In medical circles it is
The disease is called anthrax or carbuncle. Anthrax and
now one of the most dangerous diseases, although it occurs
extremely rare and only in certain areas. Feature of this
pathology lies in lightning development and high level
mortality, even with early detection and early delivery.
A bit of history
The anthrax virus was discovered in ancient times, when
the infection bore the mythical name “sacred fire”. Some
The authors of medical treatises called it “Persian fire.”
The disease got its modern name in pre-revolutionary
times when outbreaks of this disease have become frequent in Siberia.
The great Russian scientist S. S. Andreevsky spent a long time
experiments on himself, the results of which allowed him to prove
that the causative agent of this infection is transmitted to humans from animals. AT
Later, it helped to discover and synthesize the latest drugs.
to combat the disease.
Now pathology is considered very rare, since the number
registered cases do not exceed a dozen per year. but
specialists are still interested in this ailment and there are weighty ones
Description of the disease
It is a dangerous infectious disease occurring in acute
form. Infection occurs through contact with patients.
animals, causing the skin to appear characteristic
signs – carbuncles. Pathology is characterized by transience –
the incubation period is only about 3-5 days.
Characteristics of the pathogen
ATозбудителем заболевания является Bacillus anthracis —
Gram-positive bacillus belonging to the genus Bacillus. Bacteria
can exist in two forms – spores and vegetative.
Specific signs of bacilli of this group are
- normal bacteria die
when exposed to disinfectant preparations and boiling;
- bacilli in the form of anthrax spores can persist in the ground
several decades without losing properties;
- produce special substances that hinder the work
protective system against the causative agent of infection;
- spores are characterized by increased resistance to stress
adverse environmental factors, and in the autoclave die only
in 40 minutes;
- bacteria can generate exotoxin, which leads to
swelling and even death.
ATозбудителя заболевания можно встретить практически в любом
a place where there are animals. Microorganisms in depth
soils are easily transported over long distances with precipitation
either with wild mammals.
Ways of infection
The source of infection can be not only wild animals, but also
- deer, camels and sheep;
- pigs – asymptomatic
the course of the disease;
- donkeys and horses;
- Cattle (cattle).
Dogs and cats are practically not affected by this infection.
In domestic animals, the disease is often accompanied by
multiple lesions of tissues and internal organs. Power
human infection is determined by the level of immune defense,
ways of infection and the amount ingested
The following transfer paths are available.
- Contact – at
study of dead animals killed in vivo, and
also when dressing carcasses of sick animals. Such a way
infection is the most common and major.
- Alimentary – bacilli enter the human body when
eating the sick animal’s meat after poor treatment or in
- ATоздушно-пылевой путь распространения инфекции встречается
rarely. AT этом случае патологические микроорганизмы попадают
into the body by inhaling dust microparticles in which
In addition, you can become infected with this disease if ingested
the body of infected blood or through the bite of a sick animal.
The source of infection can also be the environment. AT таких
In some cases, the following ways of infection exist:
The first option is characterized by seasonality – most often
manifested in summer and autumn, with the other two can be encountered in
any time of year.
AT России до сих пор фиксируются эпидемии и всплески этой
infections. The last time such a flash was recorded in the autumn
The behavior of bacteria in the human body
characterized by severe intoxication of the body, damage
internal organs, swollen lymph nodes and the formation of
inflammatory foci. That is why the disease is considered very
dangerous disease requiring immediate treatment.
ATредоносные бактерии, попавшие в организм через слизистую
airways or through damaged skin, begin to actively
multiply. This leads to the formation of carbuncles in their place.
Carbuncles are inflammatory foci with
tissue deadening present in them that affects
nearby lymph nodes (lymphadenitis). Blood cell attempts
to overcome the anthrax pathogen have the opposite Effect,
which leads to the development of the inflammatory process in the lymph nodes.
All primary symptoms that indicate tissue damage,
occur under the influence of exotoxin. Just like that usually
developing a kind of skin disease. Further disease
progresses due to the penetration of malicious
microorganisms into the circulatory system by which they
safely distributed throughout the body. Course of the disease
acquires a generalized character.
The septic form of the pathology develops as a result of
pathogen penetration through the respiratory tract or
digestive tract. With a generalized type
the following systems and organs are affected:
- a heart;
- organs of the digestive system and surrounding lymph nodes.
The massive introduction of bacteria, their instant distribution and
the production of toxins leads to the development of an inflammatory process,
as well as tissue and cell necrosis.
Symptoms of pathology
The infection is characterized by its transience – the period from
infection to full development is not more than three days
(usually only a few hours). Most cases are recorded
carbunculosis (skin) form, which is characterized by the following
symptoms of anthrax in humans:
- Inflammation of the skin as well as subcutaneous
fiber limiting hair. Mainly affected
open areas of the body, which is associated with the type of infection (for example, when
cutting infected meat).
- Cutaneous form of the disease in which education is observed
carbuncles on mucous membranes, neck and head, differs more
- The number of pathological neoplasms is insignificant – not
more than 20.
- Carbuncles go through several stages of maturation. At first
there is a small spot that few people pay attention to,
which allows the disease to develop further. Then
an element is slightly rising above the skin or
papule. At the next stage, a bag is formed, inside which
there is a liquid. Then везикула вскрывается, образуя язву.
- Over time, itching and burning in
- The ulcer is formed within 24 hours and immediately around it.
small daughter sores begin to form. If a
the initial size of the ulcer does not exceed 3 mm, then after
days it grows to 15 mm. At the same time in the center of the neoplasm
a black spot appears, indicating that the process has begun
dying tissue. Around the spot you can notice inflamed
reddened areas of the epithelium.
- The carbuncle differs from all other neoplasms by the absence
pain when affected.
In addition to these basic features, the carbunculosis form has
The following features:
- with the appearance of carbuncles on the mucous membranes and in the area
individuals often affect the upper respiratory tract, which increases
risk of suffocation and instant death;
- trembling is one of the characteristic symptoms of the skin form
carbuncle, resembling the vibrations of brawn, when tapping
special hammer (Stefan symptom).
Features of other forms
The disease can also occur in other
- Edemeta species. At the initial
developmental stages can be seen only tissue edema.
Карбункул образуется намного позже.
- Bullous form. In places of introduction of the causative agent
bubbles are formed containing hemorrhagic fluid. After them
autopsies appear themselves carbuncles.
- Erysipeloid species. This form is typical
forming a multitude of bubbles with a clear liquid inside.
Opening, they form sores in the form of scabs (crusts).
All these symptoms are characteristic of the skin type of pathology. But
there is also a septic or generalized form
Each type of disease has its own characteristics. This
the variety is distinguished by the following symptoms:
- Increased body temperature (up to +40
degrees), feverish condition, chills.
- The development of infection in acute form.
- Severe shortness of breath, often accompanied by frequent superficial
breathing. Some patients complain of the occurrence of bloody
vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and the appearance of a stool with
by blood. This indicates a defeat digestive
- With the introduction of pathological microorganisms in the brain
there are symptoms of meningitis, there is confusion
- With the defeat of the lungs symptoms of the lung form are noted.
pathology. It may be a cough, accompanied by discharge.
frothy, and often even blood sputum, feeling of tightness and
chest pains. Examinations indicate signs of edema.
pulmonary and pneumonia. By its consistency and appearance sputum
like a bloody jelly.
- Heart muscle damage, peritonitis, inflammation of the head
brain and pulmonary edema lead to instant death.
Classification by severity
Localized form, in most cases (about 80%)
flows in moderate and light form. Heavy current
observed usually with septic varieties
- Light form is characterized by a slight increase.
temperature and mild signs of intoxication. After 2-3
weeks after the appearance of crusts, they disappear on their own. Such a
the course of the disease is most favorable and leads to
- Severe and moderate infections are characterized by such
symptoms like general weakness, malaise, headaches, feeling
brokenness A few hours after the introduction of pathogenic
bacteria in the body there is a sharp increase in temperature (up to 40
degrees), as well as disruption of cardiovascular
With skin form, the prognosis is favorable – you can achieve complete
recovery. With regard to the development of sepsis, as well as involvement in
pathological process of other systems and organs, in this case
death is inevitable.
Diagnosis of the disease
diagnosed by laboratory test results and
clinical and epidemiological data. In the period of the epidemic
making a correct diagnosis is not difficult. In all other cases
specialist needs to focus on laboratory diagnostics
and clinical picture.
In addition, the correct diagnosis to a considerable extent
depends on bacterioscopic and bacteriological
Bacteriological method is carried out by research
artificially infected animals (laboratory mice and marine
pigs). In the skin form of pathology, the contents are examined.
boil, with generalized – blood, with pulmonary – sputum.
The analysis of any of these fluids is carried out in a special laboratory.
in order to avoid infection of the clinic staff. Specialist prepares
smear, after which the bacteria are placed in a special environment. Through
a few hours checked the growth rate of bacteria.
Use immunofluorescent and allergological methods.
diagnostics. In the second case, the patient is given the drug Anthraxin,
and on the fifth day on the surface of the skin visible
changes (with a positive result).
Modern medicine uses the following methods of treatment
- anthrax immunoglobulin injections.
The treatment is carried out by intravenous infusion.
special liquid preparations whose action is aimed at
replenishment, as well as maintaining the composition and volume of the cell,
extracellular and vascular body fluid. This type of treatment
uses the following solutions:
- blood products – albumin, fresh frozen plasma;
- crystalline liquids – rr glucose rr Ringer;
- colloidal preparations – Reopoliglyukin, solution of sodium chloride
The main treatment of the disease is based on taking antibiotics to
устранения причины развития diseases. When treating infections more often
all prescribed drugs penicillin group. But в случае
individual intolerance to penicillin, the doctor may prescribe
medicines from other antibacterial groups – fluoroquinolones,
- Penicillin is an antibiotic
having a wide spectrum of action. Shown well in the fight
with various pathogens. Assigned
intramuscularly or intravenously. Dosage is determined by the doctor in
зависимости от формы и степени тяжести diseases. The course of treatment – from 7
up to 10 days.
- Tetracycline. Preparations of this group possess bacteriostatic
effect – stop the process of growth and development of bacteria. Assigned
orally The course of therapy is from one to one and a half weeks.
- Erythromycin. Belongs to a group of macrolides. Stops growth
and the development of pathogens.
- Ciprofloxacin. Belongs to a group of fluoroquinolones. Renders
harmful effects on harmful microorganisms. Assigned
intravenously. The course of treatment – from 7 до 14 дней.
- Levofloxacin. Fluoroquinolone preparation. It has a wide
spectrum of action, detrimental effects on pathogenic bacteria.
Used in the form of droppers 2 times / day and orally – 1
times / day. The duration of treatment is 1-2
of the week.
- Doxycycline Included in the group of tetracyclines. Stops growth
and the development of pathogenic microflora. Designed for ingestion and
intravenous administration. At the beginning of the course, taken orally 4
200 mg times / day, then 100 mg, then the multiplicity is the same. Dropper
– 2 times / day at 200 mg.
- In severe cases, glucocorticosteroids can be used.
(Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, etc.). Take orally for 90-120
mg / day. For the treatment of septic form is prescribed increased
дозировка Преднизолона — до 800 mg / day.
The composition of the drug
funds include ready-made antibodies (immunoglobulins). Get them from
blood pre-vaccinated horse. Purpose of introduction
medication is to create and maintain immunity to
возбудителю diseases. The drug has an anti-toxic effect and
detrimental effect on pathogenic microflora.
Anti-ulcer immunoglobulin применяется как для лечения, так
and for the prevention of siberian ulcers. Dosage may be
- with mild form – up to 20 ml / day;
- in a state of moderate severity – 20-40 ml / day;
- with severe form – 60-80 ml / day.
The drug is administered intramuscularly. In any case, the drug
immunoglobulin is used only in combination with antibacterial
therapy. In order to prevent anti-ulcer immunoglobulin
prescribed in the following situations:
- after cutting the meat of a sick animal;
- after contact with an object or material in which
anthrax bacilli detected;
- in case of eating contaminated meat;
- if a person has been in contact with a sick animal.
Since the pathology is very dangerous and can lead to
fatal, scientists still in the XVIII century. synthesized a vaccine when
help which can avoid infection. For today
day the following types of anti-ulcer are used
- Live. In its composition
includes spores (weakened), which actively multiply and cause
the development of a mild form of the disease that occurs without pronounced
symptoms. The infection thus transferred provides
human immunity that prevents possible
- Inactivated In the composition of the drug are also present
weakened bacteria, but they are not able to multiply. This kind
vaccines are rarely used and only for certain
categories of people.
- Combined. Includes both previous options.
The reaction to the vaccine (after 1-2 days) may occur in
reddening and compaction of the skin in the area of injection
remedies may also appear a little soreness.
Mandatory vaccinations are people whose profession and kind
activities are associated with the risk of infection:
- workers slaughterhouse and slaughterhouse;
- persons involved in the treatment of animal skin and hair;
- people working in laboratories and in contact with
bacteria / spores of this type.
Following vaccination, the following side effects may occur.
- swollen lymph nodes;
- temperature increase (up to 38 degrees);
- weakness and headache.
The vaccine is contraindicated in the following
- infectious and inflammatory pathologies occurring in acute
- AIDS and HIV;
- blood diseases;
- pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- children’s age (up to 14 years);
- skin diseases.
To avoid the development of pathology, it is necessary to carry out
- during the epidemic, measures are being taken to prevent
further spread of the disease;
- in all other cases, preventive measures are taken to
which is to prevent the development of infection.
Epidemiological measures suggest
the following actions:
- Identification of patients in the early
stages of infection and their timely hospitalization.
- Registration and emergency notification of relevant services, and
also the entire population of the region in the event of infection.
- Transportation of patients with special transport, which in
further subject to mandatory disinfection.
- Discharge of patients should be carried out only after their full
treatment and control examinations.
- Mandatory disinfection (current and final) in wards,
where are the sick. Also, skin products are subject to disinfection.
- Butсители заболевания подлежат изоляции либо уничтожению
(animals, contaminated meat).
- The corpses of dead animals must be burned without
- People who died from this disease are not subject to
- The body of the deceased must be wrapped with oilcloth for the purpose of exclusion.
contact with his skin. The bottom of the coffin is sprinkled with dry bleach.
- vets should
to control and conduct pets
- persons at risk should be vaccinated;
- at the enterprises related to the processing of products
animal husbandry, it is necessary to provide workers with protective masks,
bathrobes, gloves, etc.
- veterinary services are required to regularly maintain
public awareness activities as well as
to control the meat imported into the region
Anthrax represents a great danger to humanity,
therefore, everyone needs to observe preventive measures, and
the slightest suspicion of developing an infection is urgent to seek for
using This is especially true for people at risk.