Staphylococcus aureus: symptoms, methodsinfection and treatment methods

Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus; S. aureus) is
Gram-positive bacteria, having the shape of a sphere or oval.
Belongs to facultative anaerobes. This is the most pathogenic species.
staphylococcus for man.

What is this disease, what are the causes and ways
transmission, as well as what signs does a person encounter when
infection in the blood, we will look further into the article.

What is Staphylococcus aureus?

Стафилококк золотистый

Staphylococcus aureus is Gram-positive spherical
a bacterium that causes a wide range of different diseases:
from light acne on the skin to the hardest
стафилококкового сепсиса. Its carriers are almost 20%
parasitizing on the upper respiratory tract mucosa or
skin.

Its name “golden” Staphylococcus received from golden
Glow, which publishes when sown on a nutrient medium. AT
translated from the Greek slaphyle – “bunch” and coccus – “spherical”,
staphylococcus under a microscope resembles a bunch of grapes.

The pathogen is active in
теле как у детей, так и у взрослых. But if the immune system
organism works stably, the normal microflora suppresses
the activity of these bacteria. AT случае ослабления реактивности
organism, the microbe is activated and provokes the progression
pathologies.

Features Staphylococcus aureus:

  • the bacterium is resistant to various antiseptic agents, and
    also for a long time does not die when boiling, freezing,
    drying and so on;
  • do not form a dispute.
  • Bacteria are very picky to the environment.
    Optimum air temperature for their active development
    is 30-37 C, the acid-base balance should be
    neutral.

Withчины

Does not allow staphylococcus to show their disease-causing
свойства иммунная система человека. AT здоровом организме
it is able to resist under the onslaught of all the factors of pathogenicity given
bacteria (before enzymes, hemolysins, toxins, etc.). If a
same local and general immune defense weakens, develops
staphylococcal infection.

Infection with Staphylococcus aureus occurs by decreasing
immunity, which contributes to a number of factors:

  • antibiotics and hormonal drugs;
  • stress;
  • unhealthy diet;
  • hypo-and avitaminosis;
  • infections;
  • intestinal dysbiosis;
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene;
  • prematurity;
  • child immaturity at birth;
  • artificial feeding;
  • late attachment to the chest.

By the way, the strains are resistant, the most dangerous and terrible
staphylococcus is not sensitive to most known
antibiotics are called MRSA (Methicillin-resistant)
Staphylococcus aureus – methicillin-resistant golden
staphylococcus). ATероятность «подхватить» подобный экземпляр есть
only in people with low immune response:

  • больных ATИЧ (СПИДом), онкологическими заболеваниями, тяжелой
    asthma, diabetes;
  • old people;
  • patients after organ transplantation;
  • patients taking long-term corticosteroids, and others.

How is Staphylococcus aureus transmitted?

Ways of transmission:

  1. The spread of Staphylococcus aureus most often occurs
    through contaminated hands.
  2. Healthy skin and mucous membranes are an effective barrier against
    infections. However, if these barriers are broken (skin damage
    due to injury or mucous membrane due to viral infection), access
    infection opens to the underlying tissues and bloodstream, which causes
    disease.
  3. Immunocompromised or Invasive Medical People
    devices are particularly vulnerable.

The spectrum of diseases caused by a bacterium affects its
variety:

  • Skin infections – carbuncles, furuncles, cellulitis, folliculitis,
    bullous impetigo.
  • Respiratory tract infections – pneumonia, tonsillitis.
  • Infections of the central nervous system – meningitis, abscess
    brain thrombophlebitis superficial veins of the brain
    the brain.
  • Urinary tract infections – cystitis, urethritis.
  • Infections of bones, joints, muscular system – osteomyelitis,
    purulent arthritis, purulent myositis.

One of their negative features of Staphylococcus aureus
is its resistance to treatment with many antibiotics, including
the number of penicillin. For this reason, it causes serious
вспышки внутрибольничной infections.

Symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus

Specific clinical manifestations of staph infection
depend on the place of introduction of the microorganism and the degree of reduction
immunity in the patient. For example, some people have an infection.
ends with a simple boil, and in weakened patients –
abscess and phlegmon, etc.

Staphylococcus aureus

Common symptoms characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus
adults:

  • fast fatiguability;
  • general weakness;
  • lack of appetite;
  • aches in bones and joints;
  • nausea and gagging;
  • fever.

These are common signs of infection by harmful bacteria. AT
depending on the strength of immunity and the resistance of body systems,
this list may be supplemented by other symptoms, more
specifically indicating the type of disease.

Поражение кожных покровов

Infections the skin is characterized by a rash on the skin,
the appearance of bubbles with purulent contents, crusts, redness,
seals.

ENT and eye infections

Getting on the mucous epithelium of the throat or nose, staphylococcal
the infection provokes the occurrence of angina, otitis, sinusitis and other
inflammatory pathologies of upper respiratory tract or upper respiratory
ways.

With the defeat of Staphylococcus aureus light develops
staphylococcal pneumonia, characterized by the appearance of shortness of breath and
chest pain, severe intoxication of the body and the formation of
lung tissues of many purulent formations, gradually
transforming into abscesses. In case of abscess breakthrough into pleural
the cavity develops suppuration of the pleura (empyema).

With the defeat of the eye mucosa conjunctivitis develops
(photophobia, tearing, eyelid edema, purulent discharge from
eye).

CNS defeat

If Staphylococcus aureus enters the brain, it is large.
вероятность развития менингита или абсцесса the brain. Have
children, these pathologies are extremely difficult and not uncommon
lethal outcome. Typical symptoms:

  • intoxication syndrome;
  • hyperthermia;
  • severe vomiting;
  • meningeal symptoms are positive;
  • rash appears on the skin.

Staphylococcus aureus affects the urogenital system

Urinary tract infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus
characterized by:

  • urinary disorder (increased frequency, soreness),
  • small fever (sometimes it may be absent)
  • the presence of pus, blood impurities and the detection of golden
    staphylococcus with general and bacteriological examination
    urine.

Without treatment, Staphylococcus is able to infect the surrounding tissue.
(prostate gland, pararenal tissue) and
вызывать пиелонефрит или формировать абсцессы почек.

The defeat of the musculoskeletal system

This pathogen is the leading cause of purulent
lesions of the musculoskeletal system (osteomyelitis and arthritis).
Such pathological conditions develop more frequently in adolescents. Have
Adult staphylococcal arthritis is often formed on the background
existing rheumatism or after prosthetic joints.

Foodborne Disease Infection

Developed by eating contaminated or spoiled food and
proceeds with symptoms of acute enterocolitis. Characteristic increase
temperature, nausea, vomiting up to 10 times or more per day, loose stools
with a touch of green.

Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous kind of bacteria that causes
many infections with a weakened immune system of the patient. With
detecting the first common symptoms (lethargy, nausea, lack of
appetite) urgently need to consult a doctor.

Diagnostics

анализы на золотистый стафилококк

With появлении признаков воспаления в каком-либо органе нужно
contact the appropriate specialist. if by yourself
it’s hard to determine what is affected in the body, refer to
general practitioner or pediatrician. After diagnosis, the patient may be
sent to a specialized specialist:

  • the surgeon (with abscesses of the internal organs),
  • dermatologist (for skin lesions),
  • cardiologist, pulmonologist, traumatologist, rheumatologist,
    ophthalmologist, neurologist, dentist.

The standard diagnostic plan includes the following methods:

  • latex agglutination;
  • standard coagulase test in vitro;
  • clinical and biochemical blood test;
  • seeding biological material;
  • a smear from the eyelid with suspected conjunctivitis;
  • Vidal agglutination reaction.

Depending on the type and location of staphylococcal localization
infections as biological material are used:

  • mucosal discharge (most often in the nasopharynx);
  • sputum;
  • wound contents (pus and inflammatory exudate);
  • blood (for sepsis);
  • urine;
  • feces;
  • bile;
  • liquor

On nutrient media, Staphylococcus aureus forms smooth
convex turbid colonies with a diameter of about 4–5 mm. Such colonies
painted in different shades of yellow, which causes
name of the pathogen.

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus

The main point in the treatment of staphylococcal infection is
antibacterial therapy with drugs to which it is sensitive
pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the few
microorganisms with a high ability to produce
antibiotic resistance.

Especially dangerous are microorganisms that “live” in medical
institutions. They in their lives met with a lot of drugs and
disinfectants so pick up really
effective treatment for hospital staphylococcal infections
doctors are very hard.

Withем антибиотиков

Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by increased resistance
to many antibacterial drugs. For this reason, antibiotics,
exhibiting activity against this microorganism,
used only in the treatment of complicated, life-threatening forms
diseases.

Such an approach to therapy avoids the formation of
resistance of certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus to
used antibacterial agents.

Severe staphylococcal infections require administration
parenteral (injection) antibiotics, of which preference
given to:

  • protected penicillins (Nafcillin,
    Ampicillin + Sulbactam);
  • cephalosporins first or second generation (cephalexin,
    Cefuroxime, Cefazolin) in combination with Clindamycin.

For resistant MRSA strains, Vancomycin is reserved;
prescribed if the infection is risky for life.

Immunostimulation

  1. Autohemotransfusion – intramuscular injection to the patient
    own venous blood. This procedure is widely used for
    treatment of furunculosis.
  2. Subcutaneous or intramuscular administration of anti-staphylococcal
    antitoxic serum or intravenous
    antistaphylococcal plasma.
  3. Herbal Immunostimulants – Lemongrass, Echinacea,
    �Eleutherococcus, Ginseng, Chitosan. These drugs normalize
    energy and basic metabolism, have adaptogenic
    action – help cope with stress and stress.
  4. Patients with pronounced signs of immune dysfunction are indicated.
    synthetic immunomodulators – Polyoxidonium, Ismigen,
    �”Timogen”, “Amiksin”.

The prognosis depends on the localization of the pathological focus
staph infection, disease severity and effectiveness
treatment.

With легких поражениях кожных покровов и слизистых оболочек
the prognosis is almost always favorable. With развитии бактериемии
with a lesion of the internal organs, the prognosis deteriorates sharply, since
in more than half the cases, these conditions end in death
the outcome

Prevention

The main measures of personal prevention:

  • personal hygiene (clean hands, wet cleaning at least 2
    times a week, properly cooked food);
  • timely treatment of infectious diseases – dental caries,
    чирьев, ангин, воспалений аденоидов и миндалин, уретрита и
    other;
  • avoiding crowded places in peak respiratory
    diseases;
  • refusal to use dairy, meat and pastry shops
    improperly stored food, especially in hot
    time;
  • immediate treatment of skin wounds with antiseptics, application
    on them bandages or plaster;
  • refusal to visit beauty salons and dental
    outpatient clinics
    disinfecting medical instruments.

With возникновении любых высыпаний на коже, а также плохого
feel free to consult
a specialist. Staphylococcus aureus has serious consequences for
organism and to avoid them, you need competent treatment assigned
a doctor.

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