Rhinitis – what it is, causes, types, symptoms andtreatment of rhinitis in adults

Rhinitis – the most common disease of the upper
respiratory tract. In fact, rhinitis is a cold that
is the body’s natural reaction to infection. Development
hypothermia, acute viral infections and
allergens. Therefore, when the first symptoms of congestion
nose should immediately consult a doctor.

What are the causes and symptoms of rhinitis, as well as how to treat the disease
in adults, consider in more detail in the article.

What is rhinitis?

Ринит: что это такое

Ринит – это инфекция, которая поражает слизистую оболочку
nasal cavity and causes a violation of its functions. In the mucosa
the nasal cavity is a large number of blood
vessels.

With rhinitis, blood circulation in the nasal cavity is disturbed and develops.
blood stasis. The liquid part of the blood sucks through the vascular
wall to the surrounding tissue. The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity swells,
obstructing nasal breathing. Resulting in inflammatory
process there is a large amount of discharge.

If the cause of a runny nose in adults is viral or
bacterial origin, pathology usually goes away in 7 days,
less often – one0, subject to compliance with all appointments treating
the doctor.

There are many causes of rhinitis, and
many classifications of this disease, with some
classifications include dozens of subspecies of rhinitis. Overwhelmingly
most cases of rhinitis is one of the manifestations of a common
diseases.

Kinds

Rhinitis in adults may be the first sign of acute
respiratory viral infection (ARVI), influenza, and the onset of
allergic reaction.

The following types of rhinitis are distinguished:

  • allergic,
  • infectious,
  • неallergic, неинфекционный ринит.

Allocate seasonal and year-round allergic rhinitis, as well as
intermittent and persistent flow of each of these forms.

Acute rhinitis

Acute rhinitis имеет инфекционную природу, вызывается вирусами или
bacteria. The likelihood of developing acute rhinitis increases with
reducing the body’s resistance as a result of hypothermia.

For the treatment is recommended the use of warm baths with essential
oils: eucalyptus, mint, fir. In most cases
the acute form of catarrhal rhinitis is completely eliminated by the third
day.

Chronic rhinitis

Chronic rhinitis затягивается на длительное время,
the cause of which may be its improper treatment or complications.
Most often adults suffer from this form of rhinitis, but it can
be observed in children. To understand how to properly treat
chronic rhinitis, you need to know its symptoms exactly.

Atrophic

What it is? Atrophic ринит у взрослых проявляется
dryness and the formation of crusts in the nose, a feeling of tightness,
незначительными периодическими носовыми кровотечениями. With
the spread of atrophy in the olfactory region may decrease
or loss of smell. On rhinoscopy visible dull, dry, pale
mucous membrane covered with yellowish or thin greenish
crusts.

Treatment of atrophic rhinitis includes the use of drugs
local action that improve the condition of the mucous membrane, and
fortifying vitamin therapy.

Vasomotor

Vasomotor ринит возникает в тех случаях, когда речь идет о
the presence of any allergic agent in the nasal cavity. AT
качестве аллергенов могут выступать:

  • house dust,
  • fur,
  • smells of cats and dogs
  • plant pollen,
  • poplar fluff and many other substances.

The most common cause of vasomotor rhinitis in
adult is uncontrolled reception of funds for
сужения vessels. AT результате продолжительного применения таких
drugs that are nasal drops, the body
adult person loses the ability to act reflexively
on the vessels.

Allergic rhinitis

Withчины возникновения аллергического ринита зависят от формы
this cold If the disease is seasonal, then the main cause of it
occurrence may be plant pollen.

Withчины

For effective treatment it is important to establish the cause.
diseases. Elimination of symptoms without eliminating the source from
high probability will lead to the fact that the manifestations of the disease soon
will return.

AT целом можно выделить несколько факторов, которые провоцируют
inflammation of the nasal mucosa in adults:

  • viral infection;
  • hit in the nasal cavity of pathogenic bacteria;
  • reduction of local immunity;
  • hypothermia that creates favorable conditions
    for reproduction in the nasal cavity of pathogenic microorganisms;
  • allergic reaction;
  • hit on a mucous membrane of harmful substances and particles
    (chemical or metallic dust, steam or contaminated
    gas);
  • prolonged exposure to dry hot air;
  • violation of blood microcirculation in the nasal mucosa;
  • long-term use of vasoconstrictor or vasodilator
    drugs of local action.

Symptoms of rhinitis

ринит

The disease begins quickly. A few days later the nose comes out
so much fluid that its amount is difficult to handle. First
rhinitis symptoms can activate another ENT disease
острую респираторную вирусную инфекцию (ОРATИ), а также
provoke the onset of allergic reactions of the body.

Symptoms of acute rhinitis in adults:

  • itching and dryness of the nasal mucosa;
  • sneezing;
  • tearing;
  • weakening of smell;
  • clear, watery discharge, often abundant;
  • nasal voices;
  • mucus and pus secretions in small quantities as
    развития diseases.

ATсё это происходит в результате раздражения рефлексогенных
sections of the mucous membrane. The swelling of the nasal cavity violates
drainage of the paranasal sinuses and the middle ear. It becomes
favorable environment to activate the pathogenic flora, thanks
which develops bacterial complications

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AT зависимости от вида и стадии ринита, симптоматика может
vary from dry irritation in the nasal cavity to serous and
mucopurulent discharge with bloody inclusions.

Stages of rhinitis Symptoms
one Withзнаки первой стадии воспаления носа:

  • Burning of the nasal cavity;
  • Dry mucous membranes;
  • Gradual increase in headache;
  • Temperature increase over 37 degrees.
2 ATо второй стадии ринита появляются:

  • watery discharge from the nose
  • obstruction of nasal breathing, nasalness,
  • the mucous membrane is wet, swollen,
  • in the nasal passages – serous mucous discharge;
3 AT третьей стадии носовое дыхание улучшается:

  • nasal discharge acquires a mucopurulent character,
  • their quantity gradually decreases,
  • the mucous membrane becomes less edematous, pales,
  • in the nasal passages is determined mucopurulent discharge.

After a few days, these symptoms gradually disappear, and
inflammation gradually subsides.

These symptoms and stages of the inflammatory process
in acute rhinitis are classic and in most cases
the occurrence of rhinitis, of specific origin, are the same.

In healthy, active people, rhinitis can
last literally 2-3 days. If the body’s immune defenses
reduced pathology is much more complicated and is accompanied by
severe manifestations of intoxication – fever,
headaches. AT этом случае воспаление может присутствовать 3-4
weeks and even become chronic.

Symptoms of rhinitis у взрослых нельзя игнорировать, независимо от их
character Even a mild runny nose with no proper treatment.
can result in such complications of rhinitis as sinusitis
или фронтит. What to do in case of illness, must decide
doctor.

Complications

Infection from the mucous membrane of the nasal passages with prolonged
running cold without cure or in chronic form
diseases primarily spread to the respiratory tract and
therefore, complications affect precisely this part of the body.

After a cold or on the background of his patient may develop:

  • Laryngitis;
  • Pharyngitis;
  • Sinusitis;
  • Otitis.
  • Bronchitis and bronchopneumonia.

Acute infectious rhinitis with inadequate therapy (or
its absence) can turn into chronic. Consequence of carelessness
becomes a permanent impairment of respiratory function leading to
pathological changes in the heart and lungs.

Treatment of rhinitis in adults

Among the methods of treatment of rhinitis emit:

  • Drug-free.
  • Drug (local or internal effects).
  • Surgical
  • Physiotherapeutic.

Before you buy nasal drops, you should try
something to change in everyday habits:

  1. If the nose is stuffed up and a bad cold prevents you from breathing normally,
    while sleeping, the head should be slightly above body level.
  2. Need to minimize the number of plush toys, carpets,
    upholstered furniture and books in the room, because they accumulate
    dust.
  3. Abandon household chemicals, air fresheners and
    paint products during illness, as these factors can
    aggravate the course of rhinitis.
  4. To give up bad habits, for example, tobacco
    dependencies.
  5. Humidify the air and regularly ventilate the room where
    is sick.
  6. Drink enough liquid to normalize.
    rheological properties of mucus in the nasal cavity.

How to treat rhinitis with medication?

ATыбор препарата полностью зависит от того, ринит какого вида
diagnosed in a patient. Stopping the main manifestations is
symptomatic treatment that does not eliminate the cause of the main
diseases.

Symptoms заложенности носа ликвидируются применением некоторых
drops:

  • Naphthyzinum is a vasoconstrictor drops after 4-6 hours (0.05%
    solution);
  • Ксилометазолин – 2 раза в день (0,05% solution);
  • Sinupret – the combined means for the elimination of secretions from
    the nose.

It should be borne in mind that the use of nasal drops is not
должно превышать более 7-one0 дней. As may occur
various side effects associated with olfactory and
nasal cleansing function, when used. With чувстве
burning, local irritation and dryness in the nose
drugs are recommended to stop.

When acute rhinitis becomes severe, doctors recommend
use:

  • Aqualore drops or Aqua Maris, as well as puffiness
    buried in nose drops (Naphthyzinum, Galazolin, Saparin).
  • Antiviral drugs (Arbidol,
    Anaferon, Grippferon), antimicrobial ointments (Bifirol, Oksolinovaya
    and asterisk).

With signs of rhinitis on the background of normal body temperature
appoint:

  • home (not bed rest) mode,
  • plenty of warm drink
  • thermal procedures (hot foot baths and warm compresses on
    back surface of hands).

With острых ринитах из физиотерапевтических методов
apply

  • ultraviolet irradiation locally and in the area of ​​the soles (6-8
    biodoses);
  • UHF (areas of the nose for 5-8 minutes, the first 3 days daily, and then
    in one day);
  • microwave effect on the nose area;
  • effective inhalation (heat-alkaline, alkaline-oil,
    oil adrenaline, phytoncides, honey, etc.).

Surgery

Surgical interventions are carried out by medical
indications for the treatment of chronic rhinitis when medication
therapy methods are ineffective. The operation is only possible in
remission period.

In some conditions, surgical treatment is required:

  • Removal of polyps from the nose;
  • Elimination of the curvature of the nasal septum;
  • Excision of congenital abnormalities of the nasal cavity;
  • Cauterization of the adenoids on the posterior surface of the pharynx.

Folk remedies

Despite the abundance of various pharmacological products,
traditional methods of treatment of rhinitis remain in demand.

  1. Pour 50 g of pine buds with cold water, close the lid,
    bring to a boil and simmer for one0 minutes. Strain.
    Drink with a bad cold 5-6 times a day with honey or raspberry.
    the jam.
  2. When rhinitis bury fresh carrot juice, beets, lay
    turunda soaked in his nose.
  3. Rinse the nose with a homemade solution of sea water (a tablespoon on
    liter of warm water) or salt (2 tsp per cup, with
    hypersensitivity of the mucous membrane – one spoon of salt and soda,
    You can drip iodine). You can retract the solution from the palm by closing one.
    nostril, use a syringe or syringe, as well as a special
    mini teapot
  4. Pour one tablespoon of peppermint 0.5 liters of boiling water,
    insist, wrapped, one hour, drain. Take 0.5 cups
    hot infusion, which can be sweetened with honey. Adults with
    rinite along with drinking rinse this infusion nose.

Prevention

Prevention появления воспаления слизистой оболочки полости
nose, includes a whole range of measures aimed at the exclusion
influence of harmful factors, hypothermia, timely treatment
other acute infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  • Avoid abrupt movement from a warm room to
    cold, not to be drafted, not to use as
    drinking ice water and other soft drinks.
  • The use of fortifying agents, hardening, timely
    treatment of pathologies of the nose and nasopharynx (curvature of the nasal septum,
    chronic rhinitis, adenoids).

Rhinitis in adults may develop under the influence of various
factors. As soon as the first signs start to bother
disease, you need to contact a medical institution for treatment.
This will help identify the disease in its early stages and eliminate it.
complication.

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