Salmonellosis – what is it, symptoms, firstsigns in adults, causes, treatment and diet

Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease caused by
salmonella. Distributed this infection everywhere, suffer
from her both adults and children. In most cases, salmonellosis
proceeds with gastrointestinal disorders, symptoms
dehydration and intoxication.

Next, consider what the disease is, what ways of transmission,
why it is important to start treatment after the first signs.

What is salmonellosis?

Сальмонеллез

Salmonellosis is a bacterial infection that affects
human and animal transmitted by the fecal-oral route
(the pathogen is excreted in faeces and enters the body through
mouth), usually affects the stomach and small intestine.

People have a high susceptibility to salmonellosis. Power
the severity of the developed infection depends on a complex of factors like
external (the number of pathogens ingested, their antigenic
composition and biological features) and internal (state
protective systems of the human body, comorbidities, in
particular digestive system).

The most severe infection occurs in infants (especially
premature) and elderly people. Post-infectious immunity
unstable, saved no more than a year.

Salmonella: what is it?

Сальмонелла

The causative agent of intestinal infection (salmonellosis) belongs to the genus
salmonella (shigella, salmonella) and is gram negative
enterobacteria that does not form spores. In appearance, microorganisms
resemble a longitudinal stick with slightly rounded edges. Length
salmonella spp – 1–5 microns, width – from 0.33 to 0.7 microns.

Favorable temperature for existence – 35–37 degrees
above zero. Salmonella can survive even with a cold snap (from +7)
or significant warming (+45).  Bacteria are resistant to
external factors, and their life cycle can last very
long in environments such as:

Salmonella life
room dust
  • up to 90 days
open reservoirs
  • from 10 to 125 days
sausage, meat, milk
  • 2–6 months
  • frozen – up to a year
eggs
  • 10–12 months, in shell up to 1 month
butter
  • up to 4 months

Infectious onset is not only conserved, but also capable of
reproduction. The taste of products and the appearance does not change.
Smoking, salting, freezing food does not lead to death
infectious onset.

Once in the stomach with intestines, Salmonella bacterium reaches
small intestine, where it is captured by epithelial cells and penetrates
in the mucosa. Here its reproduction takes place, which causes
inflammatory mucosal changes, and the bacterium spreads
further into the blood and lymph nodes.

As the death of obsolete salmonella, the constant
intoxication of the body. Microcirculation is disturbed,
transport of ions, which leads to a dramatic release of water and
electrolytes in the intestinal lumen of the cells.

Causes of salmonellosis

Experts classify pathogen transmission factors
salmonellosis as follows:

  • Fecal-oral. If the grocery store worker or
    an employee of a cafe is infected, then it is likely that they will soon become infected.
    visitor to these outlets.
  • Water. Drinking raw water often causes
    infection of a significant number of people.
  • Domestic. The causative agent of salmonellosis is transmitted from person to
    person when shaking hands or using personal hygiene items
    bacteria carrier.

Sources of pathogenic salmonella can be:

  • Sick people and carriers (the pathogen is allocated with
    feces).
  • Infected animals (poultry, pigs, cattle,
    cats, dogs).
  • Contaminated water (when human feces or
    animals).
  • Продукты питания (сырые eggs, мясо, непастеризованное
    milk, green vegetables contaminated with manure).

An important feature is the fact that Salmonella, once
directly in food, not conducive to changing them
appearance, due to which only increases the risk of possible
infection.

Salmonellosis outbreaks predominantly last
long, moreover, they are characterized by a fairly high level
mortality. Often these flashes occur during warm periods.
of the year.

First signs

When the first symptoms of salmonellosis appear, call a doctor
able to assist. Features include:

  • heat;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • pain in the abdomen, he growls, swollen;
  • liquid, watery, slimy stools, if thick
    intestines – with blood;
  • frequent feeling of needing to defecate;
  • weakness, headache;
  • decrease in pressure, frequent heartbeat.

Symptoms of Salmonellosis in Adults

After salmonella enters the body, the incubation takes place
a period that usually lasts for 12 to 24 hours. Less often
it can last 6 to 12 hours or 24 to 48 hours. Further
symptoms of the disease develop.

Гастроинтестинальный сальмонеллез

Localized form (gastrointestinal), the course of the disease
happens in

  • gastritic;
  • gastroenteric;
  • in gastroenterocolitic option.

Gastrointestinal forms – the most common. The disease begins
after a few hours, a maximum of 2 days from
infection.

  • Increased temperature.
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Abdominal pain, rumbling, bloating.
  • The chair is liquid, watery, mixed with mucus, with involvement
    colon may be blood in the feces and false urges to
    defecation.
  • Headaches, weakness, but there may be severe lesions
    nervous system, up to delirium, convulsions and loss of consciousness.
  • Palpitations, lowering blood pressure.

Gastroenteric form of salmonellosis

This form is characterized by a combination of signs of disruption
digestive tract and general intoxication of the body:

  • fever, chills, cold
    perspiration;
  • headache;
  • body aches;
  • tremor of the upper and lower extremities;
  • decrease in tactile, tendon and muscle reflexes;
  • nausea and vomiting.

An hour later, the clinical picture of salmonellosis is aggravated by diarrhea,
sometimes impurities of mucus and fresh blood are found in the feces. Character
stool: foamy and watery structure, changes color with
brown to greenish. Human skin becomes
pale and mucous membranes dry.

Characterным симптомом гастроэнтерического сальмонеллеза является
cyanosis of the nasolabial fold. In the stomach rumbling is noted,
the victim has a feeling of distention and bloating.

Gastroenterocolitic salmonellosis:

  • The onset of the disease is characterized by the manifestation of conditions
    accompanying the previous, gastroenteritic version of it
    course, but by the 2-3rd day of the disease is noted
    decrease in the volume of feces, and in them already appears
    mucus and in some cases blood.
  • Palpation (palpation) of the abdomen allows to determine the presence
    spasm of the colon and in general its soreness.
  • Often the act of defecation is accompanied by false desires with
    soreness (tenesmus). In this case, the disease his clinic
    in many ways similar to the acute form of the course of dysentery.

Generalized salmonellosis

The generalized form can proceed in typhoid-like
variant, with gastrointestinal
phenomena.

  • Subsequent on the abatement of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea increases
    fever and signs of intoxication (headache, insomnia,
    severe weakness), while the fever becomes permanent or
    wavy character.
  • On examination, the patient can sometimes mark the elements
    hemorrhagic skin rash, found on day 3-5
    hepatosplenomegaly.
  • Characterна умеренная артериальная гипотензия, относительная
    bradycardia.
  • The clinical picture resembles that of typhoid fever.

Typhoid form

Typhoid-like fever during the week, intoxication, delirium,
hallucinations. A rash is visible on the abdomen, the tongue is gray-brown, and the skin
pale, distended abdomen, internal organs enlarged. Goes through
1.5 months.

Септический сальмонеллез

Septic type of the disease: extremely rare
mainly in people in old age, small children under one year, and
also with weakened immunity. Proceeds with high fever,
chills, strong sweating, jaundice, and the most
dangerous is the development of purulent inflammation in the internal
organs and tissues. With this form of salmonellosis, a high
процент mortality.

Bacterial species

Форма болезни характеризуется отсутствием клинических
симптомов сальмонеллеза, но при этом в бактериологических
clinical studies of blood and feces detected salmonella:

Salmonellosis form
Sharp salmonella release from 2 weeks to 3 months
convalescents after manifest forms
Chronic excretion of bacteria longer than 3 months.
Transient salmonella excretion in clinical settings
showed a positive result only 2-3 times among the rest
negative testimony within 3 months.

Asymptomatic form: occurs when the body has been
affected by a small number of bacteria. In people with high
immune symptoms of salmonellosis do not appear and the body
able to fight the disease itself.

If the disease occurs in the form of a lesion of the stomach and
intestine, or in the form of typhoid, the prognosis is favorable – with
correct and timely treatment, all patients recover.
If the disease is in the form of sepsis, then 0.2 – 0.3% of patients
dies.

Diagnostics

The preliminary diagnosis is based on the inherent salmonellosis.
clinical picture and evidence of the group nature of the disease, and
To confirm the diagnosis, conduct laboratory tests:

  1. Bacteriological examination of feces, vomit, and
    analysis of suspicious products that the patient consumed.
  2. Serological diagnosis (determination of antibodies to Salmonella
    in the patient’s blood).

Types of bacteria:

  • острое – сохраняется до 3 месяцев, при этом человек
    healthy, but salmonella is detected in tests;
  • хроническое – сохраняется дольше 3 месяцев;
  • транзиторное – спустя некоторое время после выздоровления
    the patient has salmonella, and after that all analyzes
    are negative.

People who are close to the bacterium emitter should strictly
follow the rules of personal hygiene. There should be no common items.
personal use.

Salmonellosis Treatment

Children and elderly people need hospitalization, and
also patients in critical condition. Rest
категории больных могут проходить лечение сальмонеллеза
в домашних условиях (соблюдая рекомендации врача), при этом не
it is worth forgetting about the measures of secondary prevention to prevent
contamination of others.

In case of refusal of hospitalization due to a mild form of the disease
лечение сальмонеллеза у взрослых состоит из:

  • gastric lavage;
  • anti-diarrheal medication Enterofuril;
  • cleansing enema;
  • reception of sorbents – means Polysorb, activated carbon,
    Filtrum, Smecta or Enterosgel;
  • rejection of sudden movements, compliance with the diet;
  • if diarrhea is prolonged, dehydration occurs, then drink
    solutions of Regidron, Oralit;
  • to cure digestion – taking Festal tablets,
    Mezime;
  • to be treated for the normalization of microflora – taking probiotics;
  • drinking natural decoctions of herbs.

Drink

Preference should be given to salt solutions. In the pharmacy
powders for their preparation are sold – rehydron, oralit,
citroglucosolan.

Standard composition – for 1 liter of water:

  • 20 g of glucose (8 teaspoons);
  • 1.5 g of potassium chloride (sold in a pharmacy, as
    alternatives – compote of raisins or dried apricots);
  • 2.5 g of soda (half a teaspoon);
  • 3.5 g of salt (a teaspoon without top).

It is necessary to drink a little, but often, ideally – do a few
sips every 5-10 minutes. Preferably in the first 4-6 hours
drink 300–400 ml. per hour, and then about a glass after each
defecation.

Diet

For patients suffering from salmonellosis, is intended
special diet (referred to as treatment table number 4). Her main
The task is:

  • in reducing chemical and mechanical stress
    food consumed in the inflamed tissue of the intestinal mucous membranes
    shells;
  • in restoring normal intestinal microflora.

The peculiarity of the first days of the therapeutic diet is its
energy deficiency prescribing use
the normal amount of protein and the minimum (at the level of the lower
the boundaries of the norm) the amount of fat and carbohydrates. As you improve
general patient status list of approved products gradually
increases.

What not to eat?

During the illness and at least two weeks after
the disappearance of all symptoms, it is necessary to completely eliminate
The following products:

  • Citrus.
  • Fatty meat and fish.
  • Smoked, fried and marinated products.
  • Baking and sweets.
  • Barley, millet, yachku and oatmeal should be excluded from cereals.
  • Strong tea and coffee, as well as soda.
  • Coarse fiber – cabbage, beans, radishes, radish, etc.

Permitted Products

What can you eat with salmonellosis:

  • Fish and meat low-fat varieties
  • White bread, dried or crackers.
  • Porridge – rice, semolina and buckwheat on water and without oil.
  • Dairy products
  • Fruits – apples, bananas
  • Fresh fruit and vegetable puree
  • Classic mashed potatoes on the water
  • Compotes
  • Kissel.

The duration of the diet after suffering salmonellosis depends on
many factors:

  • general condition of the body;
  • type of infection;
  • features of the clinical picture;
  • age of the patient.

As a rule, adults with well-functioning immune
system enough monthly stay on a sparing diet.

When the first signs of salmonellosis appear,
обратитесь за помощью к  инфекционисту или гастроэнтерологу.
With proper treatment, the disease will quickly pass and will not leave.
complications.

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