Update: December 2018
- What are red blood cells?
- Erythrocyte count normal
- Red blood cell reduction
- Erythrocyte elevation
- Other characteristics of red blood cells
Любое обследование крови не обходится без изучения red blood cells.
Abnormal red blood cells in the blood can reduce the quality
life, provoke the occurrence of infections and significantly worsen
prognosis for chronic pathologies (especially those affecting the heart).
This indicator should be monitored at least once a year.
What are red blood cells?
Red blood cells (red blood cells) perform not only
aesthetic function. They are approximately 1000 times larger than
other blood cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, etc.) and
this distribution is not accidental. Less would be
not enough to perform their main task – transport
oxygen to all human tissues.
According to its structure, these are oval cells, concave on both sides, along
shaped like a regular donut. Virtually all space
inside them is filled with hemoglobin – a complex protein structure,
which binds oxygen and carbon dioxide. Circulating between
lungs and all other tissues by the flow of blood, these formations
allow each cell to fully “breathe”, producing an exchange
The creation of red blood cells occurs in the “red brain”, which
находится внутри костей organism. Their average lifespan is
almost half a year, after which they are destroyed in the spleen, and
hemoglobin residues are excreted along with feces and urine. Violation
the life cycle of red blood cells can lead to various disorders
due to which the process of cellular respiration becomes
Erythrocyte count normal
The level of red blood cells in a healthy person depends on the age
gender and individual characteristics. Up to 18 years old, the body of a child
constantly growing, his blood volume changes, which affects
content of blood cells. In women, after the period of sexual
ripening, a series of hormonal changes occur. One of their
results is a lower rate of red blood cells than in
For a more accurate assessment of the indicator, you should consider all these
nuances. Below are the indicators taken from a scientific journal.
�“Practical medicine” and publications of the independent monitoring fund
�”Health”. This data is recommended to use
врачи-клиницисты, при изучении анализа blood.
It should be remembered that in almost every laboratory there are
their average values, which are indicated on the form with
|Age / body features||Показатель у женщины, *1012 клеток/л.||Показатель у мужчин, *1012 клеток/л.|
|Up to 3 days of life||4-5.3|
|6 месяцев – до двух лет||3.7-4.5|
|7-12 years old||4.0-4.6|
|13-18 years old||4.1-4.6||4.5-4.9|
Reasons for the decline
- Acute or chronic blood loss. Acute occur during and
after surgery, injuries. Chronic: with internal bleeding
with peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal diseases, hemorrhoids, cancer
- Iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folic acid in foods
nutrition or poor absorption of them;
- Excessive fluid intake (intravenous
infusions), the use of liquid in large quantities;
- Rapid destruction of red blood cells due to hereditary diseases
(sickle cell anemia) or transfusion errors,
patients with an artificial heart valve and poisoning with poison,
- With alcohol abuse, with bone marrow tumors or
метастазах в нем снижается количество ретикулоцитов в blood.
Skin with hemolytic anemia
The most common decrease in red blood cells is due to anemia. Reduction
indicator below the normal red blood cells in women or men
almost always a manifestation of the disease. Healthy
human, their number should not decrease, even with severe
physical or emotional stress.
There are 4 types of anemia and 4 mechanisms of violations that lead
to this disease. For each of them developed special
therapeutic approaches that affect only one particular species
pathology, and do not affect the rest. Most
characteristic causes of red blood cell decline and their mechanisms of action
|Anemia, characteristic causes||How to affect the body?|
||Iron is an important component of hemoglobin, without which it is impossible
oxygen transfer. Its excess loss or insufficient
admission inevitably leads to a decrease in the number
red blood cells.
|Without these two vitamins it is impossible to create cells in the body.
Therefore, their lack leads to deviation from the norm
red blood cells.
Folic acid deficiency
|Hemolysis is the destruction of blood cells. More aggressive
this process takes place, the more symptoms bother
In rare cases, find abnormal blood tests for
red blood cells can be in patients with kidney disease. The greatest
various glomerulonephritis, organ damage
in autoimmune diseases (lupus, scleroderma) and
glomerulosclerosis. This violation occurs due to a lack
renal hormone erythropoietin responsible for making red
The lack of oxygen in the tissues almost always affects
самочувствие the patient. To the most frequent manifestations of anemia
- Constant weakness;
- Bouts of dizziness, headaches, or feelings
- �”Lost” in the muscles.
With a slight decrease in oxygen levels, a person can
for a long time ignore these symptoms. Their severity
увеличивается, по мере уменьшения red blood cells. In severe cases,
the patient may experience fainting, heart murmurs and
signs of oxygen starvation of all tissues.
In addition to the listed symptoms that may accompany
various diseases (ARVI, bacterial infections, cancer
pathologies and others), there are specific manifestations of each
type of anemia. The presence of these signs allows not only
high probability of determining a decrease in the rate of red blood cells in
children or adults, but also suggest a possible reason for this
|Characteristic symptoms||Additional changes in analyzes|
A feeling of tingling or “crawling goose bumps” on the hands or
|Large laboratories can measure vitamin levels.
В12 и фолиевой кислоты, но эти исследование достаточно
expensive (about 1000 rubles each).
Folic acid deficiency
There are no specific manifestations.
Skin with erythrocytosis
An increase in red blood cells (erythrocytosis) is almost always
a sign of illness. In itself, a large number of cells does not affect
на самочувствие the patient. Often, the only manifestation of this
The condition is a reddish tint (blush on the cheeks) and
mucous membranes. All other symptoms that may disturb the patient
caused by the underlying disease.
Detection of increased red blood cell count – a reason to start
full examination of the body, in order to identify the causes of this
process. First of all, the doctor excludes the following pathologies,
affecting the level of blood cells:
|Typical manifestations of pathology||How does blood cell count affect?|
Most распространенные причины этого состояния:
Symptoms of dehydration are dry skin and mucous membranes,
|Dehydration не влияет на количество клеток, но из-за потерь
воды происходит «сгущение» blood. For this reason, the clinical
analysis can show the presence of erythrocytosis.
Chronic Lung Disease
(COPD, severe bronchial asthma, condition after removal
Each of these states has its own specific
|Since the oxygen supply to the body is reduced, due to
insufficient work of the lungs, the body is trying to increase gas exchange
due to carrier cells. The more of them – the better they carry.
blood gases and faster tissue respiration.
This is a violation of the respiratory center in the brain,
Congenital heart defects
(nonpartition of the interatrial or interventricular septum,
These diseases can be detected not only in children, but also in
|The increase in the content of red blood cells is an attempt of the body
improve the delivery of oxygen to the organs. Due to constant reset
venous blood into the arterial, this process is disrupted as
causes the development of compensatory reactions.
Cushing’s disease / syndrome
The increase in the hormone hydrocortisol is the cause of the development of
Suspected illness can be on the following grounds:
|One of the actions of this hormone is the stimulation of bone activity.
brain, which leads to the occurrence of erythrocytosis in a patient.
blood (erythremia, Vaisez disease), kidney tumors, glands
In most cases, there are no specific symptoms. The sick
|The proliferation of tumor tissue in the bone marrow leads to
significant (multiple) increase in the number
red blood cells.
As a rule, additional signs of pathology are absent.
|The reason for the increase in the pool of cells is a congenital disorder in
bone marrow work.
When prescribing steroid hormones for some diseases
erythrocytes may also increase in the blood. Or in situations where
a person lacks oxygen (high in the mountains).
If the person had bleeding or
anemia was treated, then reticulocytosis is positive
a sign, he points to the recovery of red blood cells in
blood. If there are no reasons for the growth of reticulocytes, then
contact a hematologist, because this may indicate availability
опухоли или наследственном заболевании blood.
If, after a thorough diagnosis, it is not possible to identify the cause
increase in the rate, most likely, this state is
individual feature of a person. Such cases are found
extremely rarely, therefore, before making an appropriate diagnosis
(idiopathic erythrocytosis) requires careful
Other characteristics of red blood cells
The classical method of studying the blood (using a microscope)
allows you to determine only the number of red blood cells and their speed
subsidence (ESR). Modern automatic analyzers
additionally able to assess the state of red blood cells and their
ability to transfer hemoglobin. These characteristics are also very
important for assessing the condition of a person, so they need
take into account when decoding the analysis.
As a rule, a blank with the result of research (it is similar to
ordinary cashier’s check) includes the following indicators:
|What shows?||What is the rate of red blood cells?|
This is a sign of any inflammatory process that is actively
|Up to 15 mm / hour|
(The average size of red blood cells). Shows how
|80-96 мкм3 (или 86-99*10-15/л)|
(The average amount of hemoglobin). Another indicator
(How does red blood cells differ in size). Non-specific
(Hematocrit). This is the ratio of the number of red blood cells and liquid
Assessing all the listed characteristics, taking into account
the number of cells in the blood, it can be concluded about the state
organism. Despite the banality of this procedure – it is not worth it
neglect. The presence of most diseases affects these
indicators, so in the minimum standard of examination
обязательно включается анализ blood.
Вопрос: Могут ли увеличиваться эритроциты при
wrong preparation for the analysis?
Not. According to modern research, the fluctuation of red blood cells
extremely insignificant in a healthy person during the day.
Вопрос: Требуется ли подготовка к сдаче анализов?
For the greatest accuracy, the procedure should be carried out in the morning,
on an empty stomach, preliminarily excluding smoking, alcohol, sugar and
caffeinated beverages. These factors may affect
Вопрос: Насколько опасно повышение уровня кровяных
cell? Can this lead to any complications?
In most cases, elevated red blood cells are a sign of only
another disease. It occurs when the body is not
can cope with pathology in other ways. Appearance of it
conditions – a reason to evaluate the work of various organs to identify
Вопрос: TOак лучше сдавать кровь – из вены или из
Currently, clinicians recommend taking venous
blood for general analysis. On empirical experience it has been proven that
research results are more objective and