Update: June 2018
- Why does speech cramp occur
- Additional examinations
- Physiological stammering
- What should parents of stuttering children do?
- The main stages of treatment
Stuttering is a violation of the rhythm, tempo and fluency of speech, in
the basis of which lies the cramp of the muscles of the speech apparatus. AT последние
Over the years, this defect is becoming more frequent, is corrected worse and contributes
many problems in the life of a little man. Therefore, experts
try to introduce new, more advanced methods of clarification
causes and treatment of stuttering in children.
Most often, the first symptoms appear in babies 2-5 years old.
It is at this age that speech is actively formed, and in the brain
complicated processes are taking place. Any traumatic situation
overload, severe illness or injury can disrupt
this is still not fully debugged mechanism.
- Organic (neurosis-like)
- Functional (logoneurosis)
Neurosis-like state occurs in children with special needs.
development of the brain, injuries or infections of the nervous system, i.e.
the basis is a specific defect in structure or functioning
organs. Such babies stutter constantly and almost equally, often
have comorbidities, mental and physical retardation
development. AT более позднем возрасте может присоединяться
neurotic reaction, then the form of stuttering becomes
Logoneurosis is a violation of speech activity without internal causes.
is he появляется у здоровых детей после психотравмирующей ситуации
(fear, trouble in the family), more often – with neurotic
features of the psyche. Such children develop by age or even
ahead of peers. In this case, the early speech load can be
|Signs of||Logoneurosis||Organic form||Mixed form of stuttering|
|Speech activity||Low||Usually high||ATысокая, после появления невроза — снижается|
|Epicenter seizures||Respiratory, voice||Articulating||ATо всех группах мышц|
|ATыразительность речи||Any||Monotonous, inexpressive||Monotonous, inexpressive|
|Psychomotor development||Without features||Movements are monotonous and clumsy, mimic sluggish, handwriting
|Course of the disease||ATолнообразное, ухудшение на фоне психологических стрессов||Permanent, with occasional deterioration||Any|
|Desire to overcome stuttering||ATыраженное, порой чрезмерно||Not expressed||ATстречается|
|Fear of talking||ATыражена резко||More often not expressed||ATстречается|
|ATозраст и обстоятельства возникновения болезни||AT любом возрасте после психологической травмы, чаще у детей 3-7
|AT период формирования речи||AT период формирования речи, к подростковому возрасту
|Intelligence||Saved, often – high||Often reduced||Often reduced|
Place of occurrence of seizures
Articulating судороги внешне выглядят как спазмы языка,
peeling it to the side, stretching the lips and other unnecessary
movement of the speech apparatus.
When breathing cramps a person seems to have little air,
there is a so-called “lump in the throat.”
Voice localization is much less common. With her
there is a sharp breakdown of the voice, that is, in the middle of the word arises
attempt to make a sound, but it is unsuccessful.
The severity of the disease is determined by the degree of violation of socialization.
With a mild form, a person stutters quite a bit, rarely, it
almost invisible to others, and therefore does not affect
on his communication in the team. Medium severity leads to
the difficulty of communication, as children are shy of the defect, try to
fix that often aggravates the situation. Severe communication
with others dramatically difficult or even impossible.
Features of the course of the disease
Constant flow is characteristic of neurosis-like states, with
this parameter, the frequency and severity of the defect is almost not
ATолнообразная форма характеризуется периодами улучшений и
deterioration, the latter can be triggered by stress.
Рецидивирующее течение похоже на undulating, но с более
striking manifestations during exacerbation and the almost complete absence
symptoms for the rest of the time.
Why does speech cramp occur
Точные причины проблемы назвать complicated. ATсегда существуют
predisposing factors in which the risk of a defect
increases. But если при этом нет грубого поражения мозга или
serious trauma, it may never occur.
- parental neurosis
- other neurosis (enuresis, obsessive)
- аналогичные дефекты у ближайших родственников
- brain disease or injury
- long-term chronic diseases
- psychological trauma (acute and long-existing)
- improper speech from childhood
- overload of information material in the early
- accelerated or retarded speech development
- imitation of people who stutter
- retraining of left-handedness
Factor psychological trauma is not necessarily associated with acute
problem (fear, abuse, threat to life). Have
predisposed children; divorce of parents; birth of younger brother
or sisters, a change of team may be reason enough for
the appearance of stuttering.
Overload of information that is often found in our
technological age also does not benefit the baby. TVs,
tablets, computers with active efforts
parents quickly “talk” child lead to the opposite
For left-handers, retraining can be a big problem.
is rare now. Conflict between the active right hemisphere
brain and stimulated left leads to impaired speech skills.
All of the above factors are more likely to logoneurosis
they can be affected and prevented. Organic Speech
problems caused by illness or injury can be prevented
The external manifestations of the defect may vary depending on its
causes, severity and activity of treatment. But in almost all
cases there are common signs. In addition to hesitation in speech, there is
many related problems that prevent them from developing, communicating and
Clonic convulsions usually occur early in the formation
diseases. At this stage, the baby repeats the first letters or syllables in
Words: to-to-kitten, mama-machine. In most cases, such
hesitations pass on their own if the parents correct themselves
Another option – the formation of a persistent form of stuttering with
tonic manifestations. They are characterized by pauses and failures.
in speech: n … rivet, k … oshka. With prolonged stammering convulsive
episodes are mixed.
Breathing movements in stuttering children are always superficial.
they do not work the diaphragm. At first it is associated with an attempt
mask the defect and then the diaphragm weakens so much that it does not
can perform its functions.
In connection with speech problems and associated neurosis in children
there is a violation of intonation. Their speech is often monotonous,
inexpressive, unemotional. Very often the intonation is not
corresponds to the content. Sometimes the interlocutor stutters seems
annoyed and rude.
Logoneurosis and mixed form are characterized by changes in
mental sphere. On congenital neurotic personality type
complexes are superimposed, the patient becomes increasingly self-contained, and
emotional problems find a way out in the form of body reactions:
- sweating, red cheeks
- heart palpitations
- phobias (fear of speaking, fear of being in public)
- nervous tics, enuresis
- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
- eating disorders (poor appetite, inability
focus on food)
- mood swings
At the first symptoms of trouble worth a visit to the neurologist. is he
eliminate brain diseases and severe nervous defects
In some cases, you may need the help of an ENT doctor, since
an increase in adenoids can provoke difficulties in communication.
The same applies to any respiratory pathology and
articulatory apparatus. Sometimes you need to consult a psychiatrist,
to identify neurotic tendencies in time.
The examination ends with a visit to a speech therapist, who
determine further treatment tactics.
Often parents confuse speech convulsions with a completely natural one.
3-year-old toddler phenomenon – physiological stumbling. It pauses
in speech baby, arising from age inability to issue
words complex sentences. Such episodes should not be taken
as a serious defect, they do not require treatment, but correction of the system
classes with the baby.
|Physiological stammering||Speech cramps|
|View||A repetition of sounds, syllables, words or even sentences. Pauses in
speech process (when a baby is unable to express a thought
|Repetition of sounds and syllables. Pauses in процессе речи (из-за
|The location of the heels||In any place of the offer, especially in difficult
|More often at the beginning of a phrase or when pronouncing certain
|Influence of strangers and unfamiliar surroundings||When getting into unusual conditions and communicating with strangers
hesitations are reduced.
|In similar conditions, the frequency and intensity
|Human attitude to the defect||Most often does not notice or does not attach much importance.||Notices, worries about the defect that aggravates
|Principles of Correction||Work on the development of speech and restructuring of the daily routine. AT
in some cases – consult a neurologist.
|Work with a speech therapist, neurologist, attentive attitude
parents and educators. The combination of pedagogical and medical
In order not to provoke a hesitation in the present stuttering,
You must follow the usual preventive measures:
- Do not overload children with information – it is better to postpone for a while
view new books and memorize poetry, limit viewing
- ATажно следить за манерой общения в семье, так как привычка
quickly speak can cause the overgrowth of innocuous pauses in
- Before improving speaking, it is better to focus on non-speech
occupations: drawing, modeling, games with water.
Thus, the main principle of prevention is to slow down.
the emergence of new words to a more complete formation of brain centers,
so how to get rid of stuttering is much more difficult than not allowing
What should parents of stuttering children do?
The main thing to remember is that speech cramps are a disease.
You can not turn a blind eye to them, but too focus attention
and blame the baby is also unacceptable.
There are some simple rules that will stop
development of the defect and take the first steps to correct stuttering.
- Children should be aware of the nature of their illness, but not always
focus on this.
- When the difficulties of the child do not cheer and try
suggest correct articulation movements.
- For some people, inattention is typical or just
habit of asking the meaning of what has been said. AT общении с заикающимся
it is simply not permissible.
- If there are defects in parallel with verbal convulsions
zvukoproiznosheniya, they must be corrected with a speech therapist immediately,
without waiting for the results of stuttering treatment.
- Do not allow parallel viewing of the TV and reception
- It is necessary to limit or exclude entertainment on smartphones and
computer games when stuttering
- For children with neurotic features, clear
- If it is possible to give the children to the swimming section, any
another sport or music school – it needs
take advantage of.
- There is no need to overload the child with activities, even if his intellect
явно выше среднhim. Excessive mental stress can aggravate
- Referral to a kindergarten group for children with speech therapy
features – it is a necessary measure, because healthy kids are easy
take over all defects. Therefore, you need to think not only about your
Chad, but about others, before arguing with leadership
The main stages of treatment
The main principle of the treatment of stuttering in children is an early appeal to
a specialist. Attempts by parents to invent their methods and programs
assistance often fails because the defect is complex
Work with a speech therapist
Classes with a specialist are held for a long time, at least 8
months. Speech therapist teaches your baby to make difficult sounds, speak
smoothly and rhythmically, breathe correctly. Logorhythmics are often used.
– Special musical exercises for children with speech defects. AT
In some form or another, a game of “silent” is offered when children
must hold back the speech for several days and then
gradually begin to communicate in short phrases. Different experts
work according to different methods, the choice remains with the parents.
Improper breathing and weak diaphragm – frequent
companions of verbal convulsions in children. A set of actions combining
movement, inhaling and exhaling, eliminates this disadvantage.
- Starting position – standing with arms down. Need to
lean forward, rounding the back, head down. AT конце наклона
it is necessary to make a noisy inhalation, then not fully rise and
exhale. Repeat the exercise several times.
- Starting position – standing, arms down, legs shoulder-width apart.
Need to поворачивать голову из стороны в сторону, при этом делать
inhale at the end point, and in the process of turning produce an exhale.
Repeat the exercise.
These and some other tasks are included in breathing exercises.
Strelnikova, often used to treat speech disorders.
There are many computer programs that allow
adjust the work of the auditory and speech center. It’s more
important for older children who can accurately perform tasks.
AT основе аппаратных методик (Speech corrector, Демосфен) лежит
pronouncing sick phrases that the computer slows down a little and
leads to the headphones. Attempting to adapt to the apparatus leads to
smoothness and rhythm of speech. AT результате судороги теряют свой
neurotic component (complexes and constraint disappear), which
положительно сказывается на течении diseases.
Therapy for this disease with medications (tranquilizers,
Anticonvulsants) has a very narrow scope.
is heа возможна лишь при заикании на фоне тяжелого поражения мозга или
severe mental disorder. ATсе другие варианты лечения
Speech seizures do not include any medication.
The duration of a stuttering treatment can vary from
several months to several years. ATсе зависит от тяжести
symptoms and personality type. If a speech therapist, parents and baby work
together, as a team, the chances for complete healing are very high. But
even with insufficient results, it is important to help the baby
adapt so that he feels loved and full,
несмотря на defect.