Sphenoiditis – what it is, causes, symptoms inadults, treatment of acute and chronic forms

Сфеноидитом называется острое или хроническое воспаление
mucous basis of the sphenoid paranasal sinus. Is an
most dangerous inflammation when compared with the consequences
воспаления других придаточных пазух носа. Sphenoid sinuses
are found at the base of the skull, and purulent inflammation is extremely
progresses rapidly and causes severe complications. From the article
the reader will learn about the causes, symptoms and treatment of sphenoiditis in
adults, both acute and chronic forms.

What is sphenoiditis?

Сфеноидит (лат. sphenoiditis) — это воспалительное
disease of the mucous membrane of the sphenoid sinus, the cause
which is most often an infection spreading from the back
cells lattice labyrinth. Compared to other species
inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, sphenoiditis is rarely diagnosed, but
most often turns into a dangerous chronic form. Incidence
does not correlate with living in a particular region.

The sphenoid sinus is located deep in the nasal cavity along the
both sides of the nasal septum. This cavity is completely
filled with air. Next to her are vital
formations – base of the skull, pituitary, carotid arteries, ophthalmic
nerves.

The mechanism of development of chenoiditis is that penetrated into
paranasal sinus infection destroys epithelial cells, which is what
lead to the appearance of an inflammatory process on the mucous membrane
shell.

As a result of the fact that the natural excretory duct narrows,
reduced air exchange and, as a consequence, the inflammatory process
is progressing. Как и при фронтите патологический процесс
leads to swelling of the mucous membrane, as well as the difficulty of excretion
inflammatory exudate.

Types of disease

Классификация сфеноидита по этиологии выделяет
бактериальную, вирусную и грибковую формы. По степени
тяжести — легкую, среднетяжелую и тяжелую формы
sphenoiditis.

By localization:

  • Left side
  • Right sided
  • Bilateral

According to the form:

  • Exudative: catarrhal and purulent;
  • Productive: polypous, cystic, and
    parietal hyperplastic.

According to etiology:

  • Traumatic
  • Viral
  • Bacterial
  • Fungal
  • Mixed

The reasons

The cause of sphenoiditis is acute or chronic inflammation.
mucous membrane of the sphenoid (sphenoid) sinus caused by
infectious agent.

Common causes of constriction of the natural excretory duct
are:

  • the anatomical narrowness of the sphenoid sinus and its small
    the size;
  • congenital malformations of the nasal cavity (curvature,
    additional partitions, absence or overgrowing
    ducts);
  • congenital or acquired (with injury) curvature of the back
    parts of the nasal septum;
  • lesions in the sphenoid sinus (cysts, polyps,
    malignant tumors);
  • mass nasopharynx formations in close proximity to
    anastomosis of the sphenoid sinus (cysts, polyps, malignant
    tumors;);
  • foreign bodies that fall into the fistula of the sphenoid sinus
    with a sharp breath.

In men and women, the disease manifests itself in the same way.
reasons.

Sphenoiditis may not always develop as a primary disease,
and manifested in the form of complications of such ills:

  • flu;
  • scarlet fever;
  • angina;
  • rhinitis.

It is worth noting that in itself an infectious agent that has penetrated into
sphenoid sinus, does not play a decisive role in the occurrence of the disease.
There must be a so-called trigger or provocative
factor that will serve as an “impetus” to the development of the disease.

Symptoms of sphenoiditis in adults

Протекание сфеноидита

Сфеноидит практически не имеет каких-либо «оригинальных»
symptoms, so the diagnosis of this disease is enough
complicated. Most often, patients may be disturbed by the following
symptoms:

  • headache;
  • asthenovegetative manifestations;
  • pathological discharge;
  • нарушение зрения и обоняния.
  • lesion of cranial nerves.

Strengthen them can such circumstances:

  • sun exposure;
  • too warm air (heat and dryness) in the room;
  • heavy movements (bends, jumps).

Чаще всего сфеноидит сопровождается этмоидитом, при этом
there is a combination of symptoms.

However, the combination of all these symptoms is very
seldom. Often a patient has a long time.
or two signs. For example, a person is long, sometimes for months,
experiencing a constant headache in the back of the head.

Conventional headache medications do not bring relief.
the patient turns to therapists, neurologists, psychotherapists, to him
treatment of osteochondrosis of the cervical spine is prescribed, astheno –
neurotic syndrome and other diseases that are surely
are after consultation with these specialists.

Acute sphenoiditis

Острая форма сфеноидита, возникающая как осложнение после
previous respiratory diseases, ARVI, flu. Patient in
этом случае жалуется на следующие symptoms:

  • temperature rise,
  • general weakness
  • headaches,
  • nasal discharge.

Лечится острый сфеноидит консервативными
by methods. If after the spread of the inflammatory process
из околоносовых пазух не было проведено adequate
терапии, острая фаза болезни переходит в хроническую.

loading...

Symptoms of the chronic form

The reason for going to the doctor for chronic sphenoiditis is often
There is a progressive deterioration in vision, which the ophthalmologists do not
can give explanations. Symptoms of nasal disease are pronounced.
weak, marginal or absent.

The chronic phase of the disease is dangerous spontaneous development
осложнений в результате обострения инфекции и образования
purulent exudate. The defeat of the brain when massive
infection manifests characteristic neurological symptoms.
Repeated exacerbations of the chronic form of the disease also result
к различным жизнеугрожающим осложнениям, как правило,
на фоне деструктивно-дегенеративных поражениях костей.

Implications for the body

Since the sphenoid sinus is located near many
vital structures, its inflammation can lead to
serious complications. Последствиями сфеноидита are:

  • lesion of cranial nerves, including optic
    cross;
  • the spread of infection in the cranial cavity;
  • the spread of infection to other sinuses;
  • infection of the orbital cavity.

The prognosis of sphenoiditis is favorable when it is started in time.
adequate treatment in the absence of complications, their early
revealing.

Diagnostics

When the symptoms described in our article,
consult an otorhinolaryngologist. Additionally involved in the treatment
physiotherapist. With the development of complications need the help of a neurologist,
ophthalmologist.

Лечить сфеноидит следует под контролем врача. Timely
and competent approach will help to cure the disease in a short time, avoiding
serious complications!

When collecting the history complains of frequent, intense
headaches, гнойные выделения, стекающие в носоглотку, нарушения
view. Diagnostics сфеноидита вызывает затруднения из-за
anatomical features of the location of the sphenoid sinus.

  • Лабораторные исследования: анализы мочи, кала
    not informative;
  • fluoroscopy is applied, the accuracy of the results
    low;
  • надёжным способом исследования является компьютерная
    tomography;
  • quite informative research results
    аппаратом магнитно-резонансной терапии, точность результатов
    is high.

If timely conduct a diagnosis and
знать, как лечить сфеноидит, можно быстро
eliminate the inflammatory process.

Sphenoiditis treatment

The goal of treating acute and chronic sphenoiditis is
normalization of cavity aeration, recovery of purulent outflow
detachable.

Sphenoiditis treatment у взрослых направлено на:

  • decrease puffiness;
  • removal of purulent secretion from the sphenoid sinus;
  • the destruction of the infection;
  • restoration of normal wedge functionality
    sine

What drugs are used:

  • To reduce swelling, facilitate the outflow of fluid
    используются сосудосуживающие препараты: виброцил,
    Xylometazoline, galazolin;
  • broad-spectrum antibiotics: amoxicillin,
    roxithromycin, cefoxime;
  • antibiotics directional: cefaxone,
    clarithromycin;
  • immunomodulators.

Acute sphenoiditis по своей сути заболевание вторичное. is he
develops on the background of transferred or current respiratory
diseases and sore throats. Immediate cause – the infection gets into
this sinus is from the nasopharynx, oropharynx, other sinuses. During the transition
acute sphenoiditis in chronic stage, the patient is prescribed
symptomatic treatment and washing of the nasopharynx with warm
salt solution. The procedure is performed independently.
Dolphin, Rinolife, Aquamaris.

During therapy, nasal washing is necessary.
cavities. For these purposes they use medicinal decoctions of such herbs,
as field horsetail, willow herb, chamomile, wild rosemary.

As a rule, sphenoid sinusitis occurs on the background
weakened immunity, which is why drug therapy
should include means to strengthen the protective forces in
particular multivitamins.

After eliminating acute inflammatory reactions, the patient may
Recommended physiotherapeutic procedures:

  • electrophoresis;
  • tonic massage;
  • galvanotherapy;
  • balneotherapy;
  • acupuncture;
  • reflexology;
  • laser treatment, etc.

The acute stage of the disease is easily treatable, but with
lack of timely qualified medical care may
lead to the development of severe complications.

If symptoms are mild and there are no signs of complications –
conservative therapy is carried out. If the inflammation is severe and
there are symptoms of complications, or conservative therapy does not bring
успеха – решается роль о проведении
хирургической операции.

Operation

Operation при сфеноидите – это крайняя мера. The specialists
resort to surgical intervention with inefficiency
conservative methods of treatment and to avoid the development of serious
complications. By decision of the doctor, either general anesthesia is used, or
local anesthesia.

The patient’s bone is opened in the ethmoid labyrinth and injected
endoscope in the sphenoid sinus. This unit allows you to accurately
consider where the polyp was formed, cyst grew, what changes
occur in the mucous and hold accurate surgical
manipulations. Upon completion, the patient is administered the necessary
medications and prescribe further treatment.

Nutrition

For all types of sphenoiditis, it is important to exclude from the menu dishes and
drinks that dry up the mucous membrane in the nose since this
almost always worsens the condition. To such products
include:

  • beer;
  • any alcohol;
  • Coca-Cola;
  • coffee;
  • spicy and salty foods.

The diet should include foods that are rich.
vitamins, proteins, minerals, lactobacilli. 

Prevention

Prevention сфеноидита у взрослых, как и других видов синусита
includes the following recommendations:

  • Do not leave no chance for infectious diseases
    – ОРВИ, ОРЗ, грипп, корь и другие;
  • Исправить при наличии анатомические дефекты синусов —
    curvature of the nasal septum, atresia and other pathologies;
  • Strengthen your immune system;
  • Старайтесь питаться пищей, обогащенной витаминами и
    trace elements;
  • Избегайте переохлаждения организма;
  • Try to move more, lead an active lifestyle.

Sphenoiditis is an infectious disease.
origin. It is necessary to treat it without fail.
after the first signs were discovered.

Take care of your health and be happy!

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: