal contact based on complete trust
the sick medic. Often therapy involves the use of sessions.
The patient is trained in methods of autotraining. Such lessons help
develop a behavioral model for the relief of seizures, remove
tension and improve well-being. Therapy is applied in
Complex psychotherapeutic exercises and drug
eliminating seizures helps a person adapt to society.
Patients learn to channel accumulated energy into rational
mainstream. Many feel relieved by doing music or
by drawing. Moderate exercise helps to reduce the frequency of attacks
sports and light physical exertion.
To reduce the risk of an attack, patients
It is recommended to follow simple tips. For снижения
symptoms are needed:
- observance of the daily routine;
- healthy and long sleep;
- proper nutrition;
- balanced diet during childbirth;
- elimination of stressful situations;
- refusal to participate in exciting activities (long
trips, views of aggressive content and noisy visits
competent treatment of Tourette syndrome at an early age allows
half of patients successfully overcome the manifestations of pathology.
Stabilization occurs in late teens
or after full maturation.
When generalized tics do not disappear with age, the patient
lifelong drug therapy is prescribed. Reason for her
application serves the impossibility of self-control
seizures. However, adult patients are often faced with
depression, panic attacks and are characterized by antisocial
Patients suffering from syndrome Tourettes need
support and understanding of loved ones. Since the occurrence of seizures
often associated with unstable emotional background, helping others
helps to improve the condition of the patient. Psychological
support is important in the case when the symptoms are completely stopped, but
there is a risk of relapse due to stress.
Syndrome Туретта — проблема, раннее диагностирование которой
помогает большинству пациентов полностью устранить symptoms.
ATылечить патологию невозможно, однако терапия дает возможность
adult patients to control the course of the disease.