Sinusitis – what it is, types, causes,signs, symptoms and treatment of sinusitis in adults

Синусит – это инфекционно-воспалительный процесс,
затрагивающий слизистую оболочку околоносовых sinuses Often in
the time of the disease affects the maxillary sinus, however
There are cases when the process moves to the ethmoid, frontal
or wedge-shaped zone. Treatment requires a comprehensive, while
Used drugs for sinusitis, both systemic and local
actions.

In this article we consider the main causes of the disease, which
symptoms are characteristic for adults as well as the correct treatment for
rapid recovery of the body at home.

What is sinusitis?

синуситы

Синусит (лат. Sinusitis) – это воспалительное
disease of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses
(sine). The disease is diagnosed in 0.02% of adults.
population. The main symptoms are heaviness in the paranasal or
frontal region, pain during sharp head movements, thick discharge
from the nose, fever. Sinusitis in adults can
also manifest by coughing, nasal congestion, difficulty breathing
and sore throat.

TOод заболевания по МTOБ:

  • МTOБ-10: J01, J32
  • МTOБ-9: 461, 473

With sinusitis, the patient’s voice becomes nasal. Problems with
nasal respiration is aggravated and result in nasal obstruction
breathing. In patients with sinusitis, there are abundant
secretory-mucous discharge from nasal passages.

TOлассификация и виды заболевания

There are different types of sinusitis, differing among themselves in
localization of the pathological process, the course of the disease, and
origin of the disease. Despite the fact that
classification of pathological processes in the paranasal sinuses
quite extensive, the symptoms of various sinusitis are very similar.

В зависимости от этиологического фактора, принята следующая
sinusitis classification:

  • Traumatic (formed due to injuries
    nose)
  • Viral (developing after exposure to virulent
    infections)
  • Bacterial (formed under the influence of bacterial
    infectious agents)
  • Fungal (developing due to contact with mucous membranes
    shell mushrooms)
  • Mixed (result of simultaneous infection with several
    microorganisms)
  • Allergic (developing as a result of constant
    inflammatory process in nasal sinuses)

By the nature of the flow:

  • острый синусит — заболевание длиться не более 8
    weeks;
  • хронический синусит — длительное течение, а также частые
    recurrence of the disease.

By localization:

  • Sinusitis (синусит верхнечелюстной пазухи) —
    inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary adnexal
    sinuses;
  • Ринит (насморк) — воспаление носовой полости;
  • Sphenoiditis — воспаление слизистой оболочки клиновидной
    sinuses;
  • Frontline — это воспаление лобной пазухи. Disease can
    be unilateral or bilateral;
  • Etmoiditis (ethmoid sinusitis) is an inflammation of the mucous
    оболочки ячеек lattice bones. The disease has a bacterial or
    viral nature.

Depending on the nature of the inflammation, there are three forms
sinusitis:

  • edema-catarrhal Only mucous membrane is affected.
    параназальных sinuses The process is accompanied by a selection
    серозного отделяемого;
  • purulent. Inflammation spreads to the deeper layers of the tissue.
    придаточных sinuses The discharge acquires a purulent character;
  • mixed There are signs of edema-catarrhal and purulent
    sinusitis.

Depending on the prevalence of the process, sinusitis can be:

  • unilateral – can be right-handed or
    left side;
  • bilateral – simultaneous defeat of paired sinuses from two
    sides of the nose;
  • polysinusitis – an inflammatory process of several accessory
    cavities;
  • monosinusitis is a lesion of the mucous membrane of one sinus;
  • hemisinusitis – simultaneous involvement in the process of all
    okolonosovy cavities located on one half of the face;
  • pansinusitis is the most severe form of the disease, characterized by
    defeat of all sinuses.

The reasons

The cause of the inflammation of the paranasal sinuses is a viral infection.
The virus, penetrating the mucous membrane, causes swelling, and
increased secretion of mucous glands and desquamation
epithelium.

The result is a blockage of natural fistula.
paranasal sinuses of edematous mucous membrane and pathological
a secret. In this case, the opposite edges of the fistulas are in contact between
itself, making it difficult to transport the secret of the sinuses. If this
regular drainage is disturbed, favorable conditions are created for
развития sinusitis.

The leading role in the development of sinusitis is given to:

  • Pfeiffer (Haemophilus influenzae) and pneumococcus
    (Streptococcus pneumoniae), which are the causative agents of the disease
    more than 50% of cases.
  • Hemolytic Streptococcus (Streptococcus
    pyogenes), moraxella catarrhalis, staphylococcus
    golden (Staphylococcus aureus), various viruses, fungi and
    anaerobes

Often sinusitis is caused by complications.
infectious and inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity (influenza, acute respiratory infections,
Rhinorrhea, SARS).

  1. Viruses. Viruses cause 90 – 98% of cases of acute
     sinusitis. Most people with colds  is found
     воспаление sinuses These inflammations are usually brief and
    слабо выражены, и  лишь у очень немногих заболевших простудой
    true sinusitis develops.
  2. Bacteria. A small percentage of cases are acute and possibly
    chronic sinusitis caused by bacteria. Bacteria usually
    are present in the nasal passages and in the throat and, as a rule,
    harmless. Однако на холоде или при  вирусной инфекции верхних
    дыхательных  происходит блокировка  носовых проходов,
    violation of the natural cleansing of the paranasal sinuses and stagnation
    секрета внутри синусов,  что дает благодатную почву для
    reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
  3. Fungi. It is very important to monitor the microflora in the rooms,
    because under certain conditions (lack of airing,
    high humidity and temperature) the fungus can settle in
    paranasal sinuses, and when complications provoke the development
    mycotic infection. Aspergillus (aspergillus) is the most
    common fungus associated with sinusitis.

Risk factors for sinusitis

The development of infection in the sinuses, regardless of the type of microorganism,
provokes a violation of the outflow of mucus from the sinuses into the nasal cavity,
What factors contribute to:

  • flu, cold;
  • dental infections;
  • allergic rhinitis;
  • cystic fibrosis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • sarcondoses;
  • immunodeficiency;
  • respiratory tumors;
  • pregnancy;
  • smoking.

Symptoms of sinusitis in adults (photo)

Exposure to fungus, viral or allergic factor
lead to swelling of the cavity, which causes difficulty
breathing. If you do not make a diagnosis in time and do not start
to treat sinusitis, the situation threatens with the development of sphenoiditis and other
complicated forms.

In adults, at the beginning of the disease, nasal discharge is serous.
nature, as inflammation develops, they transform into
mucous-serous. Purulent exudate, which includes
determined by the large number of detritus and leukocytes, there is
when attaching an infection of bacterial nature. Wherein
severe swelling is accompanied by a violation of the permeability of the walls
capillaries.

Among other symptoms of sinusitis, note:

  • some pain or pressure in the face (in the eyes, cheeks,
    nose and frontal part);
  • violation of smell;
  • high and high temperature;
  • sore throat;
  • increased fatigue and general fatigue;
  • cough, especially at night;
  • bad breath;
  • dizziness;
  • headache;
  • toothache;
  • hyperemia.

Acute sinusitis

The acute form of sinusitis provokes the occurrence of headache,
лихорадки и слабости во всем теле. These symptoms, of course,
can accompany a lot of diseases, so to diagnose
нужно ориентироваться на специфические проявления
diseases.

Specific features:

  • difficulty breathing through the nose;
  • гнойный экссудат, выделяемый из полости носа;
  • disruption of the organs of smell.

Acute sinusitis, и вирусный и бактериальный, может продлиться 8
weeks and longer.

Chronic sinusitis

In some cases, chronic inflammatory
the process by which patients notice the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty breathing through the nose, nasal congestion, periodically
    appearing crusts in the nose;
  • A small amount of mucous / purulent exudate, with purulent
    process fetid odor from the mouth;
  • Dry throat, headache, irritability.

Sinusitis is considered chronic if the inflammation lasts more than 3
months.

Based on the type of disease, the symptoms will vary (see
table)

 Sinusitis Symptoms in adults
Sinusitis Sinusitis – острая вирусная инфекция. Consequences – inflammation
paranasal sinuses and purulent accumulations in them. Develops on the background
pathological processes in the oral cavity, nasopharynx,
infectious diseases, problems with the upper teeth. Symptoms:

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  • headache;
  • persistent discharge of mucus from the nasal cavity;
  • persistent runny nose with clear or yellow green
    fluid;
  • labored breathing;
  • localization of pain in the nose and in the paranasal region of the face;
  • lack of smell;
  • discomfort and constant indisposition;
  • weakness;
  • refusal of food;
  • sleep disturbance.
Frontline  Frontline – это инфекционно-воспалительный процесс,
localized in the frontal sinuses. Основные признаки:

  • головные боли (возможны также боли при прикосновении ко
    forehead)
  • чувство давления над глазами,
  • violation of smell,
  • кашель, усиливающийся ночью,
  • malaise, fatigue, weakness,
  • повышенная температура,
  • sore throat,
  • unpleasant or sour bad breath.
Sphenoiditis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the sphenoid sinus is called
sphenoiditis. The main symptom is intense headache.
occipital pain radiating to the eye socket, temple. Pain is caused
congestion in the sphenoid sinus of purulent contents.
Ethmoidal sinusitis A sinusitis that inflames the cells of the ethmoid labyrinth,
называется этмоидитом. Условно ячейки lattice пазухи
divided into front, middle and rear, therefore, sometimes distinguish
передний и задний этмоидит. The main symptom of acute
ethmoiditis:

  • headache,
  • pain in the root of the nose and nose.

Preferential localization of pain at the root of the nose and internal
the edges of the orbit is characteristic of lesions of the posterior cells lattice
bones.

Sinusitis has various symptoms depending on location.
inflammation, and treatment in adults will depend on the form and stage
diseases.

Complications for the body

Sinusitis affects the skeletal system, ears and eyes, nervous and
circulatory system, therefore complications are also:

  • Osteomyelitis
  • Otitis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Optic neuritis
  • Sinus thrombophlebitis
  • Thrombosis of the vessels of the head
  • Periostitis of the orbit
  • Phlegmon orbit

Given all this, timely
treatment under the supervision of a qualified ENT doctor.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis of sinusitis is set on the basis of a characteristic
clinical picture, physical examination and additional data
research. In the process of diagnosis is used:

  • рентгенография околоносовых пазух в двух проекциях,
  • ultrasound procedure,
  • ядерно-магнитный резонанс и TOТ околоносовых
    sinuses

According to indications to exclude complications
проводится TOТ или МРТ головного мозга.

Symptoms of violations in the work of ENT organs can not be left without
attention.

Sinusitis treatment

Independently decide how to treat
sinusitis should not be. Therapy for this disease is in
competence otolaryngologist. The sooner the inflammation
diagnosed, the more effective the treatment will be. With mild sinusitis
and the moderately severe patient does not need hospitalization,
therapeutic activities are conducted on an outpatient basis under the supervision of
otorhinolaryngologist.

To the main methods of conservative treatment of sinusitis in adults
include the following methods:

  1. Antibacterial. Properly selected antibiotics guarantee
    90% success rate.
  2. Antihistamines. When the problem is caused by an allergic
    factor, such drugs are required for use.
  3. Immunostimulants. If sinusitis was caused by ARVI, then medication
    Required to use.
  4. Drops. They remove puffiness, make it easier to breathe.
  5. Solutions for washing. Created on the basis of sea salt that
    pulling mucus out.
  6. �”Cuckoo”. The procedure will qualitatively and quickly clean the sinuses without
    surgical intervention.

Antibacterial drugs

For the treatment of sinusitis antibiotics are used in such groups:

  • Penicillin series – Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Augmentin,
    Ampioks.
  • Macrolide group – Roxithromycin.
  • Cephalosporins – Cefuroxime, Kefzol, Ceftibuten,
    Cephalexin.
  • Fluoroquinolone group – Levofloks, Sparfloxacin,
    Moxifloxacin.
  • Topical antibiotics may also be used. TO
    These include Fuzofungin, Bioparox.

Depending on the intensity of the inflammatory process, they
can be administered orally (tablets, capsules) or parenterally
(intravenous or intramuscular administration).

Local antibiotics:

  • Gentamicin
  • Bioparox
  • Isofra
  • Tobramycin
  • Streptomycin
  • Dioxidine.

TO сожалению, из-за чрезмерного и неправильного применения
antibiotics, many types of bacteria do not respond to treatment
antibiotics, becoming “resistant” to these drugs.

Antihistamines

Антигистаминные препараты при синусите назначаются для
eliminate allergic manifestations, relieve puffiness and
nasal congestion. Most commonly prescribed:

  • Loratadine
  • Aleron
  • Tsetrin,
  • Zyrtec
  • Desloratadine,
  • TOларитин,
  • TOларисенс,
  • Zenerite.

Anti-inflammatory drugs for adults

TOомплексное лечение синусита в домашних условиях подразумевает
anti-inflammatory medication
(Erispal) and sulfonamides (Sulfadimethoxine, Biseptol). Also
The doctor may prescribe synupret. This is a combination drug on
plant-based, performs anti-inflammatory and
anti-edematous function, enhances the secretion of mucus, contributes to
regeneration of mucous membranes, restoring their protective
quality.

TOапли в нос

TOапли от синусита имеют множество преимуществ в сравнении с
tablets. First, they act locally, and therefore very quickly –
relief is felt within minutes. In the blood enters
only a small part of the active components of the drug. Which means that
the likelihood of side effects is much lower. For
relieving nasal congestion, to reduce mucosal edema, possibly
use of vasoconstrictor drops:

  • TOсилометазолин (Отривин, TOсимелин, Галазолин),
  • Oxymetazoline (Nazol, Nazivin),
  • Naphazoline (Naphthyzinum, Sanorin).

It is also possible to use drops with the addition of essential oils:
Pinosol, Sinupret, Sinuforte.

Rinsing the nose with sinusitis

With uncomplicated sinusitis, an effective procedure such as
rinsing the nose. For этого можно использовать как специальные
ready-made solutions (Salin, Aquamaris, Aqualor, Dolphin), and the usual
saline.

At home, washing is often used. Important to do
it is right.

Washing Rules:

  1. Bend over the sink at right angles. Take a deep breath
    hold the breath.
  2. Tank with washing solution tightly attached to
    nostril.
  3. Slowly tilt the medicine bottle – the liquid should
    flow from the opposite nostril. TOаждая ноздря промывается
    alternately.
  4. After the procedure, you need to blow your nose well to
    remove excess solution.

Inhalation

You can breathe over the solutions of different products and products in hot
water. For ингаляций в домашних условиях используются обычно отвары
and infusions of herbs and plants. Chamomile, eucalyptus, thyme,
sage, tutsan – all these herbs are bactericidal,
anti-inflammatory, mucolytic action. They can
use both individually and as part of fees for
inhalation with sinusitis.

Physiotherapy

A great way to speed up the healing process will be
carrying out physiotherapeutic procedures. TO ним относятся:

  • Electrophoresis;
  • UHF;
  • Currents;
  • UFO and many others.

These procedures can speed up the metabolism in the affected
areas of the body, normalize protective processes and strengthen
effect of the drugs taken.

TOак лечить синусит народными средствами

Sinusitis treatment при помощи народных средств в домашних условиях
helps in many cases to avoid the use of antibiotics.

  1. Radish Crush one black radish and squeeze the juice.
    Mix equal quantities of vegetable oil and root juice.
    Soak the pieces of tissue in liquid and apply to the nasal and
    лобных sinuses All this warm with a towel, previously covered
    cellophane.
  2. Garlic spirit. A kind of “dry” inhalation, which
    perfectly helps in the early stages of viral or infectious
    sinusitis. Need to take a few big teeth and quickly
    grind them in a mortar. Put in a glass or small jar
    and, plunging into her face, like a mask, breathe in the fumes of garlic
    A couple of minutes. On the mucous membranes of the nose, along with garlic juice will fall
    many phytoncides that are natural
    antibiotics.
  3. Aloe. You can treat sinusitis by burying your nose
    prepared from medicinal plants with antimicrobial
    свойствами: к алоэ или каланхоэ по 2 – 3 капли.
  4. Mix in equal proportions dried leaves of the following plants:
    брусника, черная смородина, рябина красная, крапива двудомная,
    common birch, 1 tbsp. l composition of steam in the teapot
    250 ml of boiling water, insist about half an hour, drink three times a day
    instead of tea, sweetened with natural bee honey.
  5. Steam inhalation with the addition of essential oils or extracts
    pine, eucalyptus, tea tree, mint (quite a few
    drops) – these funds clean and disinfect cavities in
    sinuses, and also relieve swelling of the mucous membranes.
  6. Teaspoon Hypericum pour a glass of boiling water. Cool down
    strain and use as washings for sinusitis.
  7. TOартофель. This is the old and proven method that was used.
    our grandmothers. Need to peel after peeling potatoes pour
    water and cook until tender. After that, drain the water, head
    Cover with a cloth and inhale warm vapors. Thanks to a warm pair of mucus
    in the sinuses becomes fluid and better output.

There are types of sinusitis, in which treatment of folk
means categorically contraindicated. Therefore, before
use consult with the doctor.

Prevention

To prevent a disease like sinusitis, it is worth
adhere to the following rules and recommendations:

  • try to spend more time on the air, be well ventilated
    room before bed or leave the window open at night, and
    do gymnastics in the morning, and then proceed to
    water procedures.
  • avoidance of moderate to severe colds infectious
    diseases;
  • elimination of anatomical anomalies of the nasal;
  • prevention and rehabilitation of the oral cavity,
    недопущение пародонтозов;
  • prevention of injuries and contusions of the face and nose;
  • stopping smoking and drinking too much alcohol;
  • airing and wet cleaning;
  • compliance with the rules and mode of operation
    productions;
  • lack of contact with substances causing allergic
    reaction;
  • general complex of recreational activities and hardening
    organism;
  • minimizing the factors of hitting a large number
    fluid in the nose when swimming and diving in reservoirs.

Sinusitis is insidious because any catarrhal disease can
cause aggravation. The proximity of the sinuses to the brain and eyes creates danger
spread of infection to these organs, which is fraught with severe
complications.

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