Parodontosis (Greek –
parodontosis) – a chronic non-infectious disease,
affecting periodontal tissue. If you do not take measures to cure,
the necks of the teeth are bare, the enamel becomes thin, the gums get
increased sensitivity. Over time, destructive things happen.
changes in bone tissue. Periodontal disease should be distinguished from
periodontitis, having an inflammatory nature.
The group of tissues surrounding the tooth is called the parodont. Here
Carry the bone, ligaments, mucous membrane and gums. Periodontal disease
встречается примерно у 1−8 взрослых людей из 100. ATстречается
the distorted name of the disease “paradontosis”. Illness often
arises not because of bad teeth care, but under the influence of
global factors. Among them:
- bad ecology;
- genetic predisposition;
- water poor in trace elements;
- propensity to systemic diseases.
Pathology has a long development. Initially fabrics
begin to suffer from a shortage of vital substances. It may
due to a systemic illness, poor diet, or
for other reasons. The next stage is a violation of the trophies. Through
some time the jaw apparatus begins to perform worse
functions, and at the same time there is an increased load on
bone and periodontal ligaments surrounding the tooth.
To identify periodontal disease, the dentist refers the patient to
x-ray Therapy is aimed at restoring the affected tissues.
First, normalize the cellular metabolism, and then lead to
order of function of the jaw apparatus.
Causes of disease
Periodontal disease развивается по причине дистрофии тканевых структур.
The main factors are poor blood supply, impaired mineral and
protein metabolism. The result is atrophy. Dentists
name several other causes of periodontal disease, dividing them into common and
local TO общим относят заболевания различных органов и систем,
Arterial hypertension often contributes to the development of periodontal disease.
and atherosclerosis. With these pathologies, the vessels constrict, and in their
Atherosclerotic plaques grow in the lumen. AT результате
impaired blood flow, which leads to poor blood supply to the tissues,
forming parodont. Lack of oxygen entails
trophic insufficiency and oxygen starvation.
Diabetes mellitus is another disease
able to give impetus to the development of periodontal disease. Long lasting
an increase in blood sugar levels is a cause of poor blood circulation,
which entails other pathological processes. Other
diseases, including inflammatory, can also trigger
disease. ATероятность заболеть повышается, если пародонтоз есть у
one of the parents. AT таком случае играет роль наследственная
predisposition. Inherited features of architectonics
- weak immune defense;
- insufficient periodontal ability to recover;
- circulation problems.
Dentists называют несколько опосредованных и местных
factors that can indirectly affect the launch of pathological
processes. TO ним относятся:
- drinking alcoholic beverages;
- tobacco smoking;
- unhealthy diet;
- lack of vitamins P and C;
- poor digestibility of nutrients;
- deficiency of micro and macro elements, proteins, fats or
- prolonged hormonal imbalance;
- use of unsuitable or inefficient orthodontic
- damage to the sharp edges of the teeth;
- abnormal bite at which the load on the alveoli, gums and
periodontal distribution is uneven;
- fractures, bruises, traumatized by solid food;
- partial adentia;
- the presence of tartar;
- vital activity of pathogenic microflora;
- inflammatory diseases affecting the oral cavity;
- tooth cyst;
- damage to tooth enamel as a result of abrasion;
- bruxism due to involuntary squeezing of the muscles
(often observed in sleep).
Symptoms and visible signs
Symptoms and treatment пародонтоза зависят от стадии и тяжести
diseases. A person may not suspect that he is developing
pathology. The disease is slow and in the initial stages
does not manifest itself. Usually the problem is detected when the patient
comes to the dentist for another reason. Human can
complain that his teeth are loose, but often this symptom
periodontal disease goes unnoticed or is taken for granted,
therefore, much depends on the competence of the dentist.
With periodontal disease in the initial stage there is no bleeding,
signs of inflammation, pus and swelling of the gums.
ATо всех фазах, кроме 4, зубы закреплены удовлетворительно.
Dental layers are present, but hardly noticeable. Are observed
wedge-shaped disorders without pathological grooves, cervix gums
look bare. The patient may complain that the gums
itching, and when in contact with food and water, unpleasant
sensations. Signs of periodontal disease in stages:
- Начальная. ATнешние проявления отсутствуют, при
examination by a doctor not identifies pathology. X-ray also does not allow with
Accurately diagnose. Exposure of necks is observed only between
bone and gum.
- Первая. There is a slight omission.
(recession) gingival tissue. Teeth have increased
sensitivity, immobile, well fixed in the holes.
- ATторая. Cervical dilated, interdental
intervals there are gaps. Radix Teeth Covered in Cement
substance into which enamel is converted. Detected
hyperesthesia, the patient complains of food getting stuck while eating.
The ligaments between the gums and teeth are quite strong. Mucous
undernourished, becomes pasty.
Between the teeth and the gum there are noticeable grooves in which
the raid is postponed. On the x-ray revealed atrophy of the alveolar
- Третья. Radixes are exposed
half and more. Tooth mobile, interdental gaps
are increased. There is pain on contact with cold,
warm, tough, synthetic food. When changing the temperature of the patient
feels discomfort. In the grooves deposited tartar and
raid Articulation is broken, chewing is difficult, teeth begin
fall out. In the periodontal fossa, inflammation develops (complicated
periodontal disease). X-ray shows a decrease in alveolar protrusion on
- Четвёртая. Removal is necessary at this stage.
sick teeth. They are very loosened, sensitivity increased,
neglected cases, the patient is difficult to chew and talk.
Features of different stages
In addition to the extent of the lesions, periodontal disease is classified according to other
featured, including orientation and prevalence. Depending
from dispersal, distinguish between generalized and localized
type of. In the first case, the necks of the teeth are marked on a small area.
dental arch, in the second – along its entire length.
In the phase of periodontal disease can only be chronic.
Acute forms do not exist, but they distinguish between progression,
remission and aggravation. The initial stage of periodontal disease is marked
slight nagging of the necks, the patient feels itchy during eating
In the first stage, the tooth begins to loosen, but is in
arc limits. Sensitivity increases periodically. Gum
becomes edematous and gets a darkish shade. Degenerative
changes are detected using radiographs.
The average degree of periodontal disease is called the second stage. For her
characterized by: bleeding, recession, the appearance of interdental
gaps, the expansion of the periodontal gap to 6 mm. Detachable
bloody, with sero-purulent admixture. Teeth are mobile, occupy
lateral position. A radiograph shows that the alveolar
the shoot is deformed to the middle.
For the third stage of the disease is characterized by tooth mobility
all directions, including when pressing the tongue. On the radix
dental deposits appear, the size of the gingival fossa exceeds 5
mm There are signs of inflammation, it is difficult for the patient to chew and
speak. On the x-ray visible deformation of the bone.
At the fourth stage, all the listed phenomena are present. TO
They add pasty coloring gingival tissue.
X-ray examination reveals poor binding
Radix (at the expense of one top). In addition to periodontal disease, marked and
other problems: abrasion of enamel, wedge-shaped fracture, erosion. AT
metabolic disorders begin in the body, diseases develop
endocrine system and cardiovascular system.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of a combination of symptoms.
The patient’s complaints, X-ray data,
results of external examination. If necessary, the doctor prescribes
additional medical examinations. And also going
information about relatives: by interviewing the dentist ascertains whether
this disease in distant or close relatives, which
the patient suffers from chronic diseases that preceded
start of problems with teeth.
При осмотре специалист обращает внимание на следующее
- the nature of changes in the lymph nodes;
- skin condition and
- symmetry of features;
- increased sensitivity and color of enamel;
- denudation of dental radics and necks;
- recess size;
- bleeding intensity.
AT стоматологии информативным исследованием считается такое, при
which is used periodontal probe. This fixture
allows you to determine the stage of the disease and express it in points.
So, if blood particles appear when pressed,
awarded 1 point. Filling the gap bloody discharge
Corresponds to 3 points. At 4 points bleeding is pretty
strong, blood filled 2−3 adjacent interdental space. AT
качестве дополнительных способов обследования назначаются
- Doppler ultrasound;
- general blood analysis;
- laser fluorometry;
TOаждый вид обследования выполняет свои задачи. X-ray reveals
condition of the oral cavity, shows the size of the cracks, the presence of stones
and dental plaque on the necks. Reoparodontografiya allows you to determine
state blood flow. With the help of Doppler, doctors get
information on the state of periodontal tissues and their blood supply.
Ways to troubleshoot the problem
Periodontal therapy is usually long lasting. She develops
periodontist with the participation of other dentists.
First, irritants are eliminated: the sharp edges of the teeth are ground,
removes excess filling composition and deposits on the teeth,
the anomalies of the arc structure are corrected. To eliminate dental
отложений применяют такие способы:
- mechanical (subdivided into manual and machine);
Since the periodontal disease is complicated by microbes,
the oral cavity is treated with antiseptics, after removing
tartar On the cleaned surface anti-inflammatory
funds act more efficiently.
A great role in the success of the treatment is the proper care of the teeth,
therefore, the patient is trained to clean the teeth from plaque. At the same time with
this doctor selects the main and additional funds to care for
gums and teeth, including specific toothpaste,
protects against periodontal disease.
The structure of such a cleaning agent is designed in such a way
to ensure periodontal enhancement and enhance its regenerative
abilities, as well as strengthen blood flow in the problem area. TOак
As a rule, these pastes contain vegetable components. AT
as a supplement the patient is prescribed
vitamin and mineral complexes designed to compensate for the deficiency
The patient is given recommendations for proper nutrition. Diet
should include a large amount of seafood, fruits, vegetables.
Цель правильного питания — восстановить нормальное state
mucous membrane. In the selection of drugs
preference is given to those who possess antibacterial and
anti-inflammatory action. With purulent phenomena, including
complicated by periodontitis and gingivitis, antibiotics are prescribed.
Additional methods are shown:
- surgical intervention;
- orthopedic treatment;
Surgical intervention allows you to restore damaged
tissue gums and bones. Various substitute materials are used.
which are implanted in natural tissue. Over time
after surgery, their engraftment occurs, and the synthesis begins
own bone tissue. ATо многих случаях удаётся добиться того,
that the alveolar process grows back, and tooth mobility
completely eliminated. Regeneration of gingival tissue is carried out with
применением живых структур, включая такие:
- Fibroblasts. They
stimulate the synthesis of collagen responsible for defense mechanisms and
elasticity of tissues.
- Stem cells. Their role is to rejuvenate tissues on
- Platelet growth factor. This substance is synthesized in
megakaryocytes and is present in platelets. Thanks to him, actively
new blood and lymphatic vessels are formed. Increase
the number of full capillaries has a positive effect on nutrition and
blood supply to the gums.
Engraftment of living cultures is considered expensive but effective.
method of treatment of periodontal disease. AT случае удачного исхода операции
the patient can forget about his illness forever.
Self-medication is ineffective if it is carried out without
consultation with a professional dentist and in isolation from others
therapeutic measures. ATрачи одобряют некоторые методы, которые
able to complement the effect of drugs and the effect of physiotherapy.
Thus, the periodontist may recommend to treat the oral
cavity ointment or gel. Such agents stimulate blood flow,
have a positive effect on metabolic processes in tissues and have a local
anti-inflammatory effect. To treat periodontal disease gums
can be such means:
- Elugel. AT нём
the antiseptic substance chlorhexidine is present. Means
applied to the gum tissue three times a day or more.
- Holisal. The gel is designed for daily rubbing in
periodontal tissue. The duration of the course is calculated in
- Solcoseryl. Ointment rubbed into the gums or bandaged.
The duration of the procedure is from 10 to 20 minutes.
- Heparin ointment. It is applied to the gums twice a day. Be treated
need 2 weeks. The ointment thins the blood and stimulates blood flow.
The effectiveness of drugs and procedures used to eliminate
periodontal disease, in some cases it is possible to increase with the help of decoctions
and infusions made from medicinal plants. But you need to understand
that some folk remedies can not cure teeth. Act
folk remedies based on the activity of natural enzymes,
which are in medicinal herbs. Examples
- Cowberry broth
leaves. AT стакан кипятка засыпают 1 ст. l dry ground
raw materials and put on a slow fire for 20 minutes. Cool down
filter and rinse your mouth 4 times a day. Composition store no more
- Tincture of calendula flowers. Prepare as follows: 2 tbsp. l pounded
raw materials fall asleep in 500 ml of boiling water and leave for half an hour.
Then filter through gauze and use to rinse. AT день
you can do 5-7 procedures, it is better after eating, previously
rinsing your mouth with clean water.
- Infusion of tea fungus. For rinsing use liquid in non
diluted form. It is rich in positive vitamin C
on blood circulation and elasticity of vessel walls.
- Green tea. Its just
drink instead of black. Drink has a beneficial effect on
organism, healthy all systems and organs. Against the background of common
изменений улучшается и state пародонта. ATажно: зелёный чай не
should be drunk to people who have consistently kept low
- Garlic infusion. Pressed teeth (4−5 pieces) pour 200 ml
boiling water and cover with a lid. TOогда жидкость остынет, её
filter. Rinse your mouth in the morning and evening. Another method of application
garlic: the lobule is cut in half and its gums are rubbed 2 times a
- TOаланхоэ. To eliminate itching, the gingival tissue is rubbed with juice,
diluted infusion of sage.
For the prevention of periodontal disease a person needs to follow
health, trying to get the body everything you need.
It is time to treat diseases of the internal organs, since
most patients with periodontal disease are detected systemic
Problems. TOроме того, необходимо обеспечивать регулярную гигиену
teeth and stick to a healthy lifestyle.