Staphylococcus – what it is, types, symptoms andtreatment in adults of staphylococcal infection

Стафилококк (Staphylococcus) – это бактерия, которая имеет
regular spherical shape and belongs to the group
gram-positive fixed cocci. Most often under
microscope, you can see the accumulation of such bacteria that
appearance resemble a bunch of grapes.

Due to the high resistance of the microbe to antibacterial
drugs, diseases of staphylococcal etiology occupy the leading
place among all inflammatory pathology. Everyone is important
know about staphylococcus: what is this disease in adults, its symptoms and
treatment to prevent irreversible effects for
health

Staphylococcus: what is it?

Стафилококк

Staphylococcus is a fixed spherical bacterium,
belonging to the Staphylococcal family
(Staphylococcaceae). This is an extensive group of bacteria,
numbering 27 species, 14 of which are found on the skin and
слизистых person However, only 3 species can cause disease,
therefore, relate to opportunistic microflora. With
favorable conditions, it actively reproduces, causing various
гнойные процессы в организме person

Given the fact that staphylococcal infections are extremely resistant
antibiotic therapy applied to them, in
the number of inflammatory diseases of staphylococcus, symptoms
which may indicate an inflammatory process in any organ,
It ranked first.

 Staphylococcus tolerates heat well, and
drying These bacteria die at a temperature of 70 – 80ºС in
for 20 – 30 minutes, and at a temperature of 150 ºС – almost
instantly.

The most common toxic staphylococcal disease is
food poisoning. Almost 50% of all Staphylococcus aureus
выделяют энтеротоксин — яд, вызывающий сильнейший понос,
vomiting, abdominal pain.

Staphylococci breed well in many foods,
Especially love butter creams, vegetable and meat salads, canned food. AT
the reproduction process in food accumulates toxin, and it is with
the toxin, not the microbe itself, is associated with symptoms of the disease in
careless feeder.

ATиды

ATсе виды этого микроорганизма причисляются к условно-патогенной
microflora. This means that they do not threaten a healthy person, but
under adverse conditions can cause disease.

There are three types of staphylococcus that most
common and harmful to the human body:

  • Сапрофитный стафилококк чаще всего поражает женщин,
    causing inflammatory diseases of the bladder (cystitis) in them and
    the kidneys. Saprophytic Staphylococcus bacteria are localized in the skin layers
    genitalia and urethra mucosa. Of all
    species of staphylococcus it causes the least damage;
  • Epidermal Staphylococcus. The most dangerous in preterm
    weakened children and in patients with immunodeficiencies, cancer
    diseases. Halo habitat of this pest is
    mucous membrane and skin.
  • Staphylococcus aureus. This is the most dangerous type of germ
    which is especially common in the environment. Infection
    subject to organisms of all ages.

Each type of Staphylococcus has many strains.
(varieties) differing from each other in the degree of aggressiveness
and pathogenicity

Withчины стафилококковой инфекции

Withчиной развития практически всех стафилококковых болезней
is a violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes, as well
eating contaminated food. Harm level also
depends on the strain of the bacteria as well as the functioning of the immune
system. The stronger the immune system, the less damage staphylococcus
способны нанести здоровью person

AT качестве источника распространения данной инфекции может
act as a sick person, and the carrier of infection
(asymptomatic), and such carriers according to certain data
is more than 40% of people who are perfectly healthy. ATыступать
they can as carriers of any strain of staphylococcus.

Thus, it can be concluded that in most
cases, for staphylococcal disease, a combination of 2x
factors:

  • infection inside;
  • нарушение нормального функционирования иммунной system.

Especially important factors in the development of infections are:

  • reduced immunity
  • use of strong medicines, immunosuppressants,
  • chronic pathologies,
  • thyroid problems
  • stresses, environmental impact.

Staphylococcal infections in children are especially severe.
early age and in the elderly.

Staphylococcal disease

Staphylococcus aureus is capable of affecting most tissues.
организма person ATсего существуют более сотни заболеваний,
The cause of which is a staph infection. For
staphylococcal infection is characterized by the presence of many different
mechanisms, ways and factors of transmission.

Staphylococcus in adults can cause such
diseases:

  • Lesions of the skin and mucous membranes – boils, carbuncles, purulent
    wounds.
  • Food poisoning.
  • ATоспаление легких бактериального character
  • Bronchitis.
  • Endocarditis.
  • Osteomyelitis.
  • Meningitis.
  • Blood poisoning.

Especially dangerous in this regard is Staphylococcus aureus, which
can penetrate any point of the body, cause a generalized
infection.

Who are prone to infection

  • Pregnant women who can be immunized
    toxoid in 32-36 weeks.
  • Elderly people are predisposed to infection, especially
    having such diseases as rheumatism, diabetes, eczema,
    oncological diseases.
  • Any people, both adults and children, whose immunity
    reduced
  • Medical workers, catering workers, to the force
    their profession.

The infection enters the active breeding phase at the moments:

  • hypothermia;
  • during the course of ARI and ARVI;
  • when the endocrine system fails;
  • with inflammatory diseases of internal organs and
    systems.

How is staphylococcus transmitted to humans?

All diseases caused by bacteria can occur in
due to the fact that the infection enters the body due to
violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes, because
it is a permanent inhabitant of human microflora. Besides,
infection can occur exogenously, that is, with
food or as a result of close contact.

The main ways of transmission of the pathogen:

  • Airborne. The transmission mechanism is based on inhalation.
    air that contains microorganisms. This mechanism
    transmission becomes possible in the event of the isolation of bacteria in
    environment with exhaled air (in case of illness
    respiratory system organs: bronchitis or pneumonia).
  • Medical instruments. In the absence of aseptic rules
    you can get in the same district clinic during a routine inspection
    at the therapist.
  • Контактно-бытовой: при непосредственном контакте с больным
    man or inseminated household items.
  • Food – infection is possible when using infected
    products for food.
  • Fecal-oral. Directly related to non-compliance
    hygiene. Staphylococcus is present in the feces and vomit
    infected person. Transmitted through dirty hands, with bad
    washed vegetables, berries and fruits, poorly washed dishes.

Once in the body, staph begins to multiply rapidly
and produce toxins that adversely affect health,
leading to certain pathologies.

Staphylococcal infection is ensured if the condition is immune
the system is weakened, and the person is in contact with the carrier of this
microbe.

Symptoms of Staphylococcus

The clinical picture (symptoms) of staphylococcus can be very
diverse, which depends on the affected organ, strain of bacteria,
human age, functionality (health) immunity
potential patient.

All staph infections combine the following symptoms:

  • Temperature increase, local (at the site of infection) or general
    heat.
  • The presence of purulent processes.
  • Intoxication – general deterioration, loss of appetite,
    drowsiness, joint pain.

Also characterized by these symptoms:

  • Ulcers on the skin of different sizes: boils, pyoderma,
    abscesses and stuff.
  • Cough and rhinitis with purulent yellowish-green secretions.
  • Mucus in stool, upset stool, nausea.
  • Pain at the site of infection. For example, with staphylococcal
    osteomyelitis bones begin to hurt, endocarditis may be accompanied
    heart pains.

Staphylococcus can affect almost all systems, tissues and
organs, giving the clinic a staphylococcal local or common
diseases. Skin, hypoderm, nervous
system, kidneys, liver, lungs, urinary system, bone tissue and
cause general infection of the body (sepsis).

Important! After the disease, immunity to these microorganisms
unstable. For life, you can be infected several times with these
infections. Special measures to immunize people from this species
no bacteria.

 Complications

If a person knows what staph is, he also knows
how dangerous is the active phase of this pathogenic
microorganism.

  • Exacerbation of existing chronic respiratory diseases
    system, digestive tract, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid
    arthritis.
  • Ingestion of other pathogenic microbes (streptococci,
    pneumococci, etc.).
  • Development of septicemia (blood poisoning).

Staph infection leads not only to a number of serious
diseases but can also be complicated by life threatening
states. Pathogenic staphylococcus, getting into the bloodstream,
able to penetrate the heart, the brain, and in some cases
spread to many organs, causing sepsis.

Diagnostics

If there is a suspicion of staphylococcus – what is it, will explain and
diagnoses the attending physician. The diagnosis is made
after conducting a culture study of pathogen samples,
taken from foci of infection (any areas of suppuration, blisters,
dried crusts and so on.).

Diagnostic methods depend on which department is affected.
infection.

  • Когда речь идет о пневмонии, вызванной стафилококковой
    infection, it is enough to collect sputum after coughing.
  • Если инфицирована мочеполовая система, придется собирать
    Analysis of urine.
  • With поверхностном поражении – соскобы с кожи и забор
    with mucous membranes.

For the diagnosis prescribed:

  • biochemical blood examination;
  • examination of feces and urine;
  • saliva swab;
  • smear from the skin.

In the course of analysis it is also important to determine how
bacterium is sensitive to the effects of antibiotics, due to which
it will be possible to determine the most effective drug for
subsequent treatment.

Staphylococcus treatment in adults

Local forms of staphylococcal infection are treated at home.
conditions. Hospitalization is indicated in cases of generalization of the process.
with sepsis, meningitis, endocarditis or if necessary
surgical treatment of purulent-necrotic skin lesions –
boils or carbuncles.

Modern approach to the treatment of staph infections
provides for the following treatment directions:

  • The use of modern antimicrobial drugs and
    antibiotics;
  • Surgical treatments;
  • Immunomodulation methods;
  • Normalization of hormonal status and metabolic process
    organism with the help of food additives (chitosan, cordyceps),
    mineral preparations, vitamins.

Antibiotics

Bacterioscopic seeding determines the presence of pathogenic flora and
her look. Only after this is prescribed antibiotics in
pills and shots that can kill the harmful flora.

Definitely it is impossible to say which antibiotic kills staphylococcus,
because each bacterial strain is sensitive to a specific
drug. The most commonly used drugs include
The following groups of antibiotics:

  • penicillin;
  • tselofasporinovye;
  • macrolides;
  • lincosamides.

Treatment of a staph infection requires strict adherence
the frequency of taking the time of use of the drug and
his dosage. It is important to take the prescribed antibiotic not until
the disappearance of the first symptoms, and not less than 5 days. If nessesary
extend the course, then the doctor will report it. Besides, нельзя
discontinue treatment, therapy should be continuous.

Surgical methods

The purpose of surgery for staphylococcal infection is the opening of the abscess and
ensuring good outflow of purulent-inflammatory exudate.
Opened abscesses are washed with antibiotic solutions and
drained. Proteases are widely used – enzymes that
able to cleave peptide bonds in proteins and products from
decay, thereby accelerating the purification of purulent wounds.

Bacteriophages for Staphylococcal Infection

To combat staphylococcus can be used bacteriophages –
viruses with selective ability to defeat staphylococcus. For
external treatment apply antimicrobial ointment
components with antiseptic and regenerating
action.

When purulent processes are not recommended to use ointment,
having a fatty basis (for example, Vishnevsky’s popular liniment)
as fats prevent the outflow of discharge from the wound, thereby
worsening the process.

Immunomodulators

For стимуляции иммунитета у детей и взрослых показано применение
herbal medicines – Echinacea (Immunal),
женьшеня (Настойка женьшеня, препараты в виде таблеток и
капсул) и Лимонника китайского.

Use of vitamin and mineral preparations

One of the causes of reduced immunity and frequent recurrence of infections.
(including infection of Staphylococcus aureus) is
lack of vitamins and minerals in the body. therefore
vitamin and mineral preparations are successfully used in the treatment and
prevention of these infections.

The use of these drugs in the presence of other drugs is most justified.
signs of a lack of vitamins or during the off season.

Before using vitamin or food supplements
Supplements recommend that you consult with your doctor and discuss
the feasibility of such treatment, as well as the associated risks and
effects.

How to treat folk remedies

Before using any folk remedies for staphylococcus,
We recommend to consult with your doctor.

  1. Apricot. In inflammatory processes on the skin due to
    staphylococcal infection is well established pulp
    apricot, which must be applied to the foci of inflammation. For
    treatment of internal infection need to eat mashed apricot 2 times a
    day – morning and evening, on an empty stomach.
  2. Staphylococcal skin infections are also well treated with
    garlic. 50 g of garlic is crushed and pounded and mixed with
    150 ml of water. After filtering in the resulting infusion moisten
    bandage and applied to sore spots on the skin. Recommended
    carry out the procedure twice a day for 10 days.
  3. Dry St. John’s Wort Glass of boiling water to brew 2 tsp. grass cover
    rag and let it brew for 30 minutes. Take on an empty stomach
    before breakfast and dinner.
  4. Recommended к использованию и отвар daisies. 2 tsp daisies
    boil in a glass of water for about five minutes. Then the broth is filtered
    and cool. It is used as a rinsing device.
    washing and wiping.
  5. A good treatment for staphylococcus is black
    currant. Black currant contains the most vitamin.
    C, which strengthens the immune system and contributes to the speedy
    recovery. Also black currant will be effective at treatment
    streptococcus.

Категорически запрещено использовать любые тепловые
процедуры в домашних условиях для ускорения процессов
ripening ulcers. Hot baths, bath and sauna will only worsen
condition of the patient and lead to further spread
infections.

Prevention

Understanding how difficult it is to treat staph, most doctors
обращают внимание на профилактику развития infections. Fully
get rid of different types of this microorganism is simply impossible.
therefore ключевой задачей является не устранение бактерии, а
preventing the development of an infectious process.

It is important to conduct regular disease prevention, not
дожидаясь появления infections. As a preventive,
use the following methods:

  • hygiene;
  • beriberi prevention;
  • treatment of wounds and cuts with antibacterial agents;
  • injury prevention;
  • warning of sweating;
  • thorough processing of vegetables and fruits before taking in
    the food
  • exclusion from the diet of products with compromised integrity
    packaging.

Staphylococcal infections are extremely dangerous for human health.
because they can cause serious complications. Spend
treatment of infections of this type is necessary under the supervision of a specialist.

Fully избавится от присутствия стафилококков в организме
is impossible. They are part of opportunistic microflora.
person Small amounts do no harm.

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