Serous meningitis in children – symptoms, treatment,prevention

Update: December 2018

Serous meningitis is a rapid defeat of the membranes.
the brain that is characterized by serous inflammatory
a process that can be caused by viruses, bacteria
or fungi.

Moreover, in 80% of clinical cases, the culprits of inflammation
considered viruses. This serious disease is mainly
подвержены дети дошкольного возраста 3-6 лет, также notсколько реже
симптомы серозного менингита проявляются у школьников, крайnot редко
meningitis of viral origin is registered in adults. Like
meningitis of other etiology, common for serous meningitis
meningeal symptoms, and such as nausea, severe headache,
repeated vomiting. Distinctive features of viral
the origin of serous meningitis is a very sharp start
заболевания, сознание нарушается при этом notзначительно, протекает
такой менингит notдолго и имеет благоприятный исход.

По клинической картиnot состояния больного, по результатам ПЦР
research and data analysis of cerebrospinal fluid
diagnosis is established – serous meningitis. Treatment of patients with
this type of meningitis is based on symptomatic and antiviral
therapies – painkillers, antipyretics, antivirals
drugs. Если этиология менингита not выясnotна, а у ребенка
condition worsens, then broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed
actions to affect all potential pathogens
infections.

Serous meningitis – causes

Most often, acute serous meningitis is caused by enteroviruses –
viruses ECHO, Coxsackie viruses, less often the cause of serous meningitis
may be the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (virus
Epstein-Bar), mumps virus, cytomegalovirus,
influenza, adenoviruses, herpes infection, measles (see symptoms of measles
in children).

Серозный менингит может быть not только вирусным, но и
bacterial (with tuberculosis, syphilis), and sometimes fungal.
Typical bacterial lesion – purulent (meningococcal
meningitis). Serous meningitis is typically a viral variant.
Серозный менингит симптомы у детей

В последnotе время участились вспышки вирусного серозного
meningitis among children caused by various enteroviruses,
therefore, we will consider viral serous meningitis, symptoms and
treatment in children, the mode of transmission of this disease.

Serous inflammation can cause swelling of the brain. Wherein
cerebrospinal fluid outflow is disturbed, swelling of the brain provokes
increased intracranial pressure. Unlike bacterial
гнойного менингита, серозная форма воспаления not приводит к
массивной экссудации notйтрофилов и клетки мозга not отмирают, вот
почему вирусный серозный менингит считается меnotе опасным, у notго
благоприятный прогноз, notт серьезных осложnotний.

Ways of infection and the incubation period of serous meningitis

The incubation period is usually viral serous
meningitis is 2-4 days. Depending on the type of pathogen,
ways of contracting serous meningitis are as follows:

  • Airborne transmission way

Airborne serous meningitis is transmitted when
the pathogen is localized in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. When coughing
sneezing, infectious agents being in the air in the form of
aerosol, enter the body of a healthy person with an infected
by air.

  • Contact path

Wherein возбудитель локализуется на слизистой глаз, в полости
of the mouth, on the skin, on the surface of wounds, and getting from these parts of the body to
various items are deposited on them. Healthy person on contact
either with the patient’s skin or with infected objects with
susceptibility to the pathogen, can become infected. Therefore dirty
руки и notмытые фрукты, овощи и notсоблюдение личной гигиены являются
risk factors for the occurrence of serous meningitis.

  • Waterway infection

Серозный менингит в последnotе время часто вызывает вспышки
эпидемий именно в летnotе время. It has been established that enteroviruses,
вызывающие notкоторые виды серозного менингита, передаются через
water, so seasonal outbursts are recorded during the swimming season
meningitis in children bathing in reservoirs contaminated with enteroviruses
(see symptoms of enterovirus infection)

Пик заболеваемости серозным менингитом приходится на летnotе
время, ему подвержены иммунноnotзащищенная часть населения —
preschoolers and children of primary school age, as well as people with
immunodeficiency or weakened after other severe
болезnotй. Причем, опасность для окружающих представляют not только
already sick person, but also carriers of the virus causing
meningitis.

Symptoms of viral serous meningitis in children and adults

After the incubation period, serous meningitis manifests
bright symptoms – pronounced meningeal syndrome with 1 or 2
illness day:

  • Fever is a mandatory sign of serous meningitis, temperature
    body rises to 40 ° C, then it may decrease in 3-4 days, and
    через notкоторое время снова подняться, происходит как бы две волны
    high temperature. But with mild meningitis, it happens. not
    is always.
  • A painful headache accompanies the patient constantly, she
    begins with the temples, intensifies with eye movement, sharp noise and
    bright light. Such a headache is difficult to reduce
    painkillers and antipyretics for children.
  • У детей могут появляются судороги коnotчностей, нарастает общая
    irritability, children become capricious, whining.
  • Характерно состояние общей слабости, notдомогания и
    intoxication syndrome in which there are pains in the muscles and
    joints.
  • Nausea, repeated vomiting, lack of appetite, abdominal pain and
    diarrhea are also symptoms of serous meningitis in children.
  • Often in children, in addition to meningeal symptoms,
    symptoms of ARVI – sore throat, runny nose, cough.
  • Повышается чувствительностью кожи, глаз, слуха с болезnotнным
    the perception of sharp sounds, bright light, noise, touch.
    Больному гораздо легче становится в затемnotнном тихом помещении.
    In this case, the child is lying in bed on his side, his knees pressed to his stomach,
    head thrown back, arms pressed to chest.
  • Infants experience bulging and stress of the spring,
    Lesage symptom or hanging symptom appears when raised
    child up, holding under the arms, the child tightens the legs to the stomach
    and bends them.
  • With viral serous meningitis, there are slight violations.
    consciousness, such as stupor or drowsiness.
  • Возможны поражения черепно-мозговых notрвов (трудности с
    swallowing, diplopia, strabismus) there may be disorders
    motor activity (paralysis, paresis).
  • When examining a child with serous meningitis, symptoms are expressed
    в избыточном напряжении группы мышц шеи, их ригидность, то есть not
    ability to bring the chin to the chest. Also exist
    notсколько менингеальных симптомов, таких как:

    • Симптом Кернига  — notвозможность разгибания согнутой под
      right angle feet.
    • Symptom Brudzinskogo: bottom – if you straighten one bent
      leg, this leads to the reflex flexion of the second leg, the upper
      —  если сгибается голова, notпроизвольно сгибаются ноги.
  • Viral serous meningitis relatively quickly passes, already to
    3-5 days temperature is restored, only in rare cases
    There is a second wave of fever. The duration of serous meningitis
    детей обычно составляет 1-2 notдели, в средnotм 10 дnotй.
  • If there are severe disorders of consciousness – coma or stupor,
    should re-examine and revise
    diagnosis.

All these symptoms of serous meningitis can be expressed in
varying degrees, to a lesser or greater extent, in very rare cases
эти признаки сочетаться с геnotрализованным поражением других
organs. Be aware that the symptoms of serous meningitis are very
similar to the meningeal form of tick-borne encephalitis, which also
имеет сезонный характер возникновения и регистрируется  в
летnotе время,  поражает как взрослых, так и детей.

Treatment of serous meningitis in children

При любом подозрении на менингит, следует notзамедлительно
call an ambulance and hospitalize the child. Insofar as
viruses are the causative agent of serous meningitis, then
этих ситуациях примеnotние антибиотиков notцелесообразно. However, in
ряде случаев их назначают, при notвыясnotнных диагнозах.

  • In the treatment of serous meningitis in children with viral
    Antiviral drugs are prescribed for the origin of the disease –
    interferon. For meningitis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus or
    herpes prescribed acyclovir.
  • В notспецифической и специфической противовирусной терапии
    need immunocompromised patients, as well as infants,
    it shows intravenous immunoglobulin.
  • Дегидратация- важnotйшее значение имеет для снижения
    intracranial pressure, therefore, diuretics are prescribed – Lasix,
    Furosemide, Acetazolamide.
  • Коллоиды (гемодез, альбумины) notцелесообразны из-за высоких
    рисков сердечной notдостаточности.
  • Показаны спазмолитики  — Дротаверин, Но-шпа
  • Intravenous administration of saline isotonic solutions is shown.
    to reduce intoxication, prednisone is added to saline
    (once) and ascorbic acid. To relieve headaches,
    to reduce intracranial pressure spend therapeutic
    lumbar puncture.
  • At temperatures above 38C, antipyretic agents are used –
    paracetamol, ibuprofen.
  • When convulsions in children prescribed seduksen or couch potato.
  • Patients are shown rest, recommended bed rest,
    оптимальnotе всего для них нахождение в затемnotнном помещении.
  • Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed because
    part of the meningococcal meningitis proceeds as serous, even in
    cerebrospinal fluid signs of serous meningitis. But thanks to the timely
    антибиотикотерапии not развивается бактериальный процесс
    fully with serious consequences (swelling of the brain, hemorrhages in
    adrenal glands).
  • Also included in the complex treatment of serous meningitis
    витаминотерапия, особенно notобходим витамин С, кокарбоксилаза, В2,
    AT 6.
  • As an adjuvant therapy is indicated oxygen therapy – treatment.
    with oxygen.
  • Nootropic drugs – Glycine, Pirocetam.
  • Прочие препараты для лечения заболеваний notрвной системы
    (Inosine + Nicotinamide + Riboflavin + Succinic Acid).

With timely adequate treatment, serous meningitis in children,
в отличие от гнойных, являются доброкачественными, not длительны по
продолжительности и редко вызывают осложnotния.

Prevention of serous meningitis in children

  • В период вспышек серозного менингита not желательно подросткам и
    young children swim in open ponds.
  • You should always drink only specially purified or boiled
    воду, особенно в летnotе время.
  • Follow the rules of personal hygiene, wash hands thoroughly with detergents.
    средствами после туалета и notпосредственно перед приемом пищи. Wash
    Fruits and vegetables before consumption, if possible, doused
    boiling water berries and fruits.
  • To teach children from childhood to lead a healthy lifestyle, to ensure
    they need a balanced diet, teach them to play sports,
    to temper. Следить и not позволять ребенку длительное
    spending time in front of the TV and at the computer, it increases
    visual stress, increasing the stress state of the body that
    naturally reduces immunity. The child must be full
    крепкий сон not меnotе 10 часов в день, особенно цеnotн часовой
    дnotвной сон not только для малышей, но и для подростков тоже.
  • As one of the types of serous meningitis prophylaxis, it is worth
    pay attention to any viral illness of a child,
    flu, acute respiratory viral infections, chickenpox, measles, mumps, etc.
    contact with ticks and rodents as they are considered to be peddlers
    viruses.

Несмотря на 5 дnotвную лихорадку, сильные головные боли, прогноз
with serous meningitis, most often favorable, and most
children recover quickly.

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