Appendicitis may develop in
any person at any age. This is a common pathology,
which can be overcome only by operation. Without
qualified treatment occurs rupture of the inflamed organ,
что вызывает перитонит и может привести к гибели the patient. By this
the reason it is important to know the main signs of appendicitis so that in time
suspect the disease.
Causes of pathology
The appendix is a small process of the cecum. He always
located in the right side of the abdomen, but in the area of the peritoneum may
Doctors identify the following causes of inflammation of this
process blockage with subsequent activation of pathogenic microflora in
intestines. The appendix can be blocked with feces.
lymphoid follicles, various foreign bodies, tumors and
- There is evidence that appendicitis is more common.
develops in people suffering from stool retention
a long time. Because of this, fecal stones are formed.
- Pathology often develops in people whose diet is overloaded
animal proteins and does not contain enough
plant food. Without fiber derived from plants, movement
fecal masses difficult.
- According to vascular theory, appendicitis can be caused
According to many doctors, ailment can be provoked by some
pathogenic bacteria. However, this information has not yet been
confirmed or disproved.
Due to the different localization of the organ relative to the peritoneum, symptoms
appendicitis in adults may be ambiguous. therefore
the final diagnosis is made only after full
Stages of development and types
Inflammation always occurs in the mucous membrane of the process and
spreads in all directions from the hearth. Illness passes
несколько стадий развития, что позволило врачам выделить
its several types:
- TOлассический или катаральный
appendicitis. Appears if there are favorable conditions for
activation of pathogenic bacteria. The initial inflammation is localized to
the surface of the mucous membrane of the appendix. In this
stage, the patient is unaware of the development of the disease. Within 12
hours pathology goes into superficial form.
- Флегмонозный appendicitis. It develops after the onset of destruction.
affected tissues. At the same time, inflammation not only captures the entire
organ, but extends to neighboring tissues. It is this
период появляются первые признаки pathology. TOакие симптомы при
appendicitis in adults will appear first, depending on the location
scion. More precisely, the location of pain depends on this factor.
Обычно она возникает в правой подвздошной areas. Duration
this stage averages 36 hours. She is редко вызывает
severe health effects.
- Gangrenous. It is a running stage.
inflammation and is characterized by the development of necrosis. Due to the withering away
tissues signs of pain in appendicitis are absent. This state
dangerous because a person calms down and can give up
appeals to doctors. Meanwhile, the disease will inevitably turn into
perforating stage. There is a rupture of the walls of the process and purulent
the contents enter the abdominal cavity. Patient feels sharp
pain and his condition worsens dramatically. No emergency treatment
man will perish.
There is also chronic appendicitis, but it is very common.
rarely and usually in young women. The inflammatory process carries
hidden in nature and develops slowly. Pain sensations
appear occasionally and may intensify after physical
loads and coughing.
Often with chronic inflammation of the appendix symptoms
have been chasing the patient for several years. In the period of exacerbation
you can resort to conservative treatment, including NSAIDs,
antibiotics and diet.
Inflammation of the appendix causes the first manifestations
appendicitis. The signs of pathology change as it develops and
amplified incrementally. The main symptom is pain. She is
varies depending on the stage of the disease and localization
is important in the diagnosis of the disease. Doctor first thing
tries to determine its duration, intensity, time
appearance and localization.
A clear location pain syndrome indicates that
The organ is located near the peritoneum. But with acute appendicitis
the patient is unable to clearly indicate the source of the problems. therefore врачи
pay attention to the place of the first occurrence of discomfort and
their further shift to the iliac region on the right side.
When appendicitis pain can occur when raising the right leg,
during the act of defecation, deep breath. If you put the patient on
its epicenter’s back will be in the right poddozhde. TOогда
the patient turns to the left side, then the source of unpleasant
sensations shifted towards the navel.
Sometimes pain can indicate a dangerous attack.
appendicitis. Signs of this – strong muscle tension belly with
прощупывании и значительное повышение лейкоцитов в анализе
blood. Together they point to peritonitis.
Depending on the location of the appendix, pain can
be away from the affected organ. For example, with pelvic
the localization of the appendix is marked by the irradiation of discomfort in
By the nature of the pain can be visceral and
somatic. In the first case, it occurs when a sharp tension
walls of a shoot and pulling out of intestinal ligaments. Second type of pain
caused by damage to the wall of the peritoneum.
Attacks at the appendix come in 2 waves. The first arises
due to the development of the inflammatory process. The second peak of pain is
at the beginning of peritonitis.
The attack usually lasts from a few hours to a couple of days. Then
unpleasant feelings pass, but the disease remains and progresses.
A day later, the pain returns with a new force, because
The inflammatory process involves the peritoneum. Peritonitis lasts
maximum 10 days and without treatment causes the death of the patient.
appendicitis is accompanied by vomiting. It is a reflex and accounts for
peak pain attacks. Patients begin to feel sick in the first hours.
developmental pathology. That is, to talk about the toxic nature of vomiting
don’t have to. If nausea rolls in waves, then it is, on the contrary,
speaks of a strong intoxication of the body and a serious threat to life
Appendicitis proceeds against the background of an increase in body temperature to
febrile values. This is an important symptom that allows
differentiate pathology from other diseases. For example, when
intestinal colic temperature is in the normal range or slightly
For accuracy of indications for appendicitis, the temperature should be
measure rectally. In the armpit on the left and on the right, it can
vary by 1 ° C.
Many patients have a bowel movement disorder at all.
stages of the disease. It’s about constipation, bloating, diarrhea.
or flatulence. Pelvic appendix location provokes frequent
stool with blood and mucus. If the appendix is next to
bladder, then there is a manifestation of dysuria.
Appendicitis in men, women and children
The representatives of the stronger sex
symptoms are almost the same. Usually boys and young people are sick
people under the age of 20 years. And they often have breaks
To determine the disease in men can be on such specific
featured as: spontaneous pulling up of the right testicle with
pressing on the abdomen in the area of the right hilt; pain in the scrotum with her
easy pull off.
Inflammation of the appendix in women most often develops in age
over 20 years old. In girls, the disease is rare. Sometimes they put
to the hospital with suspicion of this pathology, but more often it turns out that
soreness was associated with menses.
In pregnant women, the difficulty of diagnosing the disease
occurs on the 5th month of gestation. At this time uterus
begins to shift the intestinal loops. Because of this wormlike
the shoot goes closer to a liver. Symptoms appear
characteristic of inflammation of the biliary tract. Sometimes pain gives to the zone
right kidney. Due to the stress of the peritoneum due to the pressure of the uterus
palpation as a diagnostic technique becomes useless.
In pregnant women, appendicitis is determined by increased pain in the position.
lying on the right side. This means the uterus is pressing on the inflamed
scion. But the final diagnosis is better based on
results of instrumental diagnostics.
Have small children
the disease always develops acutely. If the child still can not
speak, then the doctor gently tries to bend the baby’s right leg in
knee. If a strong response appears in response, then it’s about
Sick children refuse to get up. They prefer less
move, as the discomfort intensifies with any change
Unlike adults, babies’ vomiting is a reaction to
intoxication, not pain. Moreover, it can be
a harbinger of unpleasant sensations in the ileum
Clinically, the disease in children is manifested by fever.
bodies up to 38–39 ° C, diarrhea and vomiting, lymph nodes increase
Due to the blurring of symptoms, appendicitis is not difficult to confuse with
other diseases. Here the main focus in the diagnosis
done on the localization of inflammation.
The diagnosis is made based on the results of the following
- Collecting history.
The patient is asked to tell about the nature of the pain, the timing of their
appearances. The disease often occurs suddenly, for example, after
hearty dinner. Sometimes it provokes oral infections.
- Inspection of the patient. The doctor palpates the abdomen in order to identify
Shchetkin-Blumberg, Bartome-Michelson reactions.
- Lab tests. Речь идет об анализах мочи и blood.
Persistent leukocytosis clearly indicates an acute appendicitis.
- Radiography of the abdomen. It allows you to identify specific
signs of pathology, detect fecal stones, air behind the peritoneum,
indicating the beginning of the destruction of the walls of the Appendix.
- Ultrasound is performed according to indications. This technique considered
preferred when examining children, pregnant women and
old people. On the screen of the device the doctor sees the change in shape
sore process and an increase in its size.
- CT scan. Такое исследование considered
clarifying. It allows us to distinguish appendicitis from other diseases.
It is often prescribed for complicated pathology, if there is a suspicion.
on a tumor or abscess.
- Laparoscopy. Today it is carried out with an endoscopic method. She is
can be used not only for diagnostics, but also for treatment. TO
procedure is resorted to in the following cases: the doctor can not deliver
accurate diagnosis; appendicitis symptoms are similar to signs of another
diseases; the patient has diabetes and cannot be long
watch; the patient is obese.
The diagnosis of acute appendicitis is a definite indication for
hospitalization of a person seeking help. Delay can
lead to sad consequences.
Treatment of the disease
Immediately after establishing
pathology of the patient is sent to the operating table. Than before
the operation will be carried out, the better. It depends on favorable
Exodus. According to doctors, the ideal option would be to
surgical intervention within 1 hour after establishing
Appendectomy is a simple operation. Doctor frees
appendix and removes it. The procedure is carried out open and
closed way. The first technique is most common because
it does not require special equipment. Intervention
passes under general anesthesia. In rare cases, resort to local
After surgery, the patient must lie down for 12 hours. He is not
give to eat and drink. If necessary, in the surgical field
drainage is installed to drain excess fluid from under the peritoneum
and administration of antibiotics. If complications do not arise, then from him
get rid of already on day 3. On the first day, the patient is given
The patient receives the first food on day 2. He is given a low-fat kefir
or cottage cheese. The patient is also raised to their feet. The more active he is
will be, the better will be the recovery. 10 day removed
After surgery, patients are prescribed
These medicines are very effective against most
pathogenic bacteria. Their use is justified in severe forms.
appendicitis. Folk remedies in the treatment of this pathology is not
apply because of their inefficiency.
The main danger of inflammation of the appendix lies in
possible complications. They are a serious health hazard.
person Therefore, it is very important to recognize pathology and
to carry out the operation in time.
At the present level of medicine, the prognosis is usually
positive. Complications may occur if the patient is found.
in old age, he has a large number of related
diseases or the disease is in an advanced stage.
TO самым опасным последствиям аппендицита
- Peritonitis. Purulent
the contents of the appendix enter the abdominal cavity due to rupture
walls. It causes numerous purulent abscesses and fistulas.
internal organs. Following sepsis begins, leading to death
the patient. The first signs of peritonitis are: severe pain and
dry mouth, fever. Even if a patient with peritonitis
will save, then he will still develop adhesive disease, fraught
- Appendicular infiltration. It’s about gluing
appendix with adjacent intestinal sections. Formed
dense conglomerate. The patient complains of minor pain and
a slight increase in temperature. Gradually, the body gets rid of
infiltrate. In place of the latter, an abscess appears. Give the patient
antibiotics and prescribe a special diet. Surgical is it
complication is not treated.
- Pylephlebitis This is a very dangerous condition, expressed in
inflammation of the main vessels of the liver, which causes bad
blood supply to the organ. TO сожалению, это осложнение очень часто
is the cause of death of patients.
The probability of death is greatly increased if the patients
come in critical condition with neglected disease. The people themselves
must take care of their safety. Immediately after the appearance
acute abdominal pain need to consult a doctor.
To protect yourself from this disease is impossible, because
Doctors are still not clear the reasons for its development. None
less there are a number of rules that reduce the likelihood of this
pathology. TO ним relate:
- Proper nutrition.
- Call for help with frequent constipation.
- Treatment of any inflammatory processes in the body.
- Getting rid of worms.
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle.
To be sure of your own safety, you need to regularly
be examined by specialized specialists. Maintenance
general body health significantly reduces the risk of inflammation
appendix of the cecum.