Symptoms and treatment of rotavirus infection in childrenand adults

Update: December 2018

The digestive tract is our most vulnerable system.
organism. Every day a significant amount of it passes.
food and water of different quality that may be contaminated
bacteria, toxins, microscopic fungi, etc.

Getting into the cavity of the stomach and intestines, they begin to destroy
cells of these organs and disrupt digestion. There is a big
the number of microorganisms that lead to acute intestinal
infections, however, most often, these diseases are due to
Rotavirus.

More than a billion cases of this infection are recorded annually.
the whole world. According to statistics, every second family is faced with
rotaviruses at least 1 time. And most often, sick children up to 10
years old.

Adults usually become infected while caring for their
a child, however, it is also possible for a microorganism to enter from another
source. Given the widespread prevalence of pathology,
should be wary of any signs of intestinal infection
and if you suspect her – seek the help of a doctor.

What is rotavirus?

This is a whole genus of viruses that infect the human small intestine.
They are permanently stored on any environmental objects.
(food, water, clothes of a sick person, door handles, etc.).
Once inside, Rotaviruses transit through an acidic environment.
stomach, and settle in the initial section of the intestine. They are attached
to his cells (enterocytes), get inside and start
to multiply rapidly.

As soon as their concentration becomes large enough,
the cell is destroyed and all copies of the virus are released from it.
Some of them come out with feces, the rest of the microorganisms
infect other enterocytes. It is because of this, rotavirus
the infection progresses steadily, without adequate treatment.

How do rotaviruses enter the body?

These microorganisms are very contagious. Into the environment they can
only get one way – from a sick person. Viruses go out in
large quantities along with feces and can easily go to the hands
patient, his clothes and household items (telephone, bedding,
door handles, etc.). To get the infection to another person,
rotavirus should get into the oral cavity. And for the development
diseases quite a small amount.

If a rotavirus patient appears in the family, it is high
the likelihood of transmitting the disease to other members. Even correct
while caring and isolating the patient, while keeping him at home
conditions, it is difficult to avoid group flash.

It should also be remembered that this intestinal infection can
sick people decreed professions (who are able to infect
a large number of people): catering workers, teachers,
Vodokanal employees, vendors and others. That is why
There is always an opportunity to get rotavirus if you do not comply
elementary principles of prevention.

Symptoms of rotavirus infection

From the moment rotavirus enters the intestine until the first
symptoms, on average, pass 1-2 days. More than half
patients the disease is masked as a common cold (ARI),
manifested by a runny nose / nasal congestion, a slight wet
cough, sore throat. However, a few days later, or
in parallel with signs of acute respiratory infections, symptoms of intestinal
infections, so rotavirus infection is also called intestinal or
gastric flu.

Rotavirus infection in children

As a rule, the disease in children up to 5 years old proceeds sufficiently.
heavy. It is always accompanied by severe toxic poisoning.
of the body and severe intestinal disorders that
appear almost simultaneously. To the most typical symptoms
relate:

Disease symptom Symptom characteristic
Intoxication of the body

Rotavirus infection in infants begins with this
symptom. The child becomes lethargic (he barely moves,
cry weak, reluctant sucks breasts, etc.), cries for no reason, often
there is increased sweating.

Older children, in addition to lack of appetite and weakness,
may complain of headache or dizziness.

Temperature increase (hyperthermia)

Most often, the body temperature rises quite strongly (more
38-39оС), но на короткий срок – до 3-х дней. AT
subsequent course of the disease, all other intestinal
symptoms, but without fever.

Only with severe rotovirus infection that occurs with
significant body poisoning, hyperthermia can occur
longer than a week.

Diarrhea

In children up to the 2nd year of life, liquid stools can be 10-14 times in
day. As a rule, it is foamy, consists practically only of
water may contain particles of mucus. Diarrhea может сохраняться в
within 10-14 days.

Such frequent defecation leads to dehydration and
increases intoxication.

Vomiting In children up to a year, vomiting lasts for 1-2 days,
repeatedly repeated during the day, and contributes
dehydration. As a rule, an older child rarely suffers from it.
symptom longer than a day.
Pain in stomach Pain inыражена умеренно, может несколько усиливаться при
palpation of the abdomen (especially in the middle / lower halves).

Symptoms of rotavirus infection у детей могут быть разной степени
expressiveness. As a rule, the older the child, the easier it is
disease. However, it should be remembered that when any
signs of intestinal disease should consult a doctor as soon as possible
faster.

Rotavirus infection in adults

Almost all the symptoms in adults are much easier,
than in small patients. Intoxication of the body может
absent or manifest in slight weakness and decline
appetite. Температура редко повышается выше 38оС и часто
normalized within one day. Diarrhea, как правило,
observed no more than 5 times a day, during the week (from 3 to
7 days). Vomiting однократная или не выражена.

Rotavirus infection in adolescents proceeds similarly
for adults – symptoms are mild and good
treatment.

Dangerous symptoms

There is a group of “alarming” symptoms for children and
Adults who must be contacted immediately.
ambulance They indicate severe course.
infections and require inpatient treatment. Especially important
control the appearance of these symptoms in a sick child, so
how alone he cannot do it.

  • The appearance of red blood in the stool or black stool staining (with
    brilliant shade and unpleasant smell) – extremely unfavorable
    a sign that indicates open intestinal
    bleeding. AT этом случае, следует немедленно вызывать бригаду
    ambulance or contact an infectious disease hospital / hospital;
  • Increased diarrhea up to 10 times per day or repeated vomiting
    (more than 7 episodes per day) – active liquid exit at
    rotavirus infection significantly increases the body’s poisoning
    toxins. AT этом случае, пациента госпитализируют в инфекционный
    a hospital where the lost volume of fluid and electrolytes is replenished
    using droppers;
  • Сильная боль в stomach – при типичном течении, боль в stomach
    practically not expressed. A significant increase in pain may
    indicate damage to the intestinal wall;
  • The appearance of a rash on the body – small (up to 5 mm) and rare
    red spots that appeared during illness are very characteristic
    for typhoid and paratyphoid fever. AT некоторых случаях, эти патологии
    may be disguised as a normal rotavirus infection.

Diagnosis of rotavirus infection

Due to its characteristic features, this disease can be suspected with
the moment of the first symptoms. In order to distinguish it from
other infections, doctors use the following symptoms:

  • The onset of the disease is acute;
  • ATирус активен круглогодично, пик заболеваемости – осень, зима
    (but during the hot period in open reservoirs it will easily become infected through the water,
    swimming in the sea, there is always the risk of swallowing water);
  • ATысыпания на коже – отсутствуют;
  • Температура – до 39оС, но кратковременная;
  • The characteristic clinical picture (described in section
    symptoms).

To confirm the presence of rotavirus infection
insufficiently routine laboratory tests (general analyzes
крови, мочи, кала), так как изменения  в них будут
non-specific. A final diagnosis can only be made when
using the following methods:

Laboratory Diagnostic Method Principle of the method Change in disease
ATирусологическое исследование The material for the study is the feces of a sick person, from which
the pathogen is released. His “hooked” to the culture
cells / chicken embryos and observe its action on them.
The typical effect of rotavirus on live is determined.
an organism.
Serological blood test The body of the patient produces special antibodies to fight
with infection. Detection of these antibodies is one way
confirm the presence of the disease.
Can detect antibodies to rotavirus

To begin to treat the disease should be immediately after staging
primary diagnosis. You do not need to wait for confirmation from
laboratories. AT последующем, тактику терапии можно будет
adjust, depending on the results.

Treatment of rotavirus infection

Symptoms and treatment of rotavirus infection depend on the activity
pathogen. As a rule, this disease can be successfully treated in
home conditions. Patients are hospitalized in infectious
hospital / hospital only for severe infection or
the appearance of “dangerous” symptoms.

Health food

Therapy should begin with proper nutrition. Children
receiving breast milk, continue to feed in the same mode
requirement “, but not less than 4-6 times a day. If the child is on
artificial feeding, it is better to use
Lactose-free / low-lactose mixtures that will have
positive effect on the condition of the intestines and reduce
duration of diarrhea. ATажно отметить, что во время болезни
новый прикорм вводить категорически запрещено, так как это
may aggravate digestive disorders.

Older children and adults should be excluded from their
diet:

  • Any vegetable food (berries; vegetables; fruits, including including
    dried);
  • Bakery and flour products;
  • Fatty, salty, spicy, fried foods;
  • Whole milk;
  • Broths.

According to recent studies, all this food enhances the work.
intestines, due to which diarrhea will last a little longer. On
time of illness is recommended to eat boiled slightly salted
porridges, small, but frequent portions.

Rotavirus elimination

How to treat rotavirus infection? For this you need to remove
from the intestines microorganisms that are located on its walls and
destroy cells. For this purpose, adequate doses can be used.
sorbing drugs such as:

  • Activated carbon – up to 4-6 tablets per dose several
    once a day;
  • Smektu or Neosmektin (domestic analogue) – 3-4 bags in
    day;
  • Enterodez or Polysorb – 1-2 sachets per day.

For infants the amount of medication is selected
individually, depending on the condition of the child. Some forms
drugs difficult enough to get an infant to drink.
To simplify the process, preference should be given to syrups,
medicinal solutions. Tablets can be dissolved in water or finely.
crush and give a teaspoon.

In addition to enterosorbents, its effectiveness in relation
rotavirus proven drugs Anaferon and Arbidol. AT ходе
research doctor found that their use accelerates
treatment of infection for several days.

Elimination of dehydration and intoxication

It is one of the most important components of treatment, which allows
improve the general condition of the patient of any age. Compensate for
loss of water and minerals necessary for the body can be
using drugs: Regidron, Glucosolan, Gastrolit.

Если ни одного из переincludingнных препаратов нет в домашней
first-aid kit, for the first time, you can prepare a solution approximated by
composition to these medicines. For this to 1 liter of boiled water
should add:

  • 4 tablespoons (20 g) sugar;
  • 1 teaspoon (3 g) of salt;
  • 1 teaspoon (3 g) of soda drinking.

However, it should be remembered that this solution is best applied only
a short time before buying medications, so
as it lacks a number of important trace elements.

ATосстановление работы кишечника

Rotavirus infection kills some good bacteria,
which are necessary for effective digestion. That is why к
therapy, you need to connect probiotics, such as Lactofiltrum,
Linex, Bifidum, Bifidumbacterin, etc.

Rotavirus Infant Care

Since children under one year old can endure the disease quite hard,
they need to provide adequate care. Denote the principal
moments:

  • Proper nutrition. If the child is on грудном
    feeding – it must be continued, at least 4-6 times. With
    feeding with artificial mixtures, preference should be given
    lactose-free / low-lactose concentrates;
  • Compliance with doctor’s appointments. Some forms препаратов
    hard enough to get an infant to drink. To
    to simplify the process, preference should be given to medicinal
    solutions. Tablets can be dissolved in water or finely. дробить и
    give a teaspoon;
  • Regular diaper / diaper change. Despite the frequent liquid
    chair, you need to change the child’s underwear every time
    its getting wet This will allow to avoid maceration in the future.
    (skin damage with the formation of “weeping” areas) of the skin;
  • Monitor the condition of the child. Excessive lethargy, very weak
    screaming, the emergence of “dangerous” symptoms are all signs of severe
    the course of the disease, with the appearance of which it is recommended to apply for
    ambulance

In most young patients, the symptoms of the disease pass in
for several days, with adequate treatment. But at this time
It is important to provide the right care that will have a positive effect.
influence on the process of recovery of the child.

Prevention of rotavirus infection

How to protect yourself or your child from rotavirus infection?
There are two main methods for this. The first is compliance
basic hygiene standards:

  • Regular hand washing (always before use
    food / water);
  • Boil any water consumed (except
    bottled);
  • Thorough washing with soap of any consumed vegetables, fruits and
    berries, followed by rinsing them with boiling water.

AT большинстве случаев, эти простые правила помогают избежать
development of the disease. However, to ensure that they adhere to
baby is hard enough. AT качестве специальной профилактики,
which can significantly reduce the likelihood of development
патологии и  полностью исключить появление тяжелых форм
infection, you can additionally use vaccination.

AT настоящее время, в России доступны 2 вакцины от этого
diseases are RoTatek and Rotarix. They are only effective in
отношении детей младше двух years old. Preparations are made in Europe,
where they went through repeated clinical trials and proved their
efficiency. They are not included in the vaccination schedule, so for
the child’s productions must be redeemed independently. Average
The cost of the vaccine is about 5,000 rubles.

Frequent questions

Can rotavirus be treated with cola?

Since cola is considered a harmful carbonated drink, doctors
(never experienced all the delights of rotavirus and efficiency
colas) do not recommend using this drink as a remedy
therapy. But, to stop vomiting and relieve nausea in the background
Pepsi-cola and Coca-Cola rotavirus infections are very effective. Thats
eat it can be used at the first sign of infection.

If a child once had rotavirus, can it
get sick again?

Yes. Immunity forms after this disease, but acts
he is only a few weeks away. To create strong immunity
need to use vaccines.

Onсколько опасна эта болезнь?

With своевременном и адекватном лечении, прогноз заболевания
favorable. As a rule, a protracted infection is dangerous.
young children that flows with severe
dehydration.

Do you need to drink enterofuril or other antimicrobial
facilities?

Antibiotics are not indicated for this pathology, but Enterofuril
(Эрсефурил, Нифуроксазид, Экофурил, Стопдиар) назначается,
to reduce the growth of opportunistic bacterial flora, which
blooms against the background of a weakened virus intestinal immune response.

Should painkillers be taken for colic in
stomach?

ATыраженная боль, которая требует приема лекарственных средств не
characteristic of rotavirus infection. The appearance of this symptom –
reason to ask for medical help.

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