Шершавая leather у ребенка: причины, внешние иinternal what to do

Update: November 2018

Трудно не встревожиться, когда нежная детская leather вдруг
becomes rough and rough. Что произошло, отчего leather стала
Is it rough and dangerous? Go to the doctor or try to cope
on your own?

AT целом, ситуации, когда приходится разбираться, почему у
ребенка шершавая leather, можно разделить на несколько принципиально
different groups:

When it is not a disease

Сухая шершавая leather у ребенка может появиться как в результате
diseases, and just under the influence of external factors: cold,
wind friction.

Friction

Например, на локтях у ребенка leather может стать грубой,
shriveled and dark simply because they are often supported while lying
watching tv or playing with gadgets. Same rough brown
or pinkish dry rough spots may appear on top
foot, if the child has a habit of sitting, tucked under one
leg, which constantly rubs on the upholstery of the chair.

Something similar can happen to the skin of the legs, less often. 
–  появиться на бедрах, если носить шерстяные штаны прямо на
body. In this case шершавые красные пятнышки выглядят как гусиная
leather. Actually, this is it, irritation arises from
the impact of coarse wool on become sensitive in the cold
children’s skin (however, there are similar problems
adults).

Cold wind

У детей 7  –  10 лет, которые начинают гулять
on their own, there may be pimples on their hands: the result
воздействия холода, влаги и ветра (чаще всего  –  при
walks in wet mittens or without mittens at all). Appear
small rough bumps on the skin, it blushes, peels off.

ATсе эти случаи не требуют вмешательства the doctor. Enough
изменить привычки ребенка, чтобы leather не травмировалась снова и
again, and the places themselves peeling grease nourishing
cream

  • It can be a domestic hand cream with vitamin F,
    синяя  Nivea, вазелин.
  • Из народных средств  –  гусиный жир.
  • The use of oil in its pure form is not recommended: any oil
    effectively moisturizes only after peeling when removed
    keratinous particles of the epidermis. Subject to scrubbing and without
    In addition, irritated sensitive skin is not worth it.
    don’t hurt her.

Have a newborn and a child up to a year

AT первые две недели жизни сухая шершавая leather, мелкое шелушение
on the belly, on the sides of the child can be a variant of the norm:
happens in about a third of babies. After removing the original
смазки leather становится более чувствительной к внешним воздействиям
and dry indoor air (especially in winter when running
central heating) reduces the amount of moisture in the skin. Some
special measures are not needed here: just bathe your baby regularly (with
provided that the umbilical wound healed) and after bathing lubricate the skin
baby oil or milk.

Сохнуть и шелушиться leather здорового малыша может при:

  • too dry air in the house
  • excessive use of baby powder,
  • bathing too often with soap or foam,
  • adding to the bath series, chamomile, oak bark.

ATсе это довольно легко обнаружить и устранить.

Diaper dermatitis

Шершавая leather на попе у грудного ребенка, может стать
проявлением пеленочного дерматита, когда leather начинает преть из-за
excessive moisture or traumatized by the diaper. In this case,
except for peeling on the skin, there are red swollen areas,
that seem more dense and seem to rise above
surface. Redness has no clear outlines, smoothly disappear
to no, often covered with small papules (tubercles) that can
spread beyond the redness area. When the process
starts to fade, the redness disappears, but the peeling remains,
местами шершавая leather. Diaper dermatitis всегда ограничен
the area of ​​the diaper, the spots are uneven, often visible “wipe” in
gum.

Such a situation is difficult to call a variant of the norm, but also the reasons
for panic no. If you take action in a timely manner, not allowing
присоединения инфекции, можно справиться с проблемой и без the doctor.
You need to change the diaper at least once every 2 hours. Baby skin
must be kept clean when changing diaper urine residue
need to remove wet wipes. Areas of inflammation are treated
powder with zinc or zinc ointment. If the problem is limited
light redness and peeling, you can use creams with
healing action (bepanten).

If with regular care, timely changing of a diaper,
the situation does not change within 5 days, you need to turn to
to the doctor.

Когда шершавая leather — это болезнь

Allergic diseases:

  • Hives
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Eczema
  • Psoriasis

ATызвать сухость и шелушение кожи могут и другие
diseases:

  • фолликулярный гиперкератоз (гусиная leather);
  • congenital thyroid insufficiency (hypothyroidism);
  • congenital diabetes;
  • редкое наследственное заболевание –  ихтиоз;

And also some body conditions:

  • lack of vitamins;
  • worm infestation.

Diseases of an allergic nature

Аллергия  –  одна из главных проблем современности:
под данным ATОЗ now a third of the population of developed countries suffers
from some of its manifestations, and in the future the number of such patients
will grow. Supporters of the hygienic theory of allergy consider:
the problem is that we live in a too clean, almost sterile
the world, and the immune system due to a lack of real “enemies”
attacks the body’s own proteins.

Allergic reactions and diseases associated with excessive
The body’s allergic readiness often manifests itself on the skin.

Hives

In appearance, this reaction is similar to traces of nettle burns; leather
becomes rough, bumpy, blisters sometimes appear swollen
(and sometimes the case is limited to edema). ATысыпания чешутся и могут
to be painful when touched. Поражаются leather и слизистые,
the rash can spread throughout the body, on the back and abdomen or
located only in certain areas (for example, when
hypersensitivity to ultraviolet solar urticaria
appears only on the open areas of the body).

Food allergens (honey,
citrus fruits), medicines, insect bites, even cold and sun.

Urticaria is distinguished from skin diseases by its rapid appearance.
many elements, whereas with skin diseases rash
начинаются с 1  –  2 элементов и распространяются
some time. Also, unlike skin diseases, rashes at
крапивнице сохраняются 1  –  2 часа, после чего исчезают.
The danger of this condition is that swelling of the mucous can disrupt
распространиться на ткани гортани и нарушить дыхание  – 
This is called angioedema. This condition requires immediate
medical care.

For the treatment of urticaria it is necessary to eliminate the allergen and take
antiallergic agent (loratadine, fexofenadine, cetrin).
With пищевой аллергии рекомендованы сорбенты (Смекта, Полисорб,
Enterosgel, Filtrum), they will bind part of the allergens, not giving them
enter the blood. Locally can use Fenistil.

Atopic dermatitis

This is one of the most causes of baby’s rough skin. По данным ATОЗ,
Atopic dermatitis suffers up to 15% of the total population of the earth.
Girls are sick more often than boys. The disease has hereditary
predisposition: if one of the parents has any
allergy, the likelihood that the baby will appear atopic
дерматит  –  20%, если аллергики оба, вероятность болезни
increases to 60%.

По сути, атопический дерматит  –  это
immune inflammation of the skin during which it is disturbed
formation of the normal stratum corneum and lipid composition of the skin.
Speaking in Russian, due to an allergic reaction
воспаления leather производит слишком мало жира и слишком много
dead horny cells, which normally should protect it from
external influences, and with atopic dermatitis, accumulating in
excessive amounts make the skin dry and rough.

Symptoms

The manifestation of atopic dermatitis depends on age. Usually
the disease manifests itself at 1 year of life. In babies (in a child in 1 
–  2 года) преобладает активное воспаление. Appear red
rough spots on the skin, covered with small nodules (papules)
small bubbles that burst. forming moist sores
(erosion). These rashes are located in a one year old child on
щеках, реже  –  в области лба и подбородка, на
brushes.

As the child grows up, the nature of the rash changes and
prevalence. Usually после двух лет шершавые пятна на коже у
the children are not so bright, they stop getting wet, they start
peel off. А сама leather становится грубой, усиливается ее рисунок и
lesions appear wrinkled, may crack.
ATысыпания переходят на шею и плечи, локтевые ямки, голени,
popliteal fossae, gluteal folds, hands and feet. ATсе эти места
itching is active, the child scratches them and may cause an infection.
Then purulent crusts appear, the temperature rises.

ATозможны изменения и на лице: веки темнеют, шелушатся,
become wrinkled. Nails due to constant scratching
they become smooth, shiny, their edges are grinded.

Usually болезнь протекает как череда обострений и ремиссий.
Exacerbations often occur in the cold season, not provoked
only allergens, but also stress, cold.

Treatment

Treatment атопического дерматита сложное и часто не дает
result. Прежде всего, необходимо минимизировать контакт
с аллергенами
.

  • A special diet is prescribed for this.

Eggs, chocolate, citrus fruits, strawberries,
factory juices, convenience foods, smoked meats. Sometimes it happens
not enough and you have to purposefully identify products
which the child does not tolerate, for example, cow’s milk.

Let us dwell on nutrition with atopic dermatitis,
because babies have food allergens most often
provoke a disease. If the disease appeared before the introduction
feeding, mom will have to deal with their diet, eliminating from it
products mentioned above. Allergy can also occur on the milky
a mixture, then the problem should be discussed with a pediatrician who will help
choose a hypoallergenic product (alas, not a single hypoallergenic
product on doesn’t really guarantee no reaction.

Если один или оба родителя  –  аллергики, у малыша
There is a predisposition to atopic dermatitis. In this case
fodder needs to be introduced especially carefully: do not try to diversify
tastes by adding one product once a week. Yes, the process will go
slower, but it will be possible to track the reaction of the baby.

If the moment is already missed, and at some stage of the introduction of complementary foods
rashes appear, you have to start all over again. For two weeks
baby returns exclusively to breastfeeding. Then
Lures start with the minimum dose of one new product,
gradually increasing the amount within two weeks. Only if
it is normally transferred, add the following.

Older children for whom mother’s milk is no longer
need, and the addition to nutrition, you have to use
other schemes. First, almost everything is excluded from the diet.
Only rice or buckwheat is allowed on water without oil and salt. Usually
it is very difficult to survive this stage: the child is outraged and, especially,
grandmothers, striving to put something “tasty” and accusing
young mother in child bullying. Try to find in
family ally, which will take the fire itself.

After a week of such a strict diet, one new product is added.
Further, new products are allowed every three days. All eaten and
drunk during the day is carefully recorded in a food diary.
Pay attention to the hidden allergens: for example, homemade meatballs
eggs are often added.

  • A change of scenery

If a kid with atopic dermatitis is at home, you will have to change and
the setting. From the apartment you need to remove carpets, drapes and other
�”Dust collectors” in which dust mites start. If in the house
there were feather pillows and duvets, and they will have to be removed.
Check the bathroom for fungus: it often starts up in difficult to reach
ground, crevice tiles. The fungus will also have to be regularly removed.
Cleaning the house will have to do every day: floor cleaning can be
replace with a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter that does not allow small
particles. A conventional vacuum cleaner, on the contrary, only disperses allergens in
the air. If finances allow, a good helper can be
air wash that will maintain the desired level
влажности   (что благоприятно скажется на коже не только
baby, but also mom), incidentally clearing the air from dust.

  • Bathing

It is better to bathe the baby without soap and foam. Do not add to water
марганцовку   –  после заживления пупочной ранки
baby does not need sterility, and manganese dries the skin. Not helpful and
травы  –  они сами по себе могут стать мощным аллергеном.
After bathing, you can lubricate the skin of your baby with special creams. 
–  эмолентами. These creams are produced by many manufacturers.
pharmacy cosmetics. They can be used several times a day.

Drug therapy works in two main
directions.

External therapy

Used ointments with anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic
action.

  • Often, doctors prescribe hormone ointment (for example,
    метилпреднизолона ацетат) –  бояться их не нужно, эти
    drugs in clinical guidelines are indicated as therapy
    first line. Modern ointments with glucocorticoids are safe when
    subject to a short course (not more than a month). But strictly necessary
    comply with the dosage. Strips of cream covering the end phalanx
    index finger is enough to distribute over an area of ​​two
    the palms of an adult. If the area of ​​the rash is less, respectively
    need to take the minimum amount of funds. Can’t mix
    гормональные мази с вазелином, детским кремом  –  при
    This reduces the concentration of the active substance and the effectiveness
    drug.
  • As an alternative to hormonal ointments can be advised.
    pimecrolimus (Elidel) drugs, approved from three months
    age, or tacrolimus (Protopic), allowed from two years. With
    frequent exacerbations of pimecrolimus or tacrolimus can be used
    для профилактики, нанося два раза в неделю –  по такой схеме
    they are allowed to apply a year or more.
  • Lesions in hair treated with pyrithione shampoos
    zinc.
  • Tar as a folk remedy for the treatment of atopic dermatitis
    эффективен, но обладает канцерогенным action.

General therapy or systemic antiallergic drugs

Loratadine (Claritin), ebastine (Kestin), cetirizine (Zyrtec). They
reduce itching, especially night, and swelling of the skin.

Children older than three years with extensive skin manifestations are helpful.
ultraviolet radiation: if you can not sunbathe, you can
use special devices in physiotherapy
offices clinics.

If atopic dermatitis appears at 1 year of age, with
With a probability of 60%, it will fade away with time. In general, than later
a disease occurs, the more likely it will last until
adolescence and adulthood.

Eczema

Another hereditary disease caused by
inadequate immune response. Often combined with problems
gastrointestinal and biliary tract.

The skin becomes red and swollen, small ones appear on it.
bubbles that burst. leaving behind pinpoint weeping
ulcers (erosion), which doctors call eczematous wells.
Then на них появляются корочки. As the resorption, near
new elements appear, so you can see different
проявления  –  красноту, пузырьки, эрозии, корки,
peeling. The boundaries of foci are indistinct.

The rash is symmetrical, the child has rough skin on the hands, on
feet, face. Damaged areas alternate with clear skin,
looking like an “island archipelago”. After inflammation
subsides, remain dense darkened (or, on the contrary, pale)
areas with coarse thick skin, reinforced pattern, which
gradually come to normal.

With поражении кожи головы возникает себорейная экзема: в
the hair, behind the ears and on the neck appear yellowish or gray
scaly and itchy crusts, yellowish-pink as if swollen
spots covered with thick yellow flaky scales.

In children, the first signs of eczema usually appear in 3 
–  6 месяцев. Its manifestations are very similar to the manifestations
atopic dermatitis, treatment is also similar: exclude all
possible allergens, including food, ointment with glucocorticoids,
antiallergic drugs orally, emollients several times a day
to maintain water-fat balance of the skin.

Psoriasis

Another disease in which skin changes are caused
inadequate immune response. But unlike previous
diseases in psoriasis infection becomes the trigger:
the disease often appears after suffering chickenpox, sore throat,
intestinal infections, fungal infection. Most often this happens in
возрасте 4  –  8 лет. Second peak incidence 
–  подростковый возраст.

If in adults, psoriasis is rough, dry
red scaly plaques, then in children it is most often red
swollen spots that are very reminiscent of diaper rash, but, unlike
diaper rash, scaly. Such spots appear in the folds of the skin, on
genitals, face, head. The plaques itch and peel profusely.
especially when combing, often merge. Withмерно у трети детей
nails change: indentations appear in them, transverse stripes. AT
adolescence often affects the elbows: gather around them
groups of plaques with well-defined borders, skin rough and
red.

In the same way as atopic dermatitis or eczema, psoriasis
it escalates. then goes into remission. Skin can clear
completely, but there may remain several “on-duty” plaques.
The duration of remission ranges from a few weeks to
dozens of years.

Treatment of psoriasis begins with local therapy, the purpose of which 
–  убрать шелушение. To do this, use ointments based on
salicylic acid, which soften the horny scales. Ointment
put on the night, in the morning, wash off and smear the plaques with ointments with
corticosteroids.

AT тяжелых случаях внутрь назначают ретиноиды  – 
drugs based on active forms of vitamin A. But it is really
extreme state therapy that requires mandatory monitoring
the doctor.

Ultraviolet radiation helps well: it is useful for such children
sunbathe and use artificial springs in winter
ultraviolet.

In the same way as with atopic dermatitis is assigned
hypoallergenic diet.

The manifestations of many skin diseases are very similar, non-specialist
it is difficult to distinguish different types of rash by descriptions. No need to try
ставить диагноз и назначать лечение самостоятельно  – 
For this there are dermatologists.

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