Raynaud’s disease (syndrome) – what is it,symptoms, photo, treatment

Raynaud’s disease is an angiotrofonevroz with predominant
defeat of small arteries and arterioles (most often upper
limbs, at least – stop, and even less often its manifestations occur on
protruding skin on nose, ears and chin).

As a result, at some site of the affected limb
food stops due to a sharp decrease in the number of incoming
blood. The disease in women occurs 5 times more often than in
men, mostly in young and middle age.

What is Raynaud’s syndrome and disease?

Болезнь (синдром) Рейно

Синдром Рейно — это феномен, при котором периодически
there is a reversible spasm of the vessels of the fingers and toes in response to
stress or cold.

Болезнь Рейно (МКБ 10 – код I73.0) является аналогичным
disease, which, however, developed against the background of any systemic
diseases.

Maurice Reynaud is a French doctor who first described
the disease was of the opinion that it was not
other than neurosis resulting from excessive excitability,
relevant for vasomotor spinal centers.

AT чем разница и отличия между ними? When sick and when
Raynaud’s syndrome present identical changes in blood circulation on
level of limbs, which manifests itself absolutely identical
by signs. However, they differ in the reason that prompted them
occurrence, and sometimes localization.

The reasons

Hereditary predisposition for Raynaud’s disease is small –
about 4%. Among patients suffering from Raynaud’s disease, significantly
dominated by women (the ratio of women and men 5: 1).

It is noteworthy that Raynaud’s disease is a disease that
pianists and typists are particularly affected.

The most common site of the disease is
peripheral limb areas, i.e. feet and hands
on hands. Limb lesions occur in most cases.
symmetrically.

Main reasons:

  • Among the factors provoking the occurrence of disease attacks
    Raynaud, the main thing is exposure to cold. Some people with
    individual features of the peripheral circulation even
    occasional exposure to cold and humidity may
    cause illness.
  • Injuries. Physical injuries to which it is possible to carry are also dangerous.
    excessive squeezing of limbs, excessive and intense
    stress and chemical injuries
    substances.
  • Rheumatic diseases – periarthritis nodosa (inflammation
    сухожилий), ревматоидный артрит (воспалительное заболевание
    joints), systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma.
  • Common causes of bouts of Raynaud’s disease are
    emotional experiences. There is evidence of
    том, что примерно у 1/2 больных синдром имеет психогенную
    nature
  • Dysfunction of the endocrine organs, and
    также эндокринные расстройства (феохромоцитома, гипотиреоз) и
    Down syndrome

Taking some medicines may also trigger
appearance of the syndrome. This refers to medicines that have
vasoconstrictor action. Most often, these are drugs that
used to treat migraine or hypertension.

Symptoms of Raynaud’s Disease

The disease is paroxysmal. Each of the attacks
consists of three phases:

  1. Spasm of vessels of the limbs. Fingers become pale and
    cold, pain appears here.
  2. The pain increases dramatically and comes to the fore. Leather brushes
    hands and / or feet blue, cold sweat enters.
  3. The spasm abruptly goes away, the skin becomes red and warm. Pain
    subsides. The function of the limbs is restored.

Symptoms affecting the coloring of the skin develop gradually.
First, pallor appears, the severity of which depends
on the degree of vascular spasm. Most often, this phase is accompanied by
feeling of pain. Pain syndrome is present in all phases, but
most pronounced in the first when the fingers are pale.

болезнь Рейно и характерные симптомы

Pay attention to the photo, Raynaud’s disease is not accompanied
only painful attacks, but also pallor or blueness of the skin, and
happens, as her edema.

Some patients may have seizures several times a day,
others – at intervals of several months. Progression
Raynaud’s syndrome leads to a lengthening of the time of attacks up to 1 hour, their
increase, spontaneous occurrence without visible provocations. AT
the intervals between the attacks of the foot and hand remain cold,
cyanotic, wet.

Frequency of disorders in the nervous system in Raynaud’s disease
reaches 60% of cases. Painные жалуются на:

  • constant headache
  • feeling of heaviness in the temples
  • lower back pain and limbs
  • there are difficulties with the coordination of movements of the limbs.

Stage syndrome and characteristic signs

As we have already noted, Raynaud’s disease is more common in women.
(about five times) than, respectively, in men. AT основном
incidence is noted among women from 20 to 40 years
combination of the disease with migraine.

The course of the disease is divided into three stages:

  • angiospathic;
  • angioparalitic;
  • atropoparalytic.

Stage 1

ATозникновение кратковременных rare, lasting about
few minutes of numbness of the skin, marked reduction
temperature in the area of ​​damage and pallor, followed by
the development of pain breaking nature. After the end of the attack
visual changes of sites are not observed.

Stage 2 Raynaud’s disease

The second stage is characterized by the addition to the listed
signs of other symptoms of the disease:

  • The skin color at this stage is no longer just pale, but with bluish
    tint, skin color becomes “marble.”
  • The affected limbs may cause puffiness,
    especially in areas that are affected by the disease.
  • Pain during an attack becomes stronger and more intense.

The duration of the first and second stages is on average from
3 to 5 years. With the development process on the feet or hands, rather
часто  можно наблюдать симптоматику всех трех стадий, при этом
at the same time.

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Stage 3

At this stage of Raynaud’s disease, there is a tendency to develop
felon and ulcers, until the destruction and death of the skin on soft
tissues of terminal phalanges.

What is contraindicated in patients with this syndrome?

It is very important to quickly and reliably eliminate the factors that
contribute to the occurrence of the disease. If this is professional
activity, change it or adjust. If this
specific habitat, change place of residence.

Patients are contraindicated work related:

  • with hypothermia of the extremities,
  • with subtle and complex movements of the fingers (playing
    musical instruments typing on a computer writing
    typewriter)
  • in contact with various chemicals.

Due to the inability to perform work on the main profession
в зависимости от степени заболевания может быть дана 3 или в
very rare cases of disability group 2.

Diagnostics

What doctor should I contact if I am suspected of having this disease?
If you suspect Raynaud’s disease, you should consult an angiologist,
and if it is impossible to do it – to a rheumatologist. Additionally
consultation of the cardiologist and the vascular surgeon will be required.

The first diagnostic criterion for Raynaud’s disease is persistent
spasm of skin vessels: when warming blood circulation is not
restored, the limbs remain cold and pale.

In the study of patients with Raynaud’s disease should first
establish whether the phenomenon is a constitutional feature
peripheral circulation, i.e. normal physiological
reaction under the influence of cold of varying intensity.

Be sure to conduct laboratory tests:

  • general blood analysis;
  • total and c-reactive protein, albumin and globulin
    fractions;
  • expanded coagulogram, fibrinogen level, properties
    platelet and red blood cells.

Recently, experts have noted high efficiency.
A new method for diagnosing Raynaud’s disease – wide-field
capillaroscopy of the nail bed. This method has a large
accurate diagnosis of the disease.

The final diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease can only be established
as a result of a thorough examination. If not revealed others
diseases that caused the occurrence of the symptom complex,
The diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease is being established.

Raynaud’s disease treatment

The treatment of patients with Raynaud’s disease represents certain
difficulties associated with the need to establish a specific
causes of the syndrome, so the question of how to treat
Raynaud’s disease, or rather how to do it correctly, with the greatest
efficiency, is discussed from different points of view.

In cases where the primary disease is detected, tactics
case management should include treatment of the underlying disease and
observation of the relevant specialist.

As a rule, Raynaud’s disease treatment is symptomatic and is included
in itself application:

  • fortifying drugs
  • antispasmodics,
  • analgesics,
  • medications that normalize hormones.

In the first and second stages of the disease, drug therapy
includes drugs that reduce blood viscosity,
for example, Curantil, Dipyridamole.

From physiotherapy techniques in the first two stages of the disease
apply:

  • electric;
  • electrical stimulation of the frontal-temporal zones of the brain;
  • diadynamic currents or ultrasound on the cervical and lumbar
    sympathetic nodes in the paravertebral zone;
  • electrophoresis with sedatives and antispasmodics;
  • magnetic therapy.

At the stage of the appearance of ulcers and tissue necrosis, the patient is assigned
local wound healing therapy. Drug treatment of the disease
Raynaud can last several years, until the period when
bouts of angiospasm of the limbs become insensitive to
vasodilator drugs.

An important part of the treatment of Raynaud’s disease is to limit
patient contact with provoking factors. At high
negative emotional stress should be sedated
drugs. When necessary contact with cold and wet
the environment should dress warmer than usual, especially
carefully warm the hands and feet.

The surgical treatment of Raynaud’s disease consists of
sympathectomy (when the surgery is interrupted flow
pathological impulses leading to vascular spasms in
certain areas of the autonomic nervous system responsible
for the condition of the blood vessel tone).

Proper nutrition

The diet in Raynaud’s syndrome coincides with the anti-cholesterol
diet of patients with atherosclerosis. When Raynaud’s disease is necessary
exclude fatty foods as much as possible – smoked sausages, fatty meats,
chicken legs, mayonnaise, fat sour cream.

Sufficient food should be stored in food.
vitamin C and rutin. It is recommended to eat more vegetables in
any kind. In addition to being a good source
vitamins, vegetables, like fruits, are rich in fiber, which serves
source of nutrition for intestinal microflora. This forms
a lot of heat, which warms the body.

The patient should eat about 400 grams of vegetables daily.
fruits.

Folk remedies for Raynaud’s disease

  1. Take fir baths. It is necessary to mix 5-6 drops of fir
    oils with base oil (olive, peach, corn) and pour
    them in a prepared bath with water at 37 ° C. Time of receipt
    bath – 15 minutes. It is necessary to do 15-20 baths for 1 course.
  2. Siberian recipe: eat in the morning a piece of bread with drops
    fir oil.
  3. Cut two to three bottom leaves of a three year old aloe plant and
    grind them. Squeeze the mush and soak gauze juice with aloe vera
    bandages. Apply bandages to the affected areas of the body and leave on
    several hours. Increase the effectiveness of the procedure will help
    pre-made massage of the limbs.
  4. Take fresh onion juice and honey (mix in a 1: 1 ratio).
    Take 1 teaspoon 3-4 times a day.

Easier to move strong attacks will help:

  • warming the affected limb in warm water or wool
    fabrics;
  • soft massage;
  • warming drink.

Prevention

  1. Do prophylactic examinations with a vascular surgeon and
    a neurologist once a year.
  2. To prevent spontaneous constriction of peripheral vessels
    should stop smoking. Even passive smoking leads to
    negative changes in the vascular walls, therefore
    avoid smoking areas.
  3. For the prevention of Raynaud’s disease, doctors recommend to train
    hand vessels, harden hands. Contrasting suits well for this
    baths.
  4. Dress according to the weather, do not forget about gloves.
  5. The most important factors affecting the onset of seizures are nervous ones.
    shake up and overwork. Therefore, we must avoid these factors and
    strive for calm and emotional balance.

If you have the first signs of the syndrome, it is better to
consult a doctor. Treatment of the syndrome is a difficult task;
which depends on the ability to eliminate causative factors and
effective influence on the leading mechanisms of vascular development
violations.

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