Senile dementia: symptoms, treatment,the reasons

Update: October 2018

Until old age, maintain clarity of mind and sobriety judgments,
not to suffer from senile dementia is the happiness that falls out
far from everyone. Only 30% of older people are a dream.
gerontologist and retain common sense after 80 years.

The rest in varying degrees, suffer from disorders
cognitive functions, having problems with thinking and memory. Have them
what is popularly called senile dementia develops
(marasmus), and scientifically called senile or senile
dementia.

However, not only old people can suffer from mental disorders. Those,
who abuse neurotoxic poisons (nicotine, alcohol,
psychotropic drugs or drugs) may well earn
dementia long before old age.

Acquired dementia is called dementia. With this earlier
intact psyche gradually weakens and falls apart, is lost
acquired practical skills and there is no opportunity to acquire
new ones. On сегодня в мире порядка 36 миллионов человек страдают
слабоумием разного происхождения.

The reasons

The state of mental abilities depends on
preservation of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures.
Senile dementia can develop with:

  • cortical disorders (alcoholic encephalopathy, disease
    Alzheimer’s, vascular diseases of the brain, fronto-temporal lobar
    degeneration, deficiency of vitamins of group B, metabolic
    disorders on the background of severe renal or hepatic
    deficiency syndrome Yatsenko-Cushing, multiple sclerosis,
    systemic lupus erythematosus)
  • Subcortex damage (multifocal dementia, diseases of
    Parkinson and Huntington, progressive supranuclear
    paralysis)
  • combined lesions of the cortex and subcortex (vascular problems,
    diseases with Levi’s little bodies, tumors, brain abscesses, hematomas,
    neuroinfections).

Options for dementia:

  • vascular
  • dystrophic-atrophic
  • mixed

By severity distinguish mild, moderate and severe
dementia. Light degree does not allow to work fully
особенно заниматься умственным трудом и to study. But persists
the possibility of independent living and self-service without
outside help. The average severity of dementia forces
establish external supervision of the patient, help him in everyday life.
Severe dementia is a semi-vegetative existence requiring
constant outside help and observation.

Читайте: how самостоятельно простым тестом определить риск
developmental dementia and stroke.

Signs and symptoms

Memory disorders are reduced to problems with short-term and
long-term memory.

Onрушения абстрактного мышления

They do not allow the patient to think abstractedly from specific
objects or phenomena, use associative memory,
to study в отрыве от письма или чтения. Notредко к таким
frustration added obsessive ideas or delusions. Often sick
worried about the infidelity of partners, stolen valuables,
wrecking neighbors.

Problems with criticism lead to behavioral disorders

Onчинаясь с неспособности выстроить долговременный или срочный
plan for life, work or relationships with others,
ends as complete maladjustment and inability to
normal existence.

Aphasia – speech disorders, expressed in its degradation

There are violations of grammatical constructions, simplification of speech
to telegraph style. There may be a hang on one
the word. Difficulties in switching from one word to another. In heavy
In some cases, replacing one sound with another appears;
syllables. The patient can not name the object, although he remembers his name
and appointment. The volume of what a person can remember from
his speech or the speech of others. Sometimes strange sensations appear.
from your own lips and tongue when pronouncing words.

Apraxia – movement disorders that do not allow to commit
complex coordinated actions

At the same time, elementary movements are preserved. Defeat more
characteristic of cortical lesions. Sometimes a person can imitate
actions of others, but not able to act independently. AT
In other cases, the patient cannot only dress or not.
oriented in space, can not tell where is right and where
left. Some people have speech disorders due to this disorder.
(a patient with dementia cannot synchronize the movements of the facial
muscles and tongue).

Agnosia – a violation of perception

Onпример, человек неадекватно воспринимает звук, тактильные
sensations, visual images. At the same time, the sensitivity itself does not
upset. Impulses pass from the receptors, but wrong
interpreted in the cortical part of the analyzers, in which they are violated
analysis and synthesis of incoming information.

So, a patient with senile dementia can see the subject and even
describe its individual properties, but recognizing a friend earlier
the subject does not occur. Selective agnosia may concern
non-recognition of relatives and friends, and even their own reflection in
the mirror. Interesting and narrowing the field of view and the concentration of sight
only part of what is possible to see in this moment in time
or a separate item, although a person can freely move his head
and eyes.

Personality changes

They begin gradually, gradually increasing and leading to
later stages of the disease to personal decay and complete
social maladjustment. First, leading personality traits
increase and bulge to the fore. For example, energetic and
an active person gradually turns into a fussy and
restless, thrifty – in pathologically meager, cheerful – in
hysterical, caring – in anxious and suspicious.

In this case, the person gradually moves away from others, becomes
more self-occupied, selfish. How would dull responsiveness
sensitivity to others. Often, resentment, tendency to
conflicts, clarify relationships, suspicion of others in
that they think badly of a man, weave intrigues against him.
Maybe crying, a tendency to complain about everything and everyone. how
generally, more intact patients show sexual
disinhibition, tendency to vagrancy. Sometimes they show
propensity to collect old things, preservation of leftovers.

In severe cases, passivity and loss come first.
interest in the surrounding reality. Sick become
untidy, may forget to eat.

Social maladjustment

It becomes a consequence of the above disorders. Person
ceases to perceive family and work normally, can no longer
due volume and at the right level to communicate and maintain the usual
interpersonal relationships. All this often leads to loneliness.
a person who is in dire need of help. What is perceived
normal associates like antisocial behavior and personal
human deficiency is part of a disease program that requires
medical intervention and feasible medical correction
simultaneously with taking care of the person and ensuring him a tolerable
of existence.

see Video games and older people at the computer reduce the risk
senile dementia.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease — это слабоумие у пожилых, протекающей
by type of selective dementia (lacunar). This is an option
atrophic senile dementia, the symptoms and signs of which
may begin earlier than 60 years, but the peak incidence falls on
65-75 years. The risks of developing Alzheimer’s disease are
inheritance. You can reduce them by starting from childhood to study foreign
languages ​​and doing music. The reason for the development of this type of senile
dementia, can be a push to the beginning:

  • injuries
  • or oxygen starvation of the brain
  • neurotoxin poisoning.

The basis of the development of the disease – biochemical disorders in metabolism
glucose, leading to the formation of plaques deposited in the head
brain, consisting of soluble protein and contributing
degeneration of nerve cells. The result is focal
lesions of the cerebral cortex. The outcome of the disease can be
total dementia.

Alzheimer begins with memory impairment. Easy at first
absent-mindedness or everyday forgetfulness do not attract
attention. how правило, беспокоить начинают выпадения из памяти
recent events coming into habit. With this, the early memories
(for example, children’s poems or events of youth) are remembered very much
distinctly. Later they are erased. Elderly man becomes
unable to remember the right information at the right moment.

New information is also poorly absorbed. Old people suffer from
disorder orientation in space and time. More often
There are questions about what day, day of the week and year
which are replaced by the fact that a person is unable to understand where he is
is and does not recognize itself in the reflection in the mirror. Parallel
violated visual, auditory, tactile sensitivity. Not
they recognize friends, relatives, objects of familiar surroundings. Late
Stages of senile dementia do not allow a person to normally
perceive and self.

The practical sphere also falls out gradually. At first
complex professional skills are lost. Then comes the turn
self-catering.

If at the onset of the disease patients are more often animated and fussy, then with
over time, their fussiness develops into motor stereotypes according to
type of simple monotonous movements. Speech is also reduced (see
aphasia).

Emotional disorders begin with egocentrism and
dissatisfaction with themselves for failing to cope with difficulties in
professional activities, training. In the initial stages
patients are fully aware of their defect and try to deal with it. On
further stages of criticism are reduced. At the same time significantly
interests of the patient are narrowed, the complexity of his judgments falls. Person
in front of his eyes is simplified, and then lowered, becoming first
overly distrustful and touchy, and then indifferent.

Pick’s disease

Also atrophic dementia, already related to total. More often
affects women. Occurs due to the defeat of the frontal, less temporal
share of the cerebral cortex.

Unlike Alzheimer’s, the first manifestations are
problems with emotions. Patients are completely deprived of self-criticism, in
resulting in starting to lead yourself passively or vice versa
impulsive, prone to emotional explosions, scandals, rude,
often speak foul, misjudge the situation. They are distinguished
hypersexuality, disorders of desire and will.

There is a sharp change in behavior that occurs since the beginning
diseases. A perfectly normal person begins to manifest earlier.
uncharacteristic for him bad inclinations. Speech is enough
verbose, but there are difficulties with the selection of the necessary words or
expressions. Onглядно изобразить заболевшую болезнью Пика женщину
You can, imagining a modest librarian, fond of poetry
and theater, suddenly zafanatevshey from “Spartacus.”

Onрушения мышления в большей степени касаются сложных
ability to combine information. Its processing is based on
abstract concepts and creating new ideas or creative solutions.
Automatic skills (counting, writing, spent for years
professional movements and actions) are still quite
продолжительное время и на фоне diseases.

Memory begins to fall out rather late and does not bring the patient
to complete unconsciousness.

Vascular dementia

how правило, сосудистые проблемы начинаются, когда ведущие
arteries are clogged by atherosclerotic plaques or blood clots are not
less than 70 percent. The risks of this kind of dementia are high and
those who have a vascular plexus cyst (after a fresh stroke,
see the effects of ischemic stroke) or vascular aneurysm
brain. Men suffer from such dementia in one and a half
times more often than women, elderly more often than young six times.

The early stages of vascular dementia resemble the usual neurosis:

  • fatigue, irritability
  • some reduction in performance and ability
    to study
  • headaches
  • sleep disorders and night terrors.

As the process progresses, the patient begins
chase:

  • absent-mindedness
  • which are replaced by depressions with discontent with others and
    marked inability to drastically change current
    events
  • emotional lability, tearfulness, excessive
    tendency to experiences, sharpen character traits.

As a result, we have a gangster played by Robert de Niro.
from the movie “Analyze It,” which is no longer so cool and can’t
to continue their professional activities because of the extra
sentimentality and emotional instability.

Later, the person begins to suffer from memory failures for dates, names,
current events. As the pathological process progresses
violated all varieties of memory orientation.
Atherosclerotic dementia and proceeds with a predominant
memory loss. Thinking becomes sluggish and stereotypical,
a person lost motivation for social activity, work,
learning, interpersonal relationships.

In rare cases, patients suffer from reactive states:
psychosis with hallucinations and delusions, paranoid states.

Mixed dementia

Addictive states lead to this type of dementia, i.e.
abuse of psychotropic, narcotic substances. On
Today, this problem is all the more urgent, the greater the number of patients
prescribed by psychiatrists or psychotherapists
not courses, but for many years. On фоне хронической
intoxication develops senile dementia, the symptoms of which
are typical

In addition to euphoria, desire and dependence drugs narcotic
and psychotropic series cause disorganization of higher brain
human activities. Since the inception
neurotization appears, mood disorders with a tendency to
hypochondria and depressions. This is accompanied by asthenia (condition
weakness and pressure) and sleep disorders. In the future it may
give way to psychosis or such apathy that external real
environmental irritants are not perceived with
normal clarity. Therefore, the real world ceases to be
stimulant to mental activity.

The disintegration of the addict’s personality occurs under the influence of
toxic substance and from this isolation from reality. therefore
such patients are more promising in the treatment and adaptation processes,
than suffering Alzheimer’s or vascular disorders.

Dementia treatment

Treatment of senile dementia includes medication.
support provided by neuropathologists and psychiatrists, as well as
rehabilitation activities (when possible). In general, it is possible
only slow down the progression of pathology, a cardinal solution
No problems found today.

For therapy use several types of medicinal
drugs:

  • Memantine is blocked by glutamate, which is stimulating
    mediator of the central nervous system and damaging neurocytes.
  • Cholinesterase blockers inhibit the destruction of acetylcholine,
    facilitating nerve transmission in the brain. Drugs help fight
    with memory impairment. These are: Aricept, Razadin, Galantamine, Exelon,
    Rivastigmine
  • Tranquilizers relieve fear, reduce anxiety and
    emotional tension. It does not reduce memory and does not
    break thinking. Most of these drugs take off
    autonomic symptoms. Use heterocyclic drugs:
    Buspirone, Ivadal, Imovan, Zopiclon.
  • Notйролептиками купируют невротические и психопатические
    manifestations of dementia. Droperidol, haloperidol, Aminazin, Propazin,
    Mazheptil, Tioproperazin, Sonopax, Perferazin, Risperidone,
    Chlorprothixen, Fluanksol, Klopiksol, Clozapine, Sulpiride,
    Opanzalin.
  • Antidepressants from the group of reuptake inhibitors
    serotonin: Paroxetine, Prozac, Anafanil, Citalopram reduce
    anxiety and fears.

Thus, senile dementia rarely begins spontaneously.
More often эта патология накапливает симптоматику и утяжеляется со
by time. The tasks of the patient’s relatives include promptly showing
human neurologist or psychiatrist.

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