Schizophrenia is a polymorphic mental disorder,
characterized by the decay of affects, thought processes and
perception. Earlier in the specialized literature indicated that
Schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population, but recent large-scale
studies have shown a lower figure – 0.4-0.6%
population. Симптомы и признаки шизофрении могут
begin to occur at any age, but most often the disease
occurs after 15 and up to 25 years. It is interesting that by incomprehensible
reasons, the female population is more prone to mental
frustration than men.
Let’s find out: what is schizophrenia and how is it manifested in
human, and what is the cause and whether it is possible to treat this
What is schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a mental illness for which
characteristic is a distortion of thinking (in the form of delirium) and perception (in the form of
hallucinations). The term “schizophrenia” literally means “splitting
reason, which does not quite reflect the essence of this disease,
because as many confuse it with dissociative disorder
personality (in the people – a split personality).
The schizophrenic does not realize the reality of what is happening around. Thoughts
arising in his imagination, and all those events that occur
in reality, shuffled in the head.
Information penetrated into the consciousness of such a person represents
a chaotic set of colored paintings, all kinds of sounds and
meaningless images. It often happens that schizophrenic does
отрицает существующую реальность — он проживает жизнь в своём
Schizophrenia is often combined with depression, anxious
disorders, drug addiction and alcoholism. Significantly increases
risk of suicide. It is the third most common cause
disability after dementia and tetraplegia. Often leads
behind a pronounced social maladjustment, turning around
unemployment, poverty and homelessness.
Men and women suffer from schizophrenia equally often, however
citizens – more often, poor – more often (more stress). If the patient is
male, the disease has an earlier onset and severe course, and
The reasons возникновения:
- genetic predisposition;
- prenatal factors (for example, development of abnormalities in
the result of problems with abnormal intrauterine development
- social factors (background urbanization contributes to growth
- experiences in early childhood can cause
- environmental factors;
- brain injury during childbirth or immediately after it;
- social isolation;
- alcoholism causes schizophrenia and man, and contributes
gene mutation that causes the disease to develop in his
- addiction leads to the development of schizophrenia and gene mutation,
similar to alcohol.
Note the group of stress conditions caused by external
factors that, in turn, can play a role in
- Viral infection that struck the brain during childbirth
- Fetal hypoxia
- Birth of a child before the end of the full term of pregnancy
- The impact of the virus in infancy
- Loss of parents or separation from family
- Physical and Mental Injuries from Domestic Violence
The first signs of schizophrenia
Like any other disease, schizophrenia has first
signs that need to pay attention and
contact a psychiatrist.
Signs of Schizophrenia:
- Inability to perform habitual actions, since the patient is not
sees in them an obvious meaning. For example, does not wash my hair, because
hair gets dirty again;
- Speech disorders, which are mainly expressed in
monosyllabic answers to questions posed. If the patient is still
forced to give a detailed answer, he will speak slowly;
- Low emotional component. Face of the patient
incomprehensible, it is impossible to understand his thoughts, he avoids meeting
eyes with the interlocutor;
- Low focus on any subject or object.
- Anhedonia also belongs to the early signs of the disease. With
this even the activities that previously attracted a person gave him
moments of joy are now completely uninteresting.
- Affective inadequacy – expressed in a completely
inadequate response to various events and actions. For example,
when he sees a drowning person, he laughs, and when receiving any
good news – crying, etc.
Think about the disease is in the following cases:
- drastic changes in character
- the appearance of neurotic symptoms – persistent fatigue,
increased alarm, constant
- rechecking decisions and actions
- vague sensations in the body.
A person prone to developing schizophrenia loses interest in life,
family, notes depression, suddenly takes a great interest
alcohol, draws gloomy pictures.
It is worth noting that these symptoms in one way or another can
manifest in every person, so diagnose the signs
schizophrenia needs a qualified specialist.
Given the clinical symptoms in the DSM-4 are five types
- Параноидная шизофрения — характеризуется ненарушенными
thought processes, the patient mainly suffers from delusions
and hallucinations. Mostly paranoid delusions prevail
delirium of greatness, persecution or exposure. Emotional
disorders are not very pronounced, sometimes not at all.
- Дезорганизованная шизофрения (гебефреническая) –
thought disorders and emotional flattening are detected.
- TOататоническая шизофрения – преобладают психомоторные
- Недифференцированная шизофрения – выявляется психотическая
symptoms that do not fit into the catatonic picture,
hebephrenic or paranoid schizophrenia
- Sluggish, neurosis-like schizophrenia: age of appearance from
16 to 25 years on average. There is no clear boundary between the initial and
manifest periods. Neurosis-like phenomena dominate.
There is schizophrenic psychopathization, but the patient may
work, maintain family and communication links. With этом
it is clear that the person is “corrupted” by the disease.
Symptoms of schizophrenia in adults
In patients with schizophrenia, there is a combination of disorders in
мышлении, восприятии, а также эмоционально-волевые violations.
The duration of symptoms is observed for about a month, but more
reliable diagnosis is possible to establish within 6 months
observation of the patient. Often, the first stage is diagnosed
transient psychotic disorder with symptoms
schizophrenia-like disorders as well as symptoms
Positive symptoms include symptoms that were previously in healthy people.
человека не было и появились они только при развитии schizophrenia. Thats
there is, in this case, the word “positive” is not used in the sense
�“Good”, and reflects only the fact that something new has appeared. Thats
there is a certain increase in the qualities inherent in man. TO
The positive symptoms of schizophrenia include the following:
- State of arousal;
- Inadequate behavior.
Negative symptoms and signs of schizophrenia
- Inhibition – the patient loses the ability to respond quickly
and make decisions, not able to keep up the conversation.
- Emotional coldness – the edge is erased in mimic and
voice expression of feelings. The monotony of speech and
�”Frozen” facial expressions.
- Asociality – it becomes difficult for a person to dwell in society.
He goes bad on contact and makes acquaintances.
- Low concentration of attention, which makes it impossible
lead a normal life, go to work, indulge your loved ones
by deeds. Even the handwriting is distorted.
- Loss of interest in what is happening. In contrast, appear
obsessive ideas on which a person is fixated. Productive
life becomes unreal.
Due to lack of motivation, schizophrenics often cease
leave the house, do not perform hygienic manipulations (do not clean
teeth, do not wash, do not monitor clothes, etc.), as a result
acquire a neglected, scruffy and repulsive appearance.
With the course of the disease, symptoms of emotional manifestations of schizophrenia
weaken to the point of emotional dullness.
- Emotional decline affects the whole appearance of the patient,
facial expressions and behavior.
- His voice becomes monotonous, expressionless.
- The face loses expressiveness and becomes motionless.
(sometimes a masked face, monotone voices, angular
movements, their stiffness are manifestations of side effects
medication, this should be considered).
TOак проявляется болезнь шизофрения: галлюцинации, бред и
Before defining schizophrenia in humans, it is recommended
watch him. In patients with this pathology appears
distorted picture of the environment created by your own
consciousness based on the original correct signals.
The onset of the disease (manifest period) is characterized by:
- Delusions of pursuit, relationships, values, high
origin, endowed with a special purpose and ridiculous nonsense
jealousy, as well as delusions impact.
- Hearing true, as well as pseudohallucinations
commenting, controversial judging.
- Sexy, olfactory, taste, and also somatic
Hallucinations are called perception disorders and
the appearance of phenomena (objects, sensations) where there are none. They
may be visual, auditory, tactile, and so on. For
schizophrenia is characterized by auditory hallucinations of various contents.
Auditory hallucinations, or “voices,” occur in a person inside
heads or from some objects.
There are four types of hallucinatory disorders:
- слуховые – наиболее характерны для schizophrenia. In the head
patient or from surrounding objects a voice appears that
comments, criticizes a person’s actions, or instructs him,
how to live and what to do;
- tactile – develop less auditory. A patient can
it seems that boiling water is poured on his skin or, conversely, ice water.
Also, patients may complain about the feeling that inside them
someone lives (fish swim through the veins, a snake crawls in the stomach);
- обонятельные – самые невыразительные hallucinations. Person
complains about the presence of odors that no one but him
- зрительные – крайне редко появляются при schizophrenia.
Auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia occur
in the following way:
- self-talk, conversation-like or retaliation
реплики на чьи-то вопросы (конечно, кроме замечаний типа «TOуда же я
did you get the keys? ”);
- laughter for no apparent reason;
- the impression that a person sees and hears that no one else
does not perceive;
- sudden silence as if he were to something
- anxious or anxious look;
- inability to focus on the topic of conversation or
a specific task.
Rave — это совокупные убеждения, выводы и умозаключения, которые
different from reality. Before it manifests
schizophrenia in acute form, the patient is delirious and suffers
There are several tips for recognizing schizophrenia with
manifestation of delirium. This is indicated by the following main features:
- changes in behavior, the appearance of unmotivated
- persistent stories of implausible nature like vivid
- unfounded fear for their lives and health;
- manifestation of fear in the form of voluntary confinement at home, fear
- constant annoying complaints to the authorities for no reason.
With прогрессировании недуга пациент становится конфликтным и
explosive. With течении болезни особое внимание врач уделяет
Reasoning – empty reasoning of a permanent nature. With этом
missing the ultimate goal of reasoning. With агедонии утрачивается
the ability to enjoy something.
Exacerbation of schizophrenia
Relapse or exacerbation of schizophrenia is the development of the acute phase,
in which the disorder takes an active course, manifests itself
productive symptoms, diminished or completely lost
adequate assessment of their condition. Similar condition of the patient
can lead to adverse consequences, both for the
carrier of the disease, and for others. In this regard, a special
early recognition of signs of exacerbation
Factors contributing to the exacerbation of schizophrenia are:
- Отмена лекарств – является одной из самых частых причин,
according to which remission decompensation occurs.
- Соматическая патология – также провоцирует обострения.
Most often it is a cardiovascular, respiratory pathology.
или болезни почек.
- Инфекции – часто сопровождаются развитием
- Стресс – также приводит к декомпенсации состояния
the patient. TOонфликты в семье, в кругу друзей, на работе являются
inducers of psychotic states.
With появлении первых признаков психоза необходимо обратиться к
to the attending physician. Native carrier disorder and the patient himself already
familiar with the manifestations of the disease, so even minor
changes should alert them, especially in the spring and autumn
Treatment of schizophrenia is carried out primarily to reduce
severe symptoms, reducing the chance of recurrence
disease, as well as returning symptoms after improvement.
Among the methods used to treat schizophrenia, select
- drug therapy;
- electroconvulsive therapy (used in case of inefficiency
drug therapy, involves skipping electrical
impulses through the brain);
- social therapy (involves improving living conditions
patient, long-term implementation of such measures provides
- psychotherapy (used as a supporting method
treatment, for example, in combination with drug therapy,
helps to alleviate the general condition of the patient).
During remission, maintenance therapy is mandatory, without
inevitably deterioration. TOак правило, пациенты после выписки
feel much better, they believe that they have fully recovered,
stop taking drugs and the vicious circle starts
This disease is not completely cured, but with adequate
therapy can achieve a stable remission in the background
According to experts, people who suffer from schizophrenia,
in some cases they are dangerous primarily for
themselves. Therefore, suicide cases are quite often recorded.
among such patients. Cruelty behavior is also possible.
in those patients who use alcohol or drugs. therefore
intermittent treatment of schizophrenia is mandatory.