Scarlet fever: symptoms and signs of the disease,treatment and prevention

Скарлатина у ребёнкаFrom a large number of infectious children
diseases of particular danger is scarlet fever. Infection caused by
hemolytic streptococcus group A, with the wrong treatment
can lead to numerous purulent complications.

Most often the disease is diagnosed in children who have not reached
ten years.

Infection possibilities

Scarlet fever is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets.
by. Streptococcus group A is spread by coughing and sneezing.
They can also be transmitted through contaminated food, toys or
clothes

Пути заражения скарлатиной

Человек может заразиться от:

  • The one who already fell ill with scarlet fever. The disease is especially contagious.
    in the first days of infection in the body, even when not all
    symptoms appeared.
  • Recently recovered person, since even after
    condition has improved, bacteria continue to be released into the surrounding
    Wednesday about three weeks.
  • The carrier of hemolytic streptococcus. In humans can
    no symptoms of the disease, but at the same time on the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx
    he has bacteria that are dangerous to others. According to statistics, in
    The world has about 15% of such carriers.
  • A person suffering from angina or pharyngitis, if the disease
    caused by streptococci A.

The patient becomes contagious to others the day before
first signs of illness appear. Incubation period
the disease lasts 2−5 days. In some cases, he may
shrink to a day or even a few hours. There are cases
when a person in contact with a patient with scarlet fever fell ill
only 12 days later.

More often всего скарлатину диагностируют у деток в возрасте
от 2 до 10 лет
. For those who have been ill, life is produced.
immunity, so that an adult will not be able to get sick again,
if he was in contact with a sick child. If the person is not
had this infection in childhood, he can catch infection
from a sick son or daughter. The course of the disease in adulthood
may be different and depends on the immunity of the sick. In babies
up to a year it is extremely rare to diagnose this infectious disease.
This is because they are protected by maternal immune cells,
present in the bloodstream.

Doctors identify certain risk factors for scarlet fever infection.
Считается, что больше всего шансов заболеть у детей со
следующими заболеваниями и патологиями
:

  • chronic tonsillitis;
  • diathesis, atopic dermatitis;
  • pathologically low weight;
  • AIDS or other immune disorders;
  • diabetes;
  • chronic diseases in the nasopharynx.

Symptoms of infection

Симптомы скарлатины у детейScarlet fever pathogen
Streptococcus group A, entering the body, begins to allocate
erytotoxin. It is this toxic substance that spreads through
the body causes the onset of symptoms of the disease.

To miss the onset of the disease is difficult because she
начинается с сильного повышения температуры. She is
can reach 39−40 degrees and is accompanied by fever. because of
strong intoxication of the body, the baby becomes sleepy, lethargic,
irritable, refuses to eat. There is a strong headache.
pain, aching all over, pain when swallowing. Vomiting may begin
or diarrhea.

because of расширения сосудов на 1−3 день болезни начинает
manifest rash that looks like small points of cherry or
bright pink, merging with each other. Outwardly, they look like
small points, but on the folds of the limbs turn into linear
bands that in medicine is called the symptom Pastia. Usually when
scarlet fever is not observed pruritus. Rashes begin with neck
and chest, and then quickly spread throughout the body.

When you press the rash become more visible. More often
всего красные пятнышки можно заметить
:

  • on the cheeks;
  • on the crook of the limbs;
  • on the side of the body;
  • in the groin.

The nasolabial triangle and chin are not covered with a rash and
look very pale. A characteristic symptom of the disease is also
considered scarlet fever language. First, it is covered with white bloom,
and 3-4 days of illness becomes bright red and grainy, size
papillae increase. A mild rash is possible.
yellow sclera. Lips in a sick child are dry and
cracked.

При скарлатине ярко выражена ангина. More often всего
it proceeds hard enough, as streptococcus, getting on
mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, settles on the tonsils and secretes
toxins. The child begins to “glow” pharynx, becoming bright red and
sore and tonsils covered with pus. Sore throat
expressed difficulty in swallowing, swelling and soreness
local lymph nodes.

Angina with scarlet fever can develop in various forms.
Ангина при скарлатинеDepending on the manifestations
различают
:

  • catarrhal;
  • follicular;
  • necrotic;
  • false fibrinous.

The rash lasts about a week, then gradually begins to go,
giving way to flaking skin. Mostly peeling is localized on
palms, in the neck, auricles, on the body. Flaking
skin can last up to six weeks.

The course of the disease is divided into several
этапов
:

  • Incubation period, продолжающийся 2−7 days At this stage
    the infection does not manifest itself.
  • The initial stage – continues throughout the day.
  • Active stage. At this time, you can notice all the symptoms.
    scarlet fever Продолжается 4−5 days
  • Stage of recovery. May last from 7 to 21 days. Disease
    gradually passes, the child recovers.

Forms of the disease

The disease can be expressed in a typical and atypical form. From
this depends on the course of the disease and its symptoms.

AT медицине известны следующие степени тяжести типичной
скарлатины
:

  • Лёгкая форма скарлатиныEasy The temperature of the patient is not
    exceeds 38 degrees, there is no nausea, vomiting, headache.
    Sore throat does not take purulent form. The language becomes crimson, on
    there are small nipples. Rash a small amount she
    pale, peeling after that does not happen. In some patients
    the disease can go completely without rash. Elevated
    температура и ангина держатся около пяти days Usually this form
    observed in most patients. Easy flow of scarlet fever
    promotes immunity, physical activity and
    healthy food.
  • Average. The temperature of the patient rises to 39−40 degrees
    hallucinations and delusions may be present. Fromмечается сильная
    headache, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting. Possible state
    scarlet heart disease when a child complains of recurring pain
    behind the sternum and shortness of breath. The rash appears a lot, it is bright red and
    merges into large spots. The greatest rashes are observed on
    elbow bends, groin and armpits. After the disappearance of the skin rash on
    The body is flaky. A strong child is diagnosed in a sick child.
    sore throat, tonsils on pus.
  • Heavy This form in the modern world is diagnosed extremely
    rarely and is the most dangerous. Temperature in this case
    rises to 41 degrees, accompanied by delirium and
    hallucinations.

Doctors distinguish three types of severe form.
скарлатины
:

  • Toxic, accompanied by severe intoxication
    organism, which can lead to death;
  • Septic, in which purulent inflammation captures
    nasopharynx, middle ear and lymph nodes;
  • Toxic-septic, combining all of these symptoms.
    This is the most dangerous type of disease.

Atypical scarlet fever can also be expressed
differently:

loading...
  • Blurred shape. There is no rash, and all the rest
    manifestations of the disease are mild. With this form of disease in
    complications may begin as the parents are not in time
    See a doctor and do not begin treatment. It should be remembered that when
    this form of the disease the patient is infectious.
  • Hypertoxic. Currently, you can meet very
    seldom. The patient is diagnosed with signs of severe poisoning.
    because of токсического шока человек может впасть в кому.
  • Hemorrhagic, in which the skin and even internal organs
    hemorrhages are observed.
  • Extrafaringealnaya. Infection is not normal
    through airborne droplets, and through cuts on the skin.

Features of treatment

Parents should be aware of the symptoms of scarlet fever in children and treatment.
this disease to avoid complications. Treatment methods
apply depending on the form of the disease. With mild or
The average form of a sick child can be left at home. In heavy
cases, treatment is carried out only in the hospital under permanent
medical supervision.

Антигистаминные препараты для лечения скарлатины

At the first sign of illness, the patient must observe
strict bed rest. This will help avoid heavy
complications.

If you suspect scarlet fever, you should immediately call a doctor on
house. The sick person should be immediately isolated from the rest.
family members to avoid infection.

Лечение скарлатины проводится при помощи следующих
препаратов
:

  • Antihistamines. You can use Zodak, Zyrtec,
    Fenistil and others.
  • Medicines that strengthen the immune system and support the body.
    Doctors usually prescribe drugs that can relieve inflammation and
    having a detoxification effect. Babies are often prescribed
    gamma globulin.
  • Antibiotics. Antibiotic therapy is essential when
    лечении scarlet fever They are selected individually, given
    child’s age and condition. To fight streptococci more often
    Penicillin preparations are used in total. At home
    pills or syrups, for example,
    Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Augmentin. Usually a course of antibiotics
    составляет 7−10 days
  • Vitamins that support the body during the period of struggle with
    a disease.
  • Gargles with a decoction of chamomile, calendula, eucalyptus,
    solution of furatsilina, hlorofillipta, soda. The procedure is performed not
    less than five times a day.

When the temperature rises, antipyretic drugs are used, and
also physical methods: airing the room, rubbing the body
cool water.

Day routine and baby toilet

Рекомендации педиатра для лечения скарлатиныNot yet
normal temperature, the patient should stay in bed. AT
The acute phase of the disease should be consumed as much as possible.
It should be a warm drink: tea, compote. Good fruit drinks from
cranberries, currants, herbal teas and teas with herbs. Food should be liquid
or semi-liquid: soup, mashed potatoes, cereals. Hot and cold
dishes and drinks injure the inflamed mucous membrane. Protein products
should be limited.

Many parents are interested in the question whether it is possible to bathe a child while
симптомах scarlet fever The treatment of this infectious disease is not
is an obstacle to the implementation of hygiene procedures.
Bathing will help to reduce the itching of the skin, so that the child will not
comb the body. При этом необходимо соблюдать
определенные правила
:

  • ATода в ванне должна быть 36−37 градусов.
  • Do not take a bath at elevated temperatures. AT этом
    In case of bathing, it should be replaced with rubbing.
  • The skin should not be rubbed with a sponge or sponge.
  • Soap foam is best washed not from the shower, but from a scoop.
  • After bathing, you can not wipe the child with a towel. Worth slightly
    wet the skin with a soft sheet or diaper.

AT период, пока у ребенка держится высокая температура,
следует производить ежедневный туалет:

  • Eye rinsing with cotton pads and boiled water;
  • Washing face with boiled water;
  • Cleansing of the nasal passages with cotton flagella soaked in
    petroleum jelly;
  • Cleansing the auditory passages with cotton flagella moistened
    in hydrogen peroxide.
  • Rub the natural folds with boiled water.

Hygienic requirements

ATлажная уборка в комнате у ребёнкаIf the house is
scarlet fever patient, the rest of the family must be observed
certain requirements.

AT комнате заболевшего в обязательном порядке проводится
daily wet cleaning. Airing is carried out several times.
in a day. AT теплую погоду можно держать окно постоянно открытым.

ATсе члены семьи должны носить медицинские маски. Mask
It is recommended to change every two hours. Can also be used
oxolinic ointment as a prophylaxis.

Disease prevention

AT последнее время скарлатина у детей встречается не так часто. AT
Mostly this is due to proper prevention measures.
of this disease. If a child is sick in a children’s team, then
quarantine is set for seven days. Ill is not allowed in
school or kindergarten for 22 days from the start
treatment.

Диагностика и профилактика скарлатины

Children in contact with scarlet fever are advised
enter the drug bicillin. It does not allow pathogen multiplication.
microbes entering the body. From скарлатины не делают прививки,
since in most cases the disease is easily tolerated and
does not lead to death.

Scarlet fever is diagnosed on the basis of several
показателей
:

  • Epidemiological situation. If you suspect this infection
    find out whether there is a sick in school, kindergarten or
    the neighborhood.
  • Clinical manifestations. Oral cavity examination
    throat, skin, lymph nodes, measured
    temperature.
  • Laboratory research. AT обязательном порядке следует взять
    general and clinical blood test and throat swab for the presence of
    streptococci.

ATозможные осложнения

ATозможные осложнения скарлатины у детейComplications with
scarlet fever may occur due to the rapid spread
infections in the body and inflammation of various organs. Erythrotoxin
has the ability to affect cardiovascular, nervous
the system, the kidneys, destroy the red blood cells. Complications are divided into
early and late.

Early can begin in the acute stage of the disease. TO
ним относятся
:

  • otitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • lymphadenitis;
  • nephritis;
  • myocarditis;
  • arthritis;
  • quinsy;
  • pneumonia.

Late complications are diagnosed 3–5 weeks after the onset.
diseases. They are due to damage to the immune system.
toxins and allergic reactions to proteins that are
contained in streptococcal bacteria. Since the composition of these substances
the composition of proteins in the tissues of the heart and joints, as a result
accumulating them in the body can develop rheumatism or
myocarditis.

With timely diagnosis and proper treatment
Scarlet fever is not dangerous to the health and life of the patient.
AT современных условиях это заболевание диагностируется достаточно
rarely due to preventive measures.

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