Scientists have taken a step towards transplantingheads

Update: February 2019

For many years, researchers have pondered the question of whether
transplant the head without losing the function of the nervous system.
After all, the nerve fibers that connect different parts of the spinal cord,
not very willing to grow together. Реальность пересадки heads
the researchers tried to prove the team of Dr. Sergio
Canavero (Italy).

Scientists have taken the responsibility of conducting an experiment with
15 laboratory rats. The main thing the doctors tried to find out
there was a reality of the presence or absence of a new method
TOанаверо по сращению heads с телом, а точнее спинных волокон.
Nine mammals from the sample and this method was carried out, and
the remaining six animals remained in the group for control.

The essence of the newest Italian technique is to apply
polyethylene glycol in the form of injections. Thanks to this substance nervous
the tissue that makes up the spinal cord is supposedly beginning to grow together.
Researchers cut it each of the fifteen laboratory
rats. The main group (9 experimental) received ethylene glycol,
the rest 6 individuals were injected with a “pacifier” – a physiological solution.
sodium chloride. Also, after transection of the nerve fibers in rats
prescribed a three-day course of antibacterial drugs.

It is worth noting that the whole study took place not only under
auspices of Italian specialists, but also with the direct participation
Xiaoping Zhenya – Chinese surgeon, an outstanding transplantologist,
representing Harbin University of Medicine. The results were
successful: only one animal from the control group died, and all
nine test subjects from the main set restored their
motor capabilities. This information gives hope for the development of
drugs to people with consequences of severe injuries and vascular
diseases in the form of paralysis of the limbs. Result joint
the work of Chinese and Italian specialists was betrayed
общественности в CNS Neuroscience&Therapeutics.

Вопросом пересадки целой heads интересовались многие ученые
modernity. For example, doctors representing Konkuk University
(Seoul), they set up an experiment on 16 laboratory mice, where
crossed dorsal fibers. Polyethylene glycol was administered to eight mice.
in the “slot” between the split ends of the spine, the remaining
six mice received saline. According to the results
experiment, all the “control” animals died, three mice from
the main group also did not survive and remained paralyzed, but
five mice were more or less able to move after a month of injections.

In the future, similar research was attempted by the doctors.
University of Rice, where used “advanced”
polyethylene glycol containing graphene nanoribbons for the most
qualitative and rapid development of processes of nerve cells. TO
Unfortunately, the laboratory was flooded, and all the mice died in the water, except
the only one – it showed good results.

Further experiments were put by South Korean researchers.
(Университет TOонкук, Сеул) на собаке. Animal spinal cord
divided by 90% thickness. After three weeks her opportunities
movement, wagging tail and control jaws returned to
initial state. But since the experiment was not involved
control group, colleagues found the results unreliable.

Studies were conducted on monkeys, in that he succeeded
the most Zhen Xiaoping. The doctor did not seek to complete the connection of parts
the brain. He tried to figure out whether to leave the structure intact.
when separating the head end from the body. That the operation was
successful, the researcher cooled the monkey to 15 degrees Celsius.
Everything went without disturbances from the nervous system, but the monkey
slew after 20 hours.

Onконец, ученые говорят о пересадке человеческой heads. On
предложение совместного проведения исследований TOанаверо отозвался
Valery Spiridonov (Russia), a programmer by training and a person
many years suffering from the so-called syndrome
�Verding-Hoffman. When it just paralysis
limbs, neck, muscles responsible for swallowing and breathing
movements, etc. Negotiations did not end in full agreement.

But Sergio does not give up: a large-scale operation, during which
произойдет пересадка человеческой heads, намечена на 25.12.2017
года и будет проходить в TOитае. Before her (2 months) surgeon
plans a trial operation on patients who are in clinical
of death. On подобный эксперимент TOанаверо решился из-за того, что в
experimenting with rats, his technique showed real positive
results.

Do not forget that when transplanting any organ in our body
in each case, an immune rejection reaction occurs
transplant. The brain is a special organ. He shared with thyroid
gland, eyes, testes as if “hidden” from the immune system,
the organism “does not know” about their existence. And this is not good. After all
in case of damage to structures, it will act as an antigen (alien
agent) for all immunity, which will cause a reaction of rejection
transplant. In addition to this nervous tissue has its own
the immune system is microglia cells. Therefore, the reaction will be
to participate and the immunological conflict of the two systems. To avoid
pronounced complications Kanavero will apply immunosuppressants before
operation.

Many doctors do not believe in the possibilities of Kanavero. There is
a few reasons:

  1. The researcher does not take into account the fact that after transection the nerve
    fibers quickly and easily cicatrize.
  2. The experiment on rats took place outside the donation, so a whole
    a number of issues of immunological compatibility, as well as their effects on
    the replacement of the lost functions of the nerve fibers was simply
    discarded.
  3. The results of the study rats were not confirmed by histological
    results, the selection of animals was too small, which allows
    think of unreliability.
  4. Kanavero claims that to restore some of the functions
    only 10-20% fiber fusion is required. But convincing
    there is no evidence of this.
  5. Kanavero denies use by other scientists (before him)
    stimulating the recovery of nervous tissue. However it is already
    was happening. A number of authors published in The Journal of
    Neurotrauma, have achieved the restoration of motor functions of the legs
    five hopeless patients (without the possibility of a full walk).
    They applied electrostimulation, but still believed that their spinal
    the brain was not dead, but rather “numb”.

Science is another interesting case in the field
promising neurosurgery. Scientists from america published in
The Journal of Neuro Engineering and Rehabilitation, could
put one patient on his feet with the consequences of extensive injury in
form of lower paraplegia. Doctors have created a system that transmits nervous
signals as if “past” damaged areas – directly from the brain to
leg muscles. Outwardly, it looked like a helmet and knee pads.

The scientific community believes that the success of Kanavero depends largely
from the latest technologies in neurosurgery and transplantology, which
will be ahead of our medicine by as much as 50-100 years. Also needed
joint work of doctors, biologists, engineers, technicians,
immunologists, geneticists. The transplant operation can not pass just
so, this is a massive event. In addition, all previous attempts
animal transplants and connections
doubtful.

Who knows, maybe a lot of noise around this topic
precisely because of the attempt to transplant the head. After all, Kanavero and Xiaoping
explore and new methods for recovering from injuries and
paralysis. Time will tell all the plans of scientists.

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