One of the most common viral infections
occurring predominantly in childhood is
rubella. This is a viral disease that in most
cases proceeds in a mild form, accompanied by short-term
fever, small rash, increase all
lymph nodes. Rubella children most often get sick
early and preschool age, the so-called risk group – from 1
up to 7 years. Older children suffer much less frequently.
What are the first signs, what is the incubation period, and how
to treat the disease – consider next.
What is rubella?
Rubella in children is a disease belonging to the group.
infectious, viral nature, the main symptoms of which
temperature increase, common small-point is considered
body rash and catarrhal symptoms on the side of the respiratory system.
The rubella virus tolerates freezing, for
a few hours keeps its aggressiveness at room
temperature, quickly perishes under the influence of an ultraviolet,
heating and disinfectants.
Factors that kill the rubella virus:
- the action of acids and alkalis (the virus is destroyed by decreasing the pH
less than 6.8 and an increase of more than 8.0);
- exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
- the action of esters;
- formalin action;
- action disinfectants.
Ways of transmission
A person can only get rubella from another person.
The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets (the virus enters the
air from the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs of a sick person,
and then inhaled healthy). Most cases of infection
occurs during the incubation period when the virus has already settled in
body, but has not yet manifested itself by external signs.
Ways of transmission краснухи:
- Transplacental (especially in the first trimester
- In young children, the virus can be passed from mouth to mouth through
Carrier Rubella virus is dangerous to others from
the second half of the incubation period: a week before the rash and
a week after.
The risk of morbidity is great for those who have never been sick and have not been
vaccinated, under this category of people fall children 2-9 years. For flashes
incidence is characterized by seasonality – winter-spring.
Epidemic outbreaks recur every 10 years. After
postponed disease forms a persistent life
immunity, but according to some sources, it is still possible to re-
When released into the external environment, the microorganism retains its
aggressive properties for 5 – 8 hours depending on
dryness and air temperature.
Incubation period при краснухе — от 10 дней до
25. Считается, что дети, у которых заболевание протекает без
any manifestations or with mild symptoms are
stronger sources of infection than children with obvious signs
A baby can get rubella if it has been in contact with:
- infected people who have all the characteristic
- patients with atypical form of the disease (with uncharacteristic
There can be no rash during the rubella and many
- infants diagnosed with congenital disease
(in these children, the virus in the body can multiply 1.5
of the year).
Typical symptoms of the disease are noticeable at the end of the incubation period.
How does rubella begin: первые признаки у ребенка
Withзнаки краснухи у детей часто напоминают корь и
скарлатину во многом из-за характера высыпаний. Red
specks appear rapidly, quickly cover the entire surface
body. The first are localized on the neck, face, head, later
spread to the back, buttocks, the surface of the limbs.
How does rubella begin:
- First, these symptoms appear: nasal congestion, pain in
throat, weakness, drowsiness, temperature.
- Further enlarged lymph nodes and their
swelling. Palpation marked tenderness.
- The most characteristic symptom in the diagnosis – red
The course of the infectious process in rubella in children is divided
for several periods:
- incubation (from the moment of infection in the body
a person before the development of the initial symptoms of the disease));
- precursor period (prodromal);
- period of rash;
- convalescence (recovery).
How does rubella look: photo of children with a rash
How is rubella manifested and looks, not everyone knows
parents and often confuse this disease with a typical cold or
Colds But it is necessary to thoroughly diagnose each such case.
and take measures to prevent the complications of infection that
may affect brain structures, nerve fibers,
spinal cord and connective tissue. Particularly often affected walls
small blood vessels.
Next page shows rubella in children in the photo, where
skin rashes are illustrated, and the appearance of swollen
lymph nodes in the back of the neck:
Rash with rubella in children is localized around the ears, cheeks,
areas of the nasolabial triangle, on the neck. After 1 – 2 days
elements spread throughout the body from top to bottom, and after 3
days turn pale and begin to fade. Rashes never take over
skin of palms and feet, and most of all disturb on internal
the surface of the thighs, the outer part of the forearm, on the buttocks.
Rubella symptoms in children
From the time of rubella infection until the first symptoms
the incubation period is over, which lasts 11-24 days
(for most patients – 16 – 20 days). At this time, the virus
penetrates into the cells of the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs, and from there – to
blood flow spreads through the bloodstream throughout the body,
multiplies and accumulates.
In the incubation period, rubella is manifested as:
- temperature rises (slightly);
- sore throat;
- runny nose;
- lymph nodes are enlarged;
- the final symptom is the appearance of a rash.
After 1–1.5 days, there is a sharp pain in the occipital
parts of the neck, the lymph nodes in this area become
fixed and dense, up to 1 cm in diameter. Can be observed:
У детей отмечают следующие симптомы:
- body temperature rises to 38 ° C and lasts 2 days;
- slight increase and slight soreness of the neck and
submandibular lymph nodes;
- throat redness;
- небольшой runny nose;
The eruption of the skin with rubella (rash) appear first on
the face, neck and ear area, after which it quickly spreads over
body down. This process is fast, so sometimes it seems that
rash appeared simultaneously on the whole body.
The highest concentration of elements is observed on the back, buttocks.
and extensor surfaces of the limbs. Rash может быть по всему
body, but in other localizations it is more scarce. Rash обычно не
If children are older, there may be complaints.
parents on pain in the muscles, joints, initially
rashes appear on the face, but then
стартует сыпь на теле, распределяясь по конечностям, туловищу,
The period of rash lasts an average of 3 to 7 days. Then
the child’s condition improves markedly, appetite returns,
there is a cough and sore throat, nasal breathing is easier.
The size and density of the lymph nodes returns to normal later.
14-18 days after the disappearance of the rash.
Complications краснухи, как правило, выявляются при её тяжёлом
current and most often represented by the following pathologies:
- Attachment of a secondary bacterial infection (pneumonia,
- Серозный менингит или энцефалит, характеризующийся
relatively favorable course (this complication may
develop for 4-7 days of illness);
- Thrombocytopenic purpura;
- Intrauterine fetal death;
- Congenital malformations.
The cause of the complications is severe rubella,
lack of treatment, non-compliance with medical prescriptions,
the addition of a secondary infection of a bacterial nature against the background
With the development or suspicion of rubella infection,
should immediately contact a doctor like
Even knowing how rubella manifests in children is not always possible.
unambiguously identify the infection. Considering that the most
�The “talking” sign – a rash – appears near the end of the disease,
it is necessary to establish the diagnosis on the basis of anamnesis, data on
epidemiological situation and laboratory tests.
The diagnostic study includes the following
- Complete blood count (elevated ESR, lymphocytosis, leukopenia,
possible identification of plasma cells).
- Serological examination of nasal mucus (RSK, RIA, ELISA,
- Determination of the concentration of antiviral immunoglobulins.
Diseases similar in symptoms to rubella:
- аденовирусная инфекция — простудное заболевание, при
which increase the lymph nodes;
- enterovirus infection: enteroviruses can infect the intestines
(acute intestinal infection), respiratory system (pneumonia,
colds), skin and lymph nodes;
- корь — вирусное заболевание, которое тоже проявляется в
- инфекционный мононуклеоз — вирусное заболевание, при
which show signs of a cold, increase in lymphatic
nodes, liver, spleen;
- lichen pink – a fungal disease in which appear
spots on the skin;
- крапивница — аллергическая реакция, при которой появляются
red spots on the skin;
- инфекционная эритема — красная кожная сыпь, которая может
occur in some patients with any infectious
Special medicines that might
directly affect the virus, namely rubella, not
developed by The disease usually occurs in mild form and the body
child in the absence of development of complications he copes well with
An important aspect is only the observance of bed rest,
abundant drinking regime, for the rapid elimination of toxins
pathogen from the body as well as the appointment drugs that
contributing to the elimination of symptoms.
Specific treatment is not developed, therefore use:
- bed rest for 3-7 days;
- proper nutrition, taking into account age-related features;
- Etiotropic therapy with the use of viracides (arbidol,
isoprinosine), immunomodulators (interferon, viferon) and
immunostimulants (cycloferon, anaferon).
- detoxification therapy – heavy drinking;
- Ascorutin 500 mg three times a day (to fill the deficit
- Temperature, headache, body aches relieve antispasmodics
and children’s anti-inflammatory drugs: Paracetamol, No-shpa,
- symptomatic therapy (expectorant – certain group
it is used for a specific coughing character, i.e. it cannot be applied
at the same time expectorant and antitussive), mucolytics,
Medicines are prescribed for the prevention of complications and withdrawal.
Treatment of rubella disease in a hospital is required in the event that
if the child develops convulsive syndrome and there are signs
the spread of infection through the blood-brain barrier. AT
In this case, the disease is a threat to health and life.
Principles of treatment of rubella in children under 1 year:
- лечение только в условии инфекционного отделения на
the entire period of rash and infectiousness, for continuous observation of
child medical staff;
- в ряде случаев рекомендована дезинтоксикационная
терапия путем назначения капельниц с различными инфузионными
- антигистаминные препараты назначаются во всех
- симптоматические препараты (против температуры, рвоты,
other drugs with the development of signs of complications);
- vitamins, especially C and A;
- правильный режим питания.
Rubella in children under one year gives a steady lifelong immunity,
which allows you to refuse vaccination in the prescribed
With congenital rubella, several specialists treat the child.
dependence on the affected organs: dermatologist, neurologist,
endocrinologist, ophthalmologist, ENT doctor and others.
Even if the child feels well, he should not attend
kindergarten, school or other public places. The best thing
stay at home for at least a week. It is important to ensure the child
taking vitamins and means that strengthen the immune system. It is also desirable
so that the child drank as much liquid as possible.
The main prevention of rubella is timely
vaccination. It is carried out according to the following scheme: at the age of 1–1.5 years
ребенку делается прививка, а затем в 5–7 лет – реvaccination. After
revaccination to the virus produces a strong immunity.
The main methods of prevention:
- Sick kid is isolated from other children until complete
recovery. Usually ill, from the onset of rash, are isolated on
10 days. Sometimes (if the family or team are pregnant)
the quarantine period is extended to 3 weeks.
- Full exclusion of contact of pregnant women with a sick person. With
contact occurred – re-serology for 10-20 days (identification
asymptomatic course). ATведение иммуноглобулина не предупреждает
the development of rubella in the period of gestation.
- Rubella vaccination is carried out for all children according to the calendar
vaccination. It is made as an intramuscular or subcutaneous injection.
Withвивка через 15-20 дней формирует у ребенка стойкий
иммунитет, который остается активным более 20 лет.