brain tissue can be caused by a number of reasons. Often
provoke such a state of ischemia of various origins and oxygen
fasting – hypoxia. They lead to the death of neurons. Other
causes are different pathologies and injuries. Encephalopathy –
brain disease syndrome accompanied by mild
disturbances and rather dangerous states.
Brain tissues are very dependent on oxygen transport along with
blood flow. If they do not receive adequate nutrition, the neurons do not
able to live more than 6 minutes. Nervous tissue pretty
susceptible to toxic components produced by viruses and
bacteria, or coming from the outside. Also diffuse lesion
нейронов бывает вызвано дисфункциями различных organs.
This condition is also called psychoorganic syndrome.
There are several types of them, depending on
the reasons for the mass death of brain neurons. Also
important are symptoms, changes in mental state
the patient. According to etiology, allocate the following
classification of the syndrome:
- Hypoxic. At the heart of this
state is a lack of oxygen or metabolic disorders in
brain nerve cells. Such encephalopathy may be
perinatal, arising in the generic process, asphyxia,
caused by suffocation, as well as post resuscitation, that is
due to resuscitation.
- Posttraumatic. Occurs immediately after injury
brain either as a result of long-term effects.
Examples include Marfan syndrome, encephalopathy of people employed
- Angioencephalopathy. This is a kind of psychoorganic
syndrome occurring on dyscirculatory type. Developing such
condition with cerebral ischemia due to atherosclerosis or
- Toxic. Occurs as a result of toxic poisoning.
substances. It can be chloroform, lead compounds, carbon monoxide
gas. Possible factors include drug use.
substances, alcoholic beverages and a number of drugs.
- Toxic metabolic. Develops with prolonged
the presence of toxic products in the body when disturbed
the process of their elimination, decay, and also if they are produced in
Есть и другие варианты течения syndrome Among them are as
basic and combined. Can highlight
- Apathetic. Accompanied by
weakness, asthenia, fatigue. When the syndrome
progresses, a person may experience euphoria, emotional
lability, reduced self-criticism, mental disorders
- Euphoric. Initially leads to an increase in mood,
decrease in the critical attitude to yourself, lack of inhibition and
any communication barriers.
- Explosive. Here there is affective lability, reduced
criticism, irritability, irritability and rudeness. Have
person narrows the range of interests, there are violations in adaptation
and the phenomena of sociopathy.
Focal form is accompanied by lesions of certain areas.
brain tissue. Depending on the timing of the first symptoms
classify the congenital forms that formed during
intrauterine development. They appear in the developmental defects of the CNS,
metabolic disorders. Another form is acquired,
when symptoms appear throughout a person’s life.
The most common options for brain dysfunction
encephalopathy and chronic ischemia are considered. Have пожилых людей
the syndrome can be observed on the background of hemorrhage in the brain tissue,
strokes, ischemic disease. There are specific forms.
For example, encephaloreconditioning occurs due to
lack of blood sugar. Disseminated encephalomyelitis is
a type of autoimmune disease.
Symptoms of pathology
Encephalopathy can manifest itself in the form of various symptoms.
Their specificity, as well as their intensity, depends on the localization zone.
tissue ischemia. If we are talking about subcortical areas, then
there are noises in the ears, mood swings, weakness, problems with
falling asleep. Ischemia in the cerebral cortex affects
thought processes. Symptoms vary by site.
damaged brain. Encephalopathic
syndrome in the early stages is accompanied by such
- a decrease in mental performance and psychological
- problems with changing activities;
- rigidity of thought processes;
- worsening sleep;
- problems with short-term memory.
At this stage there are complaints of headache, tinnitus,
feeling of weakness, fatigue and excessive excitability.
After an objective examination revealed pathological reflexes in
tendons, reduced visual acuity, problems with hearing, motor skills,
disorders of the autonomic system. As it gets worse
the condition caused by the underlying disease, the symptoms are progressing and
find expression in mental disorder.
Symptoms of encephalopathy in active stage is arousal
anxiety, confusion of thoughts, which is replaced at a later stage
apathy, paresis and disorder of consciousness. But the picture described
can be observed and with significant brain damage, for which
swelling and microcirculation problems are also characteristic.
Features of AED
Have маленьких детей иногда
ischemic encephalopathy caused by lack
oxygen. It may have varying degrees of severity and
declares itself after birth or during the first year
Perinatal encephalopathy (PEP) may occur during
intrauterine development or when passing through the birth canal.
Also вероятна диагностика синдрома в первые десять дней после
birth According to the intensity of the symptoms
allocate 3 degrees of PEP. According to the frequency of the disease is divided
for the acute period – up to a month, the time of early recovery – from 3
up to 4 months and late – from 1 to 2 years.
The development of encephalopathy is divided into pre-, peri-, and postnatal
factors. Predisposing factors are somatic.
pathology with a long course in the mother, kidney disease,
heart, metabolic disorders, various infections, harmful
habits, placental insufficiency, toxicosis in the third
Also стоит выделить асфиксию в родах, длительный безводный
period, infection of the amniotic fluid, too long or,
on the contrary, too fast delivery, trauma during childbirth,
liquid entering the airways, placental abruption and
emergency measures for obstetrics, infectious
diseases of the newborn, injuries of the skull.
A mild degree is expressed in increased excitability,
when a child becomes irritable, restless, whiny.
He often regurgitates, sucks with difficulty. Have него наблюдается гипертонус
muscles, sometimes – squint.
The average degree is a combination of a number
neurological syndromes, including hydrocephalus, intracranial
hypertension. The limbs are either permanently bent or pressed to
body, there is a “marbling” of the skin, a large fontanel swells.
There are problems with sucking breasts and swallowing milk,
frequent awakenings during sleep, screams and long crying. Character
violations are evaluated in a comprehensive manner, as single manifestations
It may well be in absolutely healthy children.
Treatment of hypoxic damage begins in the delivery room.
house. Restoration take place in the hospital or prescribe procedures.
at home with periodic visits to the district pediatrician in the nursery
polyclinic. Depending on the reasons that caused the perinatal
encephalopathy, and general well-being is prescribed by one or another
therapy method. Most often used such
- Medication. They are used to detoxify, improve
blood flow and metabolism in tissues. Some species allow
normalize intracranial pressure.
- Recovery and developmental. These include massage, gymnastics,
electrophoresis and swimming are carried out during
makes up a special category. It occurs due to violation
blood flow in the cervical vessels and arteries of the brain. Pathology strikes
adults, including elderly patients. Risk
the appearance of pathology increases 3 times from 70 years.
Angioencephalopathy can be atherosclerotic. This form
provoked by atherosclerosis of large arteries in 60% of cases.
Hypertensive encephalomyelopathy may result
high blood pressure. Venous form caused by pathologies of the heart
and vessels, bronchopulmonary system, when in the jugular veins
blood stagnates. Vascular encephaloneuropathy mixed type
observed in violation of rhythm, heart failure with
chronic course, diabetes, cervical osteochondrosis, when in
certain changes occur in the vascular wall.
Angioencephalopathy at the initial stage leads to a general
deterioration of health and mood swings. Also человек может
to get depressed, have problems with
work capacity. At a later stage, cognitive functions fall,
the patient cannot concentrate, remember any important
objects and events, he observed violations of the process of thinking,
difficulty in coordinating movements. The final stage is associated with
the appearance of unexpressed pain, dementia, psychological
problems, loss of memory, working ability and skills
Treatment of this form is aimed at reducing the severity
symptoms that launched this psychoorganic syndrome.
Used drugs for lowering pressure, diuretic,
drugs to reduce intracranial pressure, medications for
prevention of atherosclerosis. You will need funds, normalizing
metabolism in tissues and used in impaired synthesis
Treatment of brain encephalopathy with drugs is
compulsory. It is aimed not only at eliminating the symptoms, but
and to combat the underlying disease. Need to use
nootropic drugs (Piracetam, etc.), means for strengthening
vessel walls (Cinnarizine, Cavinton, etc.). Actively applied and
antioxidant group (vitamin C, Actovegin).
Encephalopathy due to injury
occurs due to the mechanical effect on the head, which
carried out once or repeatedly, as it happens, for example,
in boxers. The first symptoms of these conditions may indicate
imagine yourself in a couple of weeks, sometimes months or even years.
Encephalopolyneuropathy often develops after concussion,
head bruises and contusions, fractures in the skull. Approximately 80%
diseases of this type leads to post-traumatic
Depending on the individual patient and the severity
injury after a few days, symptoms appear. But she can
sometimes have a hidden form for a certain time.
Characteristic symptoms are considered to be:
- weakness and fatigue;
- headache that sometimes disappears when changing position
- problems with balance and coordination of movements;
- memory loss, slowness in action;
- depression and depression.
Diagnosis involves the use of magnetic resonance
tomography. In addition to this, a specialist may prescribe an x-ray,
EEG and laboratory tests. Treatment will be conducted using
nootropics, vascular and antioxidant drugs. Pathology in
active stage is treated in a hospital, then the state
The patient is observed by local neurologists. Occasionally
outpatient maintenance therapy is carried out.
Pathogenesis of the disease
divided into several subtypes depending on the cause
occurrence. These can be toxic substances that fall into
organism with air, water and food, and also products
metabolism, formed in the body. Causes can
differ according to the age of the patients and their manner
Toxic encephalomyeline neuropathies may result
ingestion of an infectious agent into the body, some infectious
diseases. Adult patients also risk getting sick if they
work has a certain specifics. For example, in such situations
people coming in contact with gasoline, pesticides, mercury,
carbon monoxide gas.
Even the minimum concentration of these substances, once in the body,
may have a certain effect on him. If contact
lasts for several years, developing imperceptible
chronic intoxication. Toxic metabolic syndrome can
appear on the background of failures in the endocrine system, fat
liver degeneration, a number of viral diseases and
Manifestations in adults
In adult patients, toxic
the syndrome is accompanied by mood swings, lethargy
reactions, cardiovascular dysfunction. May appear
headache, asthenia syndrome, emotional instability and
irritability, slight loss of sensation in
limbs. Depending on the concentration of toxic agent in
body symptoms can reach pronounced violations
psyche, including the appearance of hallucinations, outbreaks of aggression.
The so-called delirium tremens is a classic example.
acute alcoholic psychosis of a toxic nature. The sick
with such symptoms, you must be hospitalized. At first
laboratory tests of blood and urine are conducted, and the degree
damage to the brain tissue can detect MRI. Important to hold
detoxification and subsequent restoration of damaged
organs. If toxic form has arisen under the influence of
drugs and ethyl alcohol are connected to the treatment
toxicologists and narcologists.
encephalopathy of the brain in adults fit various decoctions,
infusions made from medicinal herbs. For example, you can
make a special balm, normalizing blood flow, cleansing
capillaries and arteries and relieving noise in the head. Should
Prepare a tincture of clover, propolis, Caucasian Dioscorea.
Take 40 g of clover and 0.6 liters of alcohol. Mix and leave on 1
week in a cold room, filter. Dioscorea tincture
left in a dark place for 14 days, Bay 50 g of roots 0.6 l
alcohol. The finished product is filtered through a sterile bandage.
On the basis of propolis also prepare the tincture. Take 100 grams of raw materials and
crushed, then spread in a dark bottle, bay 1 l
alcohol. Close and put in a darkened room for 10 days. how
only all the ingredients are cooked, mixed in the same
proportions and shake well. Drink ready-balm 5 ml
after eating, diluted in 50 ml of cold water. Course – 2 months after
What is needed a break for 2 weeks.
Hawthorn, clover and wild rose
damage to large arteries and capillaries. Under such conditions
helps hawthorn. You can use it as its freshly picked fruit,
and infusion based on them. To prepare the last dried
berries and brew 0.5 liters of boiling water 20 g of raw materials. Leave overnight.
In the morning the medicine will be ready. Drink it 20 minutes before
meal three times a day.
When tinnitus is noted, clover blossoms will come to the rescue.
Take 20−30 g of raw materials and brew 0.3 liters of boiling water. Insist in
Thermos 2 hours and drink 30 minutes before meals throughout the day at three
Rosehips brewed in the form of tea. Take on half a liter
boiling water 20 g dry berries. To insist on this raw material is better in a thermos
several hours. If you get too cool infusion, you can
dilute it with water or put a small amount of honey.
Dry fruits are used as components of various herbal
fees. But do not forget about the diet, using these recipes.
Should включать в меню богатые витаминами продукты, делать акцент
on fruits and vegetables. Garlic and
green onions. From the latter, you can make a tincture: squeeze 10 g
juice, add 20 g of honey and take 2 tbsp. l before eating. Behind
day you need to drink this amount three times.
On the basis of medicinal plants can be prepared by
proven recipe. Thanks to this you will be able to cope with
problems related to blood circulation in the brain tissue.
Take on 1 part:
- rose petals;
- white birch foliage;
- herbs licorice;
- leaves of medicinal tributary;
- mordovniki berries.
They are mixed with 2 parts of raspberry berries, heart-shaped inflorescences.
linden, oregano herbs, plantain leaves, coltsfoot and field
horsetail Add motherwort grass, dill seeds and berries
rose hips – in 3 parts. Mixed with 6 parts of marsh crib.
Stir well all the ingredients and fray. To 20 g
the specified collection add 500 ml of boiling water. After this mixture
send to the steam bath and hold for 30 minutes. The finished medicine is drunk
10 ml before meals three times a day.
The recipe for a sedative drug will also have to be by the way, since
the disease is accompanied by irritability and insomnia.
The drug has a positive effect on
psychological state, normalizes sleep. Take 120g
rhizomes of valerian, hop cones, mixed with 30 g of grass
motherwort and peppermint. Rub everything and pour a glass
boiling water. Put on a steam bath. Take off the heat after 15 minutes,
cool. Filter through a sterile bandage and add a little.
cool water. This is required to restore the volume of the medicine.
Drink 100 ml 3 times a day.
Another soothing collection can be prepared by combining the zest 1
lemon, 20 mg of rhizomes of valerian and 30 mg of chamomile flowers.
Составляющие надо как следует растолочь, залить стаканом boiling water.
Leave the medicine for an hour, then strain. During the day, drink
two glasses of such a drink. This should be done in the morning and before
Prognosis and prevention
It all depends on the underlying causes and
the time required for recovery. Prognosis may vary
depending on the patient and varies according to the probability of complete
recovery to unfavorable prospects in the form of damage
If you give patients with hypoglycemia glucose at first
manifestations, for example, irritability, then you can achieve
full recovery. Correction of hypoglycemia should not
delayed, otherwise recovery will only
partial If the patient does not receive the correct treatment on
for several days after the onset of symptoms, damage
The brain can become extensive.
Many types of cerebral encephalopathy can be successfully
prevent. First of all, you need to do everything to
eliminate the likely causes of any form of this disease.
With diabetic microangioencephalopathy must be followed.
prescribed by a doctor treatment plan, regularly measure the level
It is also necessary to take all the medications according to plan. If sick
flatly refuses treatment, soon diagnosed
encephalomalacia, that is, softening of tissues. When liver form
Do not allow the use of alcohol and drugs.
If narcotic drugs are prescribed for intravenous injection,
do not exceed the prescribed dosage.
Anoksicheskaya form involves the avoidance of exposure to oxide
carbon, neck and head injuries. Hypertensive option implies
blood pressure control. If the doctor has prescribed
antihypertensive drugs, you can not stop taking them
independently or change to analogs without the consent of
When infectious forms avoid contact with people who have
Microorganisms Shigella and N. meningitidis were detected.
Uremic encephalopathy also requires the admission of all prescribed
prescription drugs with regular psychological assessment
status. It is also important not to skip dialysis.
Prevention methods can be numerous, as well as
their reasons. But some variants of the disease can be prevented,
such as accidental traumatic encephalopathy.