Stroke – what is it, the first signssymptoms in adults, causes, consequences, treatment and preventionstroke

What it is? Инсульт — это острое violation мозгового
blood circulation leading to persistent focal lesion of the head
the brain. May be ischemic or hemorrhagic.
Патология сопровождается острым violationм мозгового
blood circulation, vascular and CNS damage. In case of violation of the normal
blood flow worsens the power of the nerve cells of the brain, and this
very dangerous because the body works at the expense of constant
intake of oxygen and glucose.

Давайте рассмотрим, какие признаки характерны для stroke,
why is it important to help a person in the first minutes of occurrence
symptoms, а также какие are possible последствия от данного
states.

What is a stroke?

Инсульт

Инсульт — это острое violation кровообращения мозга,
causing damage and death of nerve cells.

In the period of “therapeutic window” (conventionally so called first
3-6 часов после stroke) можно предупредить необратимые
effects of ischemia and cell death by medical manipulations.

Strokes occur in individuals in a wide age range: from
20-25 years old.

  • Constriction or blockage of the blood vessels of the brain –
    ischemic stroke;
  • Hemorrhage in the brain or in its shell –
    hemorrhagic stroke.

The frequency is quite high, with age significantly
increases. Летальность (смертность) от stroke остается очень
high. Treatment aims to restore functional
neuronal activity, reducing the influence of causal factors and
preventing the reoccurrence of vascular catastrophe
the body. После перенесенного stroke очень важно проведение
human rehabilitation.

Signs of the disease must be known to everyone.
time to respond to a brain catastrophe and cause a brigade
ambulance yourself or loved ones. Knowledge of the main symptoms can
save someone’s life.

Kinds

Существует 2 основных вида stroke: ишемический и
hemorrhagic. They have a fundamentally different mechanism of development and
need radically different approaches to treatment.
Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are respectively 80% and
20% of the total population.

Sign of Ischemic stroke Hemorrhagic
Age Often elderly Any
Start Usually gradual, with a gradual increase in severity
symptoms
Usually spicy
Heaviness Varying degrees of severity The condition is grave and extremely grave
Consciousness Various options for impaired consciousness More often loss of consciousness and deep coma
Headache Dull, gradually increasing. It does not always happen Sudden and very strong
Vomiting Seldom Often
Stiff neck Missing Feeling of stiffness and resistance when trying to bend the head
sick and bring chin to chest

Ischemic stroke

Ischemic brain damage occurs in 8 cases of
10. Mostly they suffer from older people, after 60
years, more often – men. The main reason is a blockage of blood vessels or
their long spasm that causes the cessation of the blood supply
and oxygen starvation. Это ведет к отмиранию клеток the brain.

This type of disease can develop more often at night or in the morning.
There is also a connection with the preceding increased
emotional (stress factor) or exercise,
drinking alcohol, blood loss or progression
infectious process or somatic disease.

Hemorrhagic stroke

What is it? Hemorrhagic stroke – результат кровоизлияния в
the substance of the brain after damage to the walls of the vessel. Violation
functional activity and the death of neurocytes while
occurs due to squeezing hematoma.

Возникновение геморрагического stroke связано в основном с
diffuse or isolated cerebral vascular disease,
due to which the vascular wall loses its elasticity and
thinner.

More often accompanied by loss of consciousness, more rapid development
symptoms stroke, всегда значительными неврологическими
frustrations. This is due to the fact that
In this case, the cerebral circulation is disturbed due to
rupture of the vascular wall with rupture of blood and the formation of hematoma
or as a result of soaking the nervous tissue with blood.

В 5% случаев развития stroke выяснить вид и механизм развития
fails. Вне зависимости от вида stroke, его последствия
являются всегда одинаковыми – резкое, быстроразвивающееся violation
functions of the brain area due to the death of part of its cells
neurocyte

Первые признаки stroke у взрослого человека

Sign ofи stroke следует знать всем людям, независимо от
availability of medical education. These symptoms are primarily
связаны с violationм иннервации мышц головы и тела, поэтому при
suspected stroke ask a person to perform three simple
actions: smile, raise hands, say any word or
sentence.

У человека, внезапно почувствовавшего «дурноту», можно
suggest vascular problems by the following signs that
can be taken for the first signs of a stroke:

  • Numbness of body areas (face, limbs);
  • Headache;
  • Loss of control over the environment;
  • Double vision and other visual impairment;
  • Nausea, vomiting, dizziness;
  • Motive and sensitive disorders.

It happens that a stroke occurs suddenly, but more often it happens
against the backdrop of precursors. For example, in half the cases of ischemic
stroke preceded by tranzitorny ischemic
атаки (ТИА).

If in the last three months once a week or more often
at least two of the symptoms listed below are required
immediate medical attention:

  • Headache that has no specific localization and arises
    with fatigue or weather disasters.
  • Vertigo that appears at rest and increases with
    movement.
  • The presence of tinnitus, both permanent and transient.
  • �”Failures” of memory on the events of the current time period.
  • Changes in the intensity of performance and sleep disorders.

These symptoms should be considered as precursors to development.
stroke

How to recognize a stroke?

To recognize this disease, pay attention to
the following items:

  1. Look, ask if a person needs help. Person
    may refuse because he himself did not understand what was happening to him. Speech
    a person with a stroke will be difficult.
  2. Ask to smile, if the corners of the lips are located on different
    линии и улыбка видит странно – это симптом stroke
  3. Shake hands with a person, if you have a stroke, then a handshake
    will be weak. You can also ask to raise your hands up. One hand
    will spontaneously fall.

When detecting signs of stroke in a person, promptly call
ambulance !!! The faster the qualified will be rendered
assistance, the greater the chance of eliminating the consequences of this
diseases !!!

Causes

Медики выделяют две основные причины stroke This occurrence
blood clots in the circulatory system and the presence of cholesterol plaques,
which can overlap the vessels. An attack can happen and
healthy person, but such a probability is extremely small.

Pathology develops as a complication of the underlying disease.
heart and blood vessels, as well as under the influence of adverse
factors:

  • атеросклероз сосудов головного brain;
  • thromboembolism;
  • гипертония (артериальная гипертензия);
  • rheumatic heart disease;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • heart surgery;
  • constant stress;
  • vascular tumors;
  • taking certain types of drugs;
  • alcoholism;
  • smoking;
  • cerebral artery aneurysm.

The development of complications is possible on the background of general well-being,
however, often the failure of compensation mechanisms occurs in cases
when the load on the vessels exceeds a certain critical
level. Such situations may be associated with everyday
life, with the presence of various diseases, with external
circumstances:

  • abrupt transition from a prone position to a standing position (sometimes
    enough going to the sitting posture);
  • dense food;
  • hot bath;
  • hot season;
  • increased physical and mental stress;
  • cardiac arrhythmias;
  • a sharp decrease in blood pressure (most often under
    action of drugs).

But the most common cause of stroke is considered
increased pressure, 7 out of 10 hemorrhage victims are
people with hypertension (pressure higher than 140 by 90), disruption of work
hearts. Even innocuous atrial fibrillation causes
the formation of blood clots, which lead to impaired blood flow.

Stroke symptoms

The clinical manifestations of a stroke depend on its type,
location and size of the lesion.

Stroke symptoms у взрослых:

  • Signs of an approaching stroke begin with headaches and
    dizziness that is not due to other causes. Is possible
    loss of consciousness.
  • Losing the ability to articulate your thoughts clearly is one of
    characteristic symptoms. Person не может сказать ничего
    certain or even repeat a simple phrase.
  • The patient may begin vomiting, as well as with concussion.
    the brain.
  • Noise in the head.
  • Forgetfulness appears, the person does not know or does not remember where he is.
    He walked, why should he have the things he holds in his hands. Outwardly it
    manifested by distraction and confusion.
  • Visually symptoms of circulatory disorders in the brain
    visible on the face of a man. The patient can not smile, face
    warps, may not be able to close the eyelid.

There are seven major symptoms before a stroke that are exactly
указывают на данное заболевание:

  • Wry face (asymmetric smile, beveled
    eye).
  • Incoherent speech
  • Drowsiness (apathy).
  • Очаговые острые боли в голове и лице.
  • Blurred vision
  • Paralysis of the limbs.
  • Coordination violation.

Sign ofи  надвигающегося  stroke могут
to be the most diverse, so it is worth being extremely
внимательным к тому, какие симптомы
перед инсультом наблюдаются у человека.

Symptoms in adults
Ischemic stroke The most pronounced symptoms of ischemic stroke occur when
эмболии или тромбоэмболии крупных артерий the brain. For him
it is characteristic:

  • sudden loss of consciousness
  • generalized convulsions
  • violation respiratory tract with focal symptoms and neurological
    further impairments (impairment of speech, sensitivity,
    coordination of movement, epileptic seizures).

In addition, during an ischemic attack in humans,
worsen the reflex swallowing and speech. Therefore, the patient may begin
stutter, not clearly talking. Because of the defeat of the spinal
(позвоночного) столба у больного может развиться violation
coordination, so he will not be able to move independently or
even sit.

Hemorrhagic stroke The first signs of a stroke (hemorrhagic type):

  • Loss of consciousness at the time of the jump in blood pressure (against the background of the crisis, the load –
    emotional or physical);
  • Vegetative symptoms (sweating, fever,
    reddening of the face, less often – paleness of the skin);
  • Impaired breathing and heart rate;
  • Perhaps the development of a coma.

It is worth considering that if there are signs of a stroke, then time
irreversible changes in the brain have already begun their countdown. Those
3-6 hours to repair the broken
blood circulation and the struggle to reduce the affected area, with each
minute reduced.

If the symptoms of a stroke completely disappear in the period up to 24 hours with
from the beginning of its clinical manifestations, this is not about
stroke, and about the transient violation of cerebral circulation
(transient ischemic attack or hypertensive cerebral
crisis).

First aid

In a stroke, cerebral hemorrhage requires immediate
reactions to its occurrence, therefore, after the onset of the first
symptoms, you need to complete the following steps:

  1. Lay the patient so that his head is
    raised by about 30 °.
  2. If the patient is unconscious and is on the floor, move
    him in a more comfortable position.
  3. If the patient has prerequisites for vomiting, turn his head
    sideways to vomit did not get into the respiratory system.
  4. It is necessary to understand how a pulse changes in a sick person.
    and blood pressure. If possible, check these
    indicators and remember them.
  5. When an ambulance team arrives, doctors must indicate
    how the problems started, how much I began to feel worse and
    look sick and what pills he took.

Along with recommendations for first aid in stroke
you should remember what you absolutely can not do:

  • move a person or shift him to a bed (better
    leave it where the attack occurred);
  • use ammonia to bring the patient to
    consciousness;
  • force to hold limbs in the event of seizures;
  • give the patient medication in tablets or capsules,
    which can get stuck in the airways (especially if he has
    присутствует violation глотательной функции).

Effects

To the most characteristic problems that arise after
suffered a stroke, include the following:

  • Weakening or paralysis of the limbs. Most often manifested
    paralysis of one half of the body. Immobilization can be complete or
    partial
  • Spasticity muscles. The limb is held in one position,
    joints can gradually atrophy.
  • Speech problems: incoherence and incoherence
    speech.
  • Дисфагия – violation глотательных функций.
  • Vision impairment: partial loss of vision, split,
    reduction of the field of coverage.
  • Intestinal and bladder dysfunction: urinary incontinence
    or, on the contrary, inability to distinguish it.
  • Mental pathologies: depression, fear, excessive
    emotionality
  • Epilepsy.
Left-sided stroke Right-sided stroke
  • speech disorders;
  • the impossibility of a logical solution of the task;
  • inability to analyze the situation;
  • violation способности двигать правой рукой и/или ногой;
  • change of sensitivity from the same side (right) –
    numbness, paresthesia;
  • depressed mood and other mental changes.
  • bad memory, while speech, as a rule, remains
    normal;
  • paresis and paralysis on the left side of the body;
  • emotional poverty;
  • appearance of pathological fantasies, etc.

Signs of coma

Coma after an attack of stroke develops quite quickly, acutely
and has the following symptoms:

  • Person внезапно потерял сознание
  • His face turned purple-red.
  • Breathing became loud wheezing
  • Pulse became tense, BP increased
  • The eyeballs have strayed toward
  • Pupils narrowed or become uneven
  • The reaction of the pupils to the light became lethargic
  • Decreased muscle tone
  • Disorders of the pelvic organs (incontinence
    urine)

How many years live after a stroke?

This question has no definite answer. Death can
наступить сразу после stroke However, it is possible and long
relatively full life for decades.

Meanwhile, it is established that mortality after strokes
is:

  • During the first month – 35%;
  • During the first year – about 50%.

The prognosis of stroke outcome depends on many factors, including
including from:

  • Age of the patient;
  • Health status before stroke;
  • The quality of life before and after a stroke;
  • Compliance with the rehabilitation period;
  • Completeness of the causes of stroke;
  • Availability concomitant chronic diseases;
  • The presence of stress factors.

Diagnostics

Diagnostic measures include:

  • Inspection. Thoseст УЗП. He spelled the first three actions,
    which the patient must produce: smile, speak and
    try to raise your hand.
  • Assessment of the general condition of the patient by the doctor.
  • Assigned to an accurate and operational study of the patient will help
    magnetic resonance therapy or computed tomography.
  • Lumbar puncture will distinguish cerebral hemorrhage from
    других патологий головного the brain.
  • Computer and magnetic resonance imaging are used for
    detect the fact of stroke, clarify its nature (ischemic or
    hemorrhagic), the affected area, as well as to exclude others
    diseases with similar symptoms.

Treatment and rehabilitation after a stroke

Optimal terms of hospitalization and initiation of therapy are considered
the first 3 hours from the debut of clinical manifestations. Treatment in the acute
period is held in the wards of intensive care specialized
neurological departments, then the patient is transferred to the early block
rehabilitation. To establish the type of stroke is the basic
undifferentiated therapy, after an accurate diagnosis –
specialized treatment, and then long-term rehabilitation.

Treatment after a stroke includes:

  • conducting a course of vascular therapy,
  • use of drugs that improve brain metabolism,
  • oxygen therapy
  • rehabilitation treatment or rehabilitation (medical
    physical culture, physiotherapy, massage).

In case of stroke, immediately call an ambulance.
help! If you do not provide immediate assistance, it will lead to death.
patient!

To prevent complications, therapy with
using the following drugs:

  • cerebroprotectors restore the structure of damaged cells
    brain;
  • drugs to thin the blood (shown only when
    ischemic stroke);
  • hemostatics, or hemostatic agents (used when
    well-defined stroke of hemorrhagic origin);
  • antioxidants, vitamin preparations and drugs that improve
    metabolism and blood circulation in the tissues.

Rehabilitation activities:

  • held from the start of the stroke and continue with
    maintaining neurological deficit throughout life
    the participation of the patient, the team of health workers and relatives;
  • proper patient care, use of special
    devices;
  • дыхательная гимнастика (для профилактики пневмоний);
  • as early as possible activation of the motor mode
    patient, ranging from a short sitting down in bed to
    full-fledged physical therapy;
  • the use of various physiotherapeutic and other methods:
    electric procedures, massage, acupuncture, classes with speech therapist.

Folk remedies to restore the body after
stroke

Before using traditional remedies, be sure to
consult with your doctor, because are possible
contraindications.

  1. Rosehip cinnamon. The fruits and roots of the plant are used for
    cooking broth, which is introduced into the general bath in the treatment
    paralysis and paresis. The course is 25 procedures, the broth is poured into
    water temperature 37-38 ° C.
  2. Ванна с шалфеем после перенесенного stroke 3 cups of grass
    Sage Pour 2 liters of boiling water. Let stand for 1 hour,
    strain and pour into the bathroom with warm water. Take such baths
    in one day.
  3. Such a decoction is also very useful: a teaspoon of crushed dry
    Peony roots need to pour a glass of boiling water. After that, insist on
    for an hour and strain. Use a tablespoon of broth 5 times a
    day.
  4. Bay oil. Preparing this tool as follows: 30 g bay
    sheet must be filled with a glass of vegetable oil. Insist 2 months,
    at the same time every day the jar needs to be shaken. Oil need
    strain and then bring to a boil. The mixture is recommended to rub
    in paralyzed places.

Prevention

Stroke is one of those diseases that are easier.
to warn than to treat. Prevention stroke состоит:

  1. It can be warned by rational organization.
    regimes of work and rest, proper nutrition, sleep regulation,
    нормальном психологическом климате, ограничении натриевой соли
    in the diet, timely treatment of cardiovascular diseases:
    coronary heart disease, hypertension.
  2. Лучший способ избежать stroke — это профилактика
    atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Important here
    monitoring blood pressure and checking for diabetes.
  3. If necessary, take medications,
    improves microcirculation of cerebral vessels, as well as
    possible use of drugs that prevent lack of oxygen
    (hypoxia) of the brain as prescribed by a doctor.

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