also called glandular fever, Filatov disease, pathology
Pfeiffer or Türk. Onродное название — monocytic sore throat.
Pathology is an acute infectious disease,
airborne. With её прогрессировании в
spleen and liver increase in the body, atypical
mononuclear cells or virocytives.
Etiology and epidemiology
Mononucleosis (Mononucleosis) в качестве самостоятельной
nosological unit was registered in 1885 by scientist N.F.
Filatov. Its official medical name is idiopathic.
inflammation of the lymphatic gland. After 4 years, Pfeiffer made
description of the clinical picture. Pathology has acquired a new name –
AT 1962 году
the disease became known as infectious immunocleosis. Scientists
identified the presence of a herpes virus that has a high
level of constancy. It is found in people who have become infected.
mononucleosis. Over the past few years, patients have often
diagnose the pathology of infectious nature.
AT этиологии лимфомононуклеоза главной причиной развития
становится вирус Эпштейна — Барр. It belongs to
DNA lymphoproliferative viruses. Epstein infection –
Barr manifests itself not only with the progression of bacterial
mononucleosis, but also in other diseases (Burkitt’s lymphoma, carcinoma
Antibodies against Epstein – Barr virus can be detected in the blood
patients who have systemic lupus erythematosus,
sarcoidosis. The main sources of infection are patients and
virus carriers that are progressing infectious monocular disease or
monocytic sore throat.
Pathogenesis and pathology
Onибольшая концентрация возбудителя обнаруживается в секрете
oral cavity. Infection is excreted along with saliva. Main
transmission mechanism – airborne. ATирус легко проникает в
reticular and lymphoid tissues, therefore in the patient’s body
affects the liver, lymphatic system and spleen.
AT некоторых ситуациях у
the patient undergoes pathological processes in the bone marrow and
the kidneys. ATозбудитель может проникать в региональную лимфатическую
system, therefore, begins the development of primary lymphadenitis. When
the barrier is destroyed, the patient’s condition deteriorates,
different generalization processes.
The next phase of the development of pathology is
infectious-allergic nature. The course of the disease acquires
wavy shape. Afterдний этап — формирование устойчивого
immunity and defenses, complete recovery of the patient. When в
the body is affected lymphoid or reticular tissue occurs
a sharp increase in lymphocytes in the circulatory system.
On фоне развития патологии повышается количество моноцитов и
monocyte-like lymphocytes. They are often called atypical
mononuclear cells, glandular fever cells or virocytes.
Infectious mononucleosis over the past few years carefully
studied by scientists. It belongs to болезням иммунной системы. ATирус не
destroys cells that have been infected. AT организме происходит
their active reproduction and stimulation.
When возбудитель находится на поверхности бета-лимфоцитов,
there is an activation of the body’s natural defense. If start
specific cytotoxic T-killers form, occurs
gradual destruction of infected cells. When AT-лимфоциты
begin to be actively destroyed, substances can enter the body,
which cause a sharp rise in body temperature and
intoxication. Negative factors lead to liver damage.
Pathology is transmitted from one person to another in the acute
period. At first у пациента не возникает дискомфортных ощущений и
characteristic symptoms. Infection is carried out through close
contact. Transmission of the virus occurs by several
- through a kiss;
- through blood transfusions;
- while traveling in public transport;
- when using someone else’s personal care products.
Mononucleosis диагностируют у adults and children, имеющих слабый
immunity. AT группу риска попадают люди, которые перенесли сильный
stress, have serious mental illness, expose the body
great physical exertion. With первичном инфицировании вирус
released into the environment for 2 years.
Duration инкубационного периода составляет 7—20 дней. This
the form of the disease is often tolerated in childhood or adolescence
age Girls get sick at the age of 15, and boys at 18
years old. Pathology is rarely seen in people over 45, because
The body produces special antibodies capable of
to resist the spread of the virus.
Symptoms of the disease
With progression мононуклеоза пациенты ощущают сильное
недомогание и резкое ухудшение общего состояния. Can
highlight the following characteristic signs of pathology:
- swollen lymph nodes and tonsils;
- severe sore throat.
spleen grow in size. Have patients changing composition
blood. After infection penetrates during the first days, patients
encounter slight indisposition, weakness, headaches,
muscle spasms. Due to the development of severe joint pain in humans
stiffness may be observed.
Body temperature rises to 39 ° C. It rises sharply in
evening time and decreases after waking up. Temperature changes
can keep wave-like character within 24 hours.
The duration of this stage is no more than three weeks.
Symptoms of tonsillitis progression occur on the second day
or 7-10 days after infection. The disease occurs in two
- catarrhal (patients develop mild swelling of the tonsils,
lacunar inflammation occurs in severe form);
- necrotic ulcer (fibrinous
a film that has the same structure as in diphtheria).
These symptoms prevent the patient from leading a normal life.
Патологические изменения происходят в разных системах и
- The development of nasopharyngitis. In patients
breathing becomes difficult, heavy discharge appears on the back
pharyngeal wall, there are complaints of nasal congestion. Doctors
note spear-shaped plaque on the mucous. Discharges may have
loose curd layer on the tonsils white-yellow hue.
- The disease is accompanied by an inflammatory process that
localized on the angular maxillary and cervical lymph nodes. They
swell and increase in size by 3 cm. In rare cases
axillary, cubital, inguinal and lymphatic
- Infection affects the lymphatic flow of the intestinal mesentery. As a result
inflammatory process progresses, pathological
rash. Patients are faced with papules and pigmented spots.
Purulent neoplasms pass independently in 4-5 days.
Mononucleosis has no uniform systematic clinical
forms. Depending on the severity and form of the pathology, symptoms
are typical and atypical. During the histological
Research doctor can confirm involvement in inflammatory
the process of several important organs.
In patients воспаляется межуточная ткань в лёгких и уменьшается
the number of cellular components of the brain. As a result патологии
hypoplasia develops and the ocular choroid is affected
apples. The typical symptoms of mononucleosis are poor sleep, nausea,
diarrhea, in rare cases, vomiting. With progression
mononucleosis develop intra-abdominal and lymphatic tumors
Infectious form of mononucleosis is common
a disease. Easy stage is subject to difficult diagnostics. the main
the peculiarity of the virus is the defeat of the lymphoid tissue, which is
inside the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils. These organs are affected more often.
When a patient goes to a doctor,
he conducts a primary examination and establishes the main symptoms
diseases. The specialist notes the association of symptoms with mononucleosis,
therefore, assigns the patient a laboratory test. Most
informative is a blood test or monospot test. He helps
eliminate the development of other diseases that cause similar
An accurate diagnosis can only be made when receiving results.
clinical and laboratory studies. In the formula of blood is determined
an increase in the number of lymphocytes, as well as atypical mononuclear cells.
Thanks to serological tests, you can diagnose
heterophilic antibodies to erythrocytes. In the salivary gland
You can detect the virus in such situations:
- when the incubation period is over;
- during the period of infection;
- 5-6 months after the patient has fully recovered.
The hidden form of the Epstein-Barr virus can save its
properties in B-lymphocytes for a long time.
The highest concentration of viruses is in the mucosa of the oropharynx.
They выделяются у 15% пациентов, которые переболели инфекционной
form of mononucleosis.
Modern laboratories are equipped with innovative equipment,
therefore, specialists use disposable sterile instruments.
during the collection of biological material. Thanks to this
preparation can get a more accurate result. Disease is considered
detected if there is an infection in the body.
Doctors могут определить форму патологии и период активизации
bacterial process. A negative result indicates
отсутствии заражения на начальных этапах diseases. To track
stages of infection, patients need to donate blood for analysis
every 3-4 days regardless of symptoms. Treatment of infectious
mononucleosis in adults should deal with qualified
A specialist who can help prevent serious complications.
Consequences and complications
With progression монокулезного синдрома существует высокая
the likelihood of complications if the patient is prescribed
improper treatment or it is missing for a long time
of time. Hematologic complications are quick and intense.
destruction of the structure of red blood cells. Patients face
autoimmune hemolytic anemia, low maintenance
platelet count in peripheral blood, thrombocytopenia, decreased
A spleen may suddenly burst in a patient or arise
obstruction in the airways. This pathology leads to
lethal. Danger to health are
multiple neurological complications:
- cranial nerve palsy;
- lesion of the facial nerve;
- paralysis of mimic muscles.
Most вероятные осложнения при отсутствии лечения
mononucleosis – interstitial pneumonia, worsening
work of the heart and blood vessels, transverse myelitis, mental
frustration. When children get sick and recover,
For 6-7 months, they experience periodic fatigue.
Parents must provide proper care for babies. After
recovery they need to sleep in the daytime. If the disease
moved at school age, the student does not need to load
In the treatment of mononucleosis, the doctor prescribes medications to reduce
symptoms and clinical manifestations. When a patient is regularly
body temperature rises, it is necessary to take antipyretic
facilities. The patient is provided with abundant drinking and complete rest.
Combined therapy includes the use of
desensitizing drugs that help to prevent or
ease the allergic reaction. Most эффективные лекарства —
интерферон, иммуностимуляторы и другие противовирусные facilities. By
doctors are prescribed effective antiviral medications.
Sore throat need to rinse with a warm solution of furatsilina, soda
and salt, which in equal proportions are mixed and dissolved in
a glass of water. To alleviate the condition, get rid of the headache.
pain and lower body temperature, ibuprofen or
Corticosteroids help eliminate soreness and discomfort.
sensations, reduce swelling in the tonsils, throat and spleen.
Take medication you need under the constant supervision of a physician.
Feverish condition can be quickly eliminated with a decoction.
on the basis of chamomile, mint, dill seeds. You can make tea from a rose,
rosehips. There are several proven and
- Cabbage. This product is
an excellent complement to comprehensive drug therapy. AT
diet should include the use of chopped cabbage. Doctors
It is recommended to prepare special broths based on this vegetable. For
taste improvements, you can add lemon juice and a few teaspoons
liquid honey. To cook the broth, take 4-5 cabbage leaves,
Pour them with water and boil for 5 minutes. Before use
home remedy for mononucleosis should brew for 40-60
minutes It is taken in a warm form.
- Astragalus root. This is the best way to treat pathology,
because it is different antiviral properties. Root
Astragalus helps to cure mononucleosis without complications and adverse
manifestations. For приготовления настойки берут столовую ложку
crushed root, poured it into a thermos, pour 250 ml
boiled hot water. Onстаивать средство нужно 30—40 minutes
Before use его обязательно процеживают и принимают по 2
Art. spoons no more than three times a day. Homemade medicine is drunk before
- Echinacea. This flower is widely used in the treatment of
mononucleosis. It has antimicrobial, antiviral and
tonic effect. For приготовления полезного чая нужно
take 3 dry shredded flowers, add 2 tsp. root.
Alternative medicine experts recommend adding also
leaves. The mixture is brewed in 500 ml of boiling water. Duration
настаивания — 50 minutes It is necessary to drink medicine during the acute period.
diseases of 3 cups. For профилактики рекомендуемая дозировка,
component 200 ml per day. This remedy is used to treat
mononucleosis and prevention of other infectious diseases.
- Melissa. This herb is known for wide
therapeutic effect. AT её составе содержится огромное
the amount of beneficial biologically active substances that help
the body recovers quickly when virus penetrates
Epstein – Barr. Melissa has a sedative, antispasmodic,
antihistamine, immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects. For
Treatments need to take tea regularly and do not skip receptions. For
preparation means take dry leaves and stalks of lemon balm in equal
quantity. AT стакане кипятка нужно заварить 2 Art. spoons of herbs.
Duration настаивания — 15 minutes For интенсивного лечения нужно
drink 3 cups during the day.
- Air. It is used to treat pathologies of the bronchi and lungs. For
preparation of the drug take 250 ml of water and 1 tsp.
rhizomes. Pour it with boiling water. Duration настаивания —
около 30 minutes Before use средство нужно обязательно
strain. Insist drink 4 times a day for 100-150 ml for 30 minutes before
Another proven method for the treatment of pathology is phytoapplication.
For этого нужно взять в равных пропорциях почки сосны, leaves
black currant, birch and mountain arnica. Additionally you can
add marigold flowers, chamomile, swamp lozenge, medicinal
донник, а также leaves ивы. AT одном литре кипятка нужно заварить 5
Art. l dry mix.
Средство настаивают в течение 30 minutes Infusion neatly
drained, and wet raw materials are wrapped in gauze. Ready
phytoapplication is superimposed on the area of the affected lymphatic
knots. Duration компресса — 20 minutes For интенсивного лечения
mononucleosis in adults needs to be done about 9-10 procedures.
Compresses are applied every other day.
Therapy during pregnancy
Pregnant women are also affected by the infection. ATо
while the child is carrying the immune system becomes weak,
therefore, the body becomes susceptible to various microbes. With
progression of mononucleosis during pregnancy appears
inflammatory process in the hepatic bile ducts, as well as
Women often confuse the symptoms of this.
pathology with angina. The disease is gradually developing, therefore
tonsils begin to inflame, swelling occurs in the adenoids.
Patients feel soreness during swallowing. Have pregnant
body temperature rises sharply, appetite decreases. At first
the body tries to fight the infection itself, but when
in the absence of treatment, gradually decreases.
Such pathological changes lead to the development of jaundice,
inflammatory processes in the lungs, neurological disorders. On
коже возникает rash. A characteristic sign is pain in the abdomen.
With диагностике мононуклеоза в период беременности врачи могут
insist on abortion.
Only a mild form can be cured. Women are prescribed
antihistamines, nasal drops and gargles for the throat. AT
difficult situations pregnant patients are sent to the hospital,
where they will be under surveillance around the clock
Additionally, future mothers are prescribed interferon, which allows
снизить риск развития хронической формы mononucleosis. The patient
need to comply with strict bed rest if the body temperature
rises to 38 ° C and above. It is strictly forbidden to lubricate the throat
or with foreign objects to remove plaque from the tonsils. Such
the procedure leads to the development of an abscess that negatively affects
condition of the pregnant woman and the fetus.
Mononucleosis in children is accompanied by the same symptoms as in
adults. For лечения назначаются антибактериальные препараты,
the most effective of which is ampicillin. Children often
there is a skin rash that requires urgent treatment. Her
the causes are unknown, but until the child disappears completely
After интенсивной терапии малышу требуется длительный период
recovery and rehabilitation. ATажно восстановить иммунитет и обмен
substances. AT течение первого года рекомендуется ограничить контакт
child with other children. Contraindications during this period include
prolonged exposure to the sun and long journeys
Mild forms of the disease are effectively treated with antivirals.
means. AT тяжёлом состоянии врач принимает решение о назначении
hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs. ATо время терапии
it is important to observe peace. The child needs to ensure a full sleep in
night time and daytime. ATажно регулярно выходить на свежий воздух в
Park and other places where there is a large crowd of people.
Children need to drink as much fluid as possible, including herbal
tea with lemon and liquid honey. Every day until full recovery
do gargles, lubricate the nasal sinuses. For снижения
температуры детям назначают Парацетамоl This medicine is taken
under the strict supervision and supervision of a doctor. AT доме нужно регулярно
do wet cleaning, use germicides to
surface treatments. ATирус мононуклеоза является онкогенно
active, so the blood formula is restored during
длительного of time.
The child must be registered with a hematologist to
regularly monitored laboratory test results. Pledge
quick recovery are complex therapy and compliance
all doctor recommendations. Treatment of infectious мононуклеоза должен
заниматься квалифицированный специалиArt.
To prevent infection
virus in adulthood and childhood, you need to stick
preventive measures. ATажно соблюдать гигиенические требования,
because the virus is transmitted through the saliva of the patient.
It is necessary to use only personal hygiene products, not to eat
from someone else’s dishes. You need to take care of your own body and
improve immunity. ATажно оградить себя от стрессовых ситуаций и
overvoltage. You need to take care of a full sleep and rest.
If pathology occurs in a child, parents should know that this
for mononucleosis disease and how it is treated. With своевременном лечении
medical prognosis is positive.