Update: October 2018
Asperger syndrome is today considered one of
interesting states of development and types of environmental perception
of reality. Recently, scientists are increasingly inclined to
thoughts that Asperger syndrome should not be considered a disease, but
some feature of the functioning of the brain.
Often this syndrome is confused with autism, although with syndrome
Asperger has no mental retardation, which in three cases
of four, it is observed in autism. Byэтому данное состояние еще
called high functional autism. There is described
pathology is more common in males (up to 80%). There are many
people who had a similar syndrome: Einstein, Newton,
Spielberg and even Socrates.
The syndrome got its name from an Austrian psychiatrist.
Asperger, who observed children with similar disorders
psyche. The doctor himself called this condition autistic
psychopathy (1944). The term “Asperger syndrome” was introduced
Englishwoman Lorna Wing (1981), who worked as a psychiatrist.
The essence of Asperger syndrome
This syndrome is a common developmental disorder, which
is congenital and accompanies a person throughout life. But
A distinctive feature is the rather high ability to
socialization, that’s why Aspi syndrome (that’s what patients call themselves)
considered a form of highly functional autism.
The mental disorder lies in the perception of the surrounding world,
processing information and attitudes towards other people. Since autism
represented by a spectrum of disorders, then manifestations of the syndrome
Asperger patients vary. Pathology refers to “hidden
dysfunctions “because by the appearance of someone is impossible
determine its presence.
Characteristic triad of symptoms
This pathology is characterized by three disorders:
A person with Aspi syndrome has difficulty interpreting
facial expressions, voice intonations, gestures and facial expressions. Ordinary people
simply distinguish an angry tone from a tender voice,
correctly interpret facial expressions (shifted eyebrows – anger,
anger, a smile – good nature, etc.). Byэтому, скажем так,
normal people correctly perceive others and
accordingly, correctly react to their behavior.
People with Asperger syndrome find it difficult to interpret external and
voice manifestations of others, which creates problems in communication and
interaction with other people and often alarming,
confusion and fear. It is difficult for patients with Aspi to start a conversation,
it is difficult to finish it, as well as choose a topic for conversation. Often
use complex phrases and words without understanding their meaning. Also не
understand jokes and metaphors.
Most people with this syndrome have difficulty in
creating and maintaining friendships. Such people
characterized by isolation, alienation and indifference. Byэтому
such patients, as a rule, children, often become outcasts in
People with Aspi do not understand the unwritten “social demands”
(you cannot stand very close to a person or have a conversation on
inappropriate topic). Often пациенты считают окружающих людей
unpredictable, which lead them to confusion. Byведение
People with aspi on the part often look flawed.
Patients with this syndrome often have a rich
imagination, but in normal activities they are not capable of it
include, as well as the creative aspect. Since such people are all
subordinate to the laws of logic. Byэтому пациенты с Аспи не могут, а не
want to understand the emotions of others, have difficulty in
interpretations of their thoughts, sensations and actions. Usually overlooked
in mind the messages that are broadcast body language and
However, such patients are prone to logic games,
and creative activity is rather limited and characterized
strict sequence and repetitions. In children with the syndrome
If problems of social imagination are clearly manifested in games, where
should pretend or portray someone. Often такие дети
prefer classes, which are based on consistency and logic,
for example, math. And yet, despite the difficulties with
social imagination, people with Aspi often become writers and
artists (Carol Lewis, Van Gogh), musicians (Bob Dylan).
To date, the causes of the described syndrome
not exactly established and studied. But с твердой уверенностью можно
say that this mental disorder is not a consequence
upbringing and social circumstances, aspi syndrome is not
arises through the fault of the patient.
Researchers believe that the etiology of Aspi syndrome is similar to
causes of autism. The leading factors that provoke this
mental disorders are considered:
- genetic predisposition;
- birth injuries and later traumatic brain injuries;
- toxic effect of certain substances (smoking, alcohol) in
first trimester of pregnancy.
As a worker hypothesis consider the presence of an autoimmune reaction
maternal organism, which contributes to brain damage in
fetus. Also заслуживает внимания множество обсуждений о негативных
effects of vaccinations. For example, the negative impact
preservatives containing mercury on the baby’s immune system and
comprehensive vaccination that puts a lot of stress on
Another theory of the causes of this disorder
there is a theory of hormonal imbalance in a child (low or
high levels of cortisol, increased testosterone). But данная
The theory has not yet been scientifically verified.
The relationship between autistic disorders (including
Aspi syndrome) and prematurity.
Probable risk factors
- intrauterine infection or infection after
birth (rubella and toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly and herpes);
- genetically determined predisposition;
- early toxic effect of hazardous substances
The disease is usually detected at the age of 4 – 12 years.
It is very problematic to suspect the symptoms of Asperger syndrome.
earlier age. For example, a bright light, an unpleasant odor or
a harsh sound will cause the baby to cry. But какой другой ребенок
react to a sudden change in the situation calmly? Or
parents may even rejoice that the baby plays the same
toys, does not ask to buy new, learns quickly, early
begins to speak, remembers many words, including
foreign, can count. There are assumptions – and not a genius
growing baby? But ситуация начинает кардинально меняться с
by age. Accordingly, there are differences in the symptoms of the syndrome
in children and in adults.
Symptoms of the disorder in children
Classically, Asperger syndrome in a baby is revealed to 5 – 6
years when his social circle is gradually expanding (school or
preparatory group). It is difficult for a child to socialize in
society and he often becomes the object of ridicule, bullying and
even beatings (both from peers and from
Unfortunately, parents). Symptoms of Asperger syndrome in children:
- Chronic clumsiness
Due to increased sensory sensitivity (special
perception of sounds, smells and color) in a child is weakened
the perception of his own body, it is difficult for him to move from the room
in the room, he constantly bumps into obstacles, can not
be at a distance from another person
(some distance), there are problems with tying shoelaces,
buttoning. Byчерк у ребенка неровный и неаккуратный, за
that gets remarks, the gait is awkward and unstable, often
- Does not participate in active and group games
Because of its clumsiness, it is difficult for a child to play active games,
where speed, accuracy and agility of movements are required.
- One-sided hobby
Passion for any subject can be fanatical.
Hobby classes takes the child to watch, he concentrates and
focuses on small things and details, interest is passionate, sometimes
reaches fanaticism. For phenomenal memory and extended
The encyclopedic knowledge of such children is often called small
professors. But в жизни, увы, применить своя познания удается не
every child with aspi. But такие дети часто добиваются успеха в
areas of philosophy and geography, art and mathematics.
- Dislikes children’s cartoons
On the one hand, the baby is annoyed by the loud sound range, and with
on the other hand, he has no or very limited empathy
(the ability to empathize with the emotional state of another
person). Emotions and relationships between the characters in the cartoon do not
perceived by the child.
- Love to a certain order
For example, if a child is used to walking the same way in
school, he will never change his route, and in the case
need to change the route the baby will feel
confusion and anxiety. Or, если ребенком в определенные часы
the mother is in charge, and if she is absent, the father replaces her
(grandmother, grandfather, aunt, etc.) this can lead to violent protest,
tears and hysterics.
- Refusing to communicate with strangers
Strangers cause child protest or reluctance
communicate (hide behind mom, cry)
- Communication with other children
As a rule, these children prefer to play alone, hold in
side with other children or communicate with younger ones (sometimes with
Symptoms of the disorder in adults
In adults with Aspi syndrome, it is more difficult to diagnose.
disorder due to their more or less adequate assessment
own condition, strengths and weaknesses. With the syndrome
Aspergers in adults a number of symptoms are associated with difficulties in
- Difficulties in communicating with other people
It is difficult for such people to find, and generally to seek common interests with
others, they have problems with non-verbal communication (not
look in the eyes of the other person, do not understand facial expressions and language
body movements, can not understand that a person is not interested
- Difficulty finding friends and keeping friends
Most patients with similar disorder would like to have
friends, but due to lack of empathy, interest in hobbies and experience
surrounding them is difficult to find common ground and establish
- Disinterest in the opposite field
Adapted adults with Aspi syndrome can start a family,
to have children. But more often such people are lonely.
Despite the medium and often high intelligence and high
professionalism such people rarely work in the field of management. By
to a large extent, they do not seek to “make a career”, they give away
preference monotonous and monotonous work (with numbers,
Due to problems with social imagination, adults with this
The syndrome has the following symptoms:
- Do not understand metaphors and figurative expressions
How can the hands or head be golden? But not of gold,
a common person. Or if the “dog is buried” is where it is buried, who
and why did she bury her?
- Do not understand humor
- Not able to cast a lie from the truth.
In addition, adults with Aspi syndrome also have difficulties with
sensory sensations. They can not eat unusual food (too
salty, spicy or spicy), it seems to them disgusting. Can not drink
tea or coffee – too bitter, do not drink juice – too caustic. Even
comfortable clothing made from natural materials makes them uncomfortable and
Often people with this disorder are accepted by society as
impolite and rude, or even rude personalities:
- �”Man aspi” says what he thinks, that is, “cuts the truth –
womb “, without thinking about the appropriateness of their statements;
- often give comments in cases where the etiquette
it is necessary to overlook the sluggishness of the interlocutor (for example, “as
did you manage to spill the salt on the table? “);
- can not keep small talk;
- do not try, and do not want to produce “good
- able to suddenly interrupt the conversation and leave (because
own experiences are stronger).
Byмимо прочего, такие взрослые отличаются любовью к строго
routine (towels in the bathroom should hang on one
level, the cups in the cabinet are rotated to one side). It’s hard for them
rebuild your own, if necessary (promptings, urgent work)
work schedule. Do not like to use their things – this
violation of the boundaries of the living space of a person with Aspi. Also
such patients are extremely suspicious and suspicious. Having come to the reception
he will ask the doctor several times whether the doctor washed his hands before the examination and
whether his instruments are sterile.
What is the danger of aspi syndrome
Of course, this disorder is not a direct threat.
life and health of the patient. Most people who have passed
social adaptation in childhood, found its purpose in
life, successful work and started a family. However, people with
Aspi syndrome, which did not pass the necessary correction of the disorder,
subject to the following risks:
- lack of a place in life, getting into asocial
- loneliness, depression and anxiety that require serious
- obsessive and phobic states often develop
with difficulty corrected.
Advanced cases of comorbid disorders often serve
cause of suicide. People with Aspi syndrome, as it was previously taken
consider, not maniacs, prone to violence and aggression, but rather
the victims. After all, even becoming an adult, in “normal and educated”
society, such a person at best becomes a black sheep,
worst case outcast.
Advantages and disadvantages
Of course, all people are different, and, of course, very different and
people with aspi syndrome. This or that sign (“bad” or
�“Good”) may be stronger in one patient, and
the other, on the contrary, is absent. For example, patients with this
the disorder is often clumsy, but some of them
become great dancers.
- Level of mind and memory, special interest
- well-developed intelligence, often quite high;
- developed conversational speech, a wide vocabulary;
- the ability to store in memory a large amount of information, especially
on topics of special interest (hobbies);
- the ability to think with visual pictures;
- independently and independently study;
- thinking is unconventional, different non-standard approaches.
- know how and prefer to do things alone;
- special interest in the little-studied areas of science;
- the ability to long focus on reading, writing,
- do not spend time on those activities that
neurotypical are interested (usual – as they are called by patients)
- Careful in details
- notice small, and seemingly irrelevant details in ideas
and theories, books and films;
- perfectly perform the same type of tasks where you must comply
accuracy, accuracy and order of execution;
- take work seriously, strive for quality
- notice small, and seemingly irrelevant details in ideas
- Peculiar humor
- love of wordplay, puns;
- preference for sarcasm and satire.
- speak only the truth, do not know how to lie, even if it hurts
personal interest or impolite;
- need rules as if they were being followed.
- speak only the truth, do not know how to lie, even if it hurts
- Desire to communicate
- give away a lot of strength to acquire social skills;
- do not retreat before misunderstanding and failure;
- faith (to the point of naivety) of the light in people;
- calmly perceive the quirks and shortcomings of other people are true
and sincere in friendship and love.
- Honesty, justice
- quite tolerant, do not recognize the conventions;
- react to injustice harshly and sometimes violently;
- take care of others, albeit in atypical ways;
- protect rogue, oppressed and other “white crows”;
- love and protect animals.
- difficulties in understanding the “common” picture;
- there is no motivation for activities that do not affect
special area of interest;
- do not perceive other people’s emotions;
- do not recognize the “unwritten” social rules, so they look
tactless and rude;
- difficulties in processing visual and auditory information;
- problems with the allocation and synthesis of important data in
- excessive honesty, even to the detriment of oneself;
- vulnerable to stress, leading to emotional and psychological
- hardly accept criticism, suggestions and help from
- sleep problems;
- problems with the generalization of concepts, skills;
- no ability to express sympathy to others
in a manner;
- difficulties in filtering external stimuli, for example, noise at
the background (the ticking of the clock, the rain outside the window and so on.
Test Based Diagnostics
The diagnosis of this syndrome is made at the age of 4 – 12 years on
Based on long-term patient follow-up
parents and the patient. Required if a syndrome is suspected
Asperger runs various tests that are also used and
for the diagnosis of autism:
|ASSQ test||Conducted in six year olds and older children. Based on perception
different pictures of the child and their descriptions.
|RAADS-R test||Conducted in adults and defines a variety of mental
frustration (fear of communication, anxiety, depression). Question
implies to choose the appropriate course of action in one way or another
|Aspie Quiz Questionnaire||The test includes one hundred questions, the answers to which decipher
autistic features of aspi syndrome in adults and their probable
|Toronto scale||Identifies non-standard sensory sensations (sound, color, skin
ощущения).Also помогает определить отсутствие способности
interpret symbols and metaphors.
|TAS-20||Identifies a lack of emotion (view pictures and photos).|
Question – ответ
Question: Какое при синдроме Аспергера проводится
treatment and is it necessary?
Special treatment for this disorder does not exist.
The patient is observed by a psychiatrist and, if necessary, prescribed
medications for arresting emerging mental
problems (anxiety, sleep disturbances, phobias). The emphasis is on
mainly on non-drug therapies designed socially
adapt the patient to the existence of a society (exercise therapy,
psychological training, communication development methods,
behavioral therapy, classes with a speech therapist). Also рекомендуется
special food, as a rule, food should be simple and
separate, without seasoning and various delights.
Question: Можно ли избавиться от данного
Not. Children with Aspi syndrome grow up in adults with the syndrome
Asperger. This syndrome remains for life, but the patient can
compensate successfully, especially if he chooses a suitable
his diagnosis work.
Question: Как жить с «человеком – аспергером»?
Cohabitation, especially marriage with such a person
presents a huge complexity, but not only for healthy
sides, but also for the asperger. Try not to pay attention to
his “quirks” – because they are only for you are quirks and
whims. Forgive mistakes and clumsiness, do not focus on it.
features. Somewhere light sneers and pokes are needed, somewhere
a little trick.
Question: Передается ли заболевание по наследству?
Rather yes than no. Scientists tend to hereditary
the predisposition of this disorder, but even if the spouse is
�”Asperger”, it is not necessary that children inherit this