Рак stomach — симптомы и проявление первыхsigns, stages of development, diagnosis, treatment

Рак stomach — это бесконтрольное размножение эпителиальных
клеток слизистой stomach. At the same time, intracellular
structural changes in the gastric mucosa that lead to
change functions inherent in healthy cells.

Malignant degeneration first covers the mucous layer
the walls of the body, then goes deep. Cancer metastasis
поражении stomach возникает более чем у 80% больных, в связи с этим
pathology differs quite heavy over.

Что такое рак stomach?

Рак stomach

Рак stomach — это онкологическое заболевание,
accompanied by the appearance of malignant tumor
formations formed on the basis of mucosal epithelium
stomach.

Рак stomach склонен к быстрому метастазированию в органы
digestive tract, often germinates in adjacent tissues and organs
через стенку stomach (в поджелудочную железу, тонкий кишечник),
often complicated by necrosis and bleeding. With blood flow
metastasizes mainly to the lungs, liver; on vessels
lymphatic system – in the lymph nodes.

Стенка stomach состоит из пяти слоев:

  • inner layer, or lining (mucosa). AT
    большинстве случаев рак stomach начинается в этом слое;
  • submucosa is the support of the tissue of the inner layer;
  • muscle layer – the muscles in this layer are mixed and crushed
    food;
  • connective tissue (subserosis) is a tissue support for
    outer layer;
  • outer layer (serous) – it covers the stomach and supports
    stomach.

In almost 90% of cases in the detection of a cancer in the stomach
a bacterium such as Helicobacter pylori is also found that
allows us to assume its definite participation in rebirth
normal cells atypical.

У мужчин встречается несколько чаще, чем у женщин. Besides
Moreover, the risk of encountering this pathology is higher among representatives
Negroid race and the poor. With regards to age: peak
заболеваемости раком stomach приходится на 65-79 лет. but
the disease is often detected in persons 50-55 years.

Classification

By histological type, cancer in the stomach is subdivided into
following types:

  • Adenocarcinoma. ATыявляется почти в 95% случаев. Its development
    the tumor gets from the secretory cells of the mucous layer.
  • Squamous. A tumor of this type is the result
    cancerous degeneration of epithelial cells.
  • Signet ring. A tumor begins to form from
    goblet cells responsible for mucus production.
  • Glandular cancer. Причина образования этого вида cancer атипичная
    transformation of ordinary glandular cells.

Differs in the form of growth:

  • Polypous – resembles a mushroom on the leg, growing in the lumen
    stomach, самая медленно растущая форма;
  • Saucer-shaped – has the appearance of a clearly bounded ulcer, bordered
    high shaft on the periphery, gives later metastasis;
  • Infiltrative-ulcerative – the edges of the ulcerative focus are blurred, cancerous
    клетки диффузно распространяются вглубь стенки stomach;
  • Infiltrating – oncochag has no visible boundaries.

The latter two types are especially malignant: quickly hit the entire
the thickness of the gastric wall, actively metastasize at an early stage,
разбрасывая метастазы по всей peritoneum.

На этом классификация cancer stomach по его формам не
ends, a separate part in it is based on which
specifically the department has developed a tumor, there are the following options
cancer:

  • Cardiac. Данная форма cancer развивается в areas верхней
    части органа stomach, конкретно – в том месте, где он «стыкуется» с
    esophagus.
  • Тела stomach. AT этой форме рак поражает среднюю часть
    body.
  • Lesser curvature. Covers the right gastric area
    walls.
  • The pylorus (pyloric). AT данном варианте рак
    develops from the side from which anatomically performed
    transition organ to the duodenum.

The first signs of manifestation

Наиболее ранние признаки cancer stomach настолько смазаны и
inexpressive that treatment in case of their manifestation begins in
extremely rare cases and usually not appropriate
disease. ATедь схожие проявления имеют большинство заболеваний
gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely difficult to diagnose cancer
difficult.

If the patient is concerned about the following points, then they are
should pay attention, as this may be the first signs
cancer stomach:

  • loss of appetite or complete loss of it, which entails
    total aversion from food;
  • a sharp deterioration in the patient’s condition, which occurs in 2−3
    weeks, and is accompanied by weakness, loss of strength and fast
    fatigue;
  • discomfort appears in the intestines, pain, feeling of bursting and
    in some cases, nausea and gagging;
  • unreasonable weight loss.

Предраковое состояние данной болезни иногда длится one0-20 лет. AT
this time only with the first symptoms of the disease experienced
The doctor will be able to suspect cancer. Нередко онкологию stomach выявляют уже
in late stages:

  • First, a person suffers from gastritis, which, in the absence of
    suitable treatment becomes chronic.
  • Затем идет атрофия слизистой stomach, the formation of atypical and
    cancer cells.

For those who lead a healthy lifestyle, cancer develops more slowly,
than people who use tobacco, alcohol, overcooked and too
hot meal.

Causes

Cancer caused by education
злокачественной опухоли из клеток слизистой оболочки stomach,
занимает four место среди раковых болезней. Often suffer from it
people of Asia. A malignant tumor can develop in any part.
stomach.

In about 90% of cases, the tumor is malignant, and
approximately 95% of these malignant tumors are carcinomas.
Карцинома stomach у мужчин диагностируется в основном в возрасте от
50 to 75 years.

Факторы, провоцирующие развитие cancer stomach:

  • bacterium Helicobacter pylori, whose presence in the body
    human, according to statistics, increases the risk of injury
    слизистой, и как следствие – возникновения cancer в 2,5 раза;
  • genetics (there is more frequent occurrence of the disease in people
    with blood type A (II), as well as those who suffer from
    hereditary malignant anemia;
  • negative environmental conditions;
  • substandard food: the use of harmful products (acute,
    sour, canned, dried, fast food);
  • alcohol abuse, smoking;
  • перенесенные травмы, резекция stomach;
  • immunodeficiency states;
  • hazardous working conditions: work with chemical and radioactive
    substances.

There are so-called precancerous diseases that
adversely affect the mucosa, provoking the appearance
unusual epithelium:

  • polypous growths;
  • ATone2- дефицитная анемия (недостаточность витамина ухудшает
    the formation of the epithelium of the digestive tract);
  • some subspecies of chronic gastritis (in particular
    атрофический гастрит, приводящий к отмиранию клеток stomach);
  • Menetrie’s pathology contributing to abnormal growth
    mucous membrane;
  • язва stomach.

It is worth noting that the most common cancer occurs in
антральном отделе (нижняя часть stomach). One of the reasons is
the occurrence in patients of duodenogastric reflux, in which
the contents of the duodenum is able to fall back into
stomach (retrograde food promotion) and leads
к гастриту.

Stages of development + photo

Развитие недуга включает four основных этапа. They are showing,
насколько и как быстро развивается рак stomach:

  1. The early stages show little formation in the layers.
    stomach.
  2. The second stage: the tumor grows, deepens,
    extends to the proximal lymph nodes. There is a violation
    digestion.
  3. The tumor invades the wall of the body, moves to the neighboring
    tissue.
  4. Metastasis – cancer cells are spread to different departments
    organism, disrupting the systems.

four стадию подразделяют на 3 фазы:

  • Фазой fourА обозначается процесс, который распространился по
    visceral peritoneum to adjacent organs and any number
    lymph nodes.
  • Фаза fourБ – это опухоль любого размера, которая не проникла в
    другие органы, но имеет метастазы в более чем one5 группах ЛУ.
  • Самая сложна и последняя стадия cancer stomach – fourAT, при которой
    metastases spread through the lymph and blood and create secondary
    tumor foci in different organs. Can absolutely damage
    any organ, regardless of proximity to the stomach: bones, liver,
    поджелудочная железа, лимфатические узлы (более one5 штук), лёгкие и
    even the brain.

Симптомы cancer stomach у взрослых

Симптомы cancer stomach не всегда одинаковы у разных пациентов. AT
depending on the location of the tumor and its histological
The type of symptoms can vary significantly.

  • На месторасположение опухоли в кардиальном отделе stomach
    (parts adjacent to the esophagus) primarily indicate
    difficulty swallowing coarse food or large pieces of it,
    increased saliva secretion.
  • As the tumor grows, the symptoms become more pronounced. Through
    for some time other signs of the tumor develop: vomiting,
    чувство тяжести в груди, между лопаток или в areas сердца,
    soreness

During germination swollen in the blood vessels may occur
stomach bleeding. Следствия cancer:

  • anemia,
  • reduced nutrition
  • cancer intoxication leads to the development of general weakness,
    high fatigue.

The presence of any of the above symptoms is not
является достаточным для диагностирования cancer stomach, таким
образом могут проявляться и другие заболевания stomach и органов
digestion.

Common symptoms of the cancer process

As mentioned above, there are a number of symptoms
inherent in almost all cancers. They can
include:

  • drastic weight loss;
  • lack of appetite;
  • apathy, constant fatigue;
  • increased fatigue;
  • anemic color of the skin.

ATышеперечисленные симптомы характерны для любой раковой опухоли.
Именно поэтому с целью раннего обнаружения cancer stomach (при
the absence of other clinical symptoms) scientists involved
вопросами онкологии stomach и всего ЖКТ, предложили использовать в
the process of diagnosis of a complex of symptoms, referred to as “syndrome
small signs.

The syndrome of small signs includes:

  • Ощущение  постоянного дискомфорта в верхней части
    belly.
  • ATздутие живота (метеоризм) после приема пищи.
  • Беспричинная потеря аппетита, а вслед за ним и веса.
  • Чувство тошноты, и сопровождающее его легкое
    salivation.
  • Heartburn. Может быть, одним из симптомов cancer при локализации
    опухоли в верхней половине stomach.

As the disease progresses and the tumor grows
all new symptoms:

  • Breaking stool
  • Дискомфорт в верхней зоне belly.
  • Fast saturation.
  • Увеличение размеров belly.
  • Iron-deficiency anemia.
  • Vomiting with blood.

ATсе вышеперечисленные признаки чаще всего указывают на рак
stomach. Symptoms, manifestations of the disease are not sufficient
condition for confirming the diagnosis, as they may indicate
other pathologies of the digestive tract. It is extremely important to undergo a detailed examination.

При проявлении симптомов, обязательно покажитесь
a specialist. You do not need to engage in self-diagnosis, because it is fraught
серьезными последствиями для организма.

Diagnostics

Specialist in handling complaints of violation of the gastrointestinal tract
performs an external examination of the patient with abdominal palpation (on
left, right side, back, in a standing position). Tumor detectable
this survey method is painless, may be dense or
soft with rough, uneven edges.

Далее врач собирает анамнез пациента (случаи патологий stomach в
family, eating habits, the presence or absence of harmful
habits, chronic diseases), prescribes laboratory and
instrumental diagnostic methods.

Laboratory test methods include blood testing (general
and biochemical analyzes), urine, coprogram, and determination
concentration of tumor markers.

Только на данных анализов крови диагностика cancer stomach
impossible, and the patient is sent to pass a blood test for cancer
antigen, that is, the presence in the blood of proteins (tumor markers),
secreted only by cancer cells.

Instrumental diagnostics:

  1. Эндоскопия stomach: при помощи тонкой гибкой трубки с
    the lighter, the doctor can examine the entire digestive tract. If it is found
    suspicious area, a biopsy is taken from it in order to
    do a microscopic examination.
  2. Ultrasound: a feature of the technique is that for
    diagnosis is applied sound wave, ultrasound is carried out
    together with a specialized probe inserted through the oral cavity. it
    will let you know how much the tumor has spread inside
    The digestive tract, surrounding tissues, and lymph nodes.
  3. Computed tomography (CT) – aimed mainly at
    clarification of ultrasound data on the presence of internal metastases
    organs located in the abdominal cavity. Due to the image
    stomach и его тканей в различных ракурсах КТ помогает онкологам
    более точно установить стадию cancer stomach.
  4. MRI – for imaging using non-X-ray
    rays, and a safe magnetic field. MRI diagnosis gives a clear
    �”Picture” of almost all tissues and organs.
  5. Diagnostic laparoscopy. it операция, выполняемая под
    intravenous anesthesia through punctures in the abdominal wall where it is injected
    chamber for inspection of abdominal organs. Used by
    research in not clear cases, and also for identification of germination
    tumors in the surrounding tissue, liver metastases and peritoneum and
    biopsy taking.
  6. Radiography with a contrast agent. it рентген пищевода,
    stomach и первой части кишечника. The patient drinks barium, which
    outlines the stomach on an x-ray. it помогает врачу, используя
    special image processing equipment, find possible
    tumors or other abnormal areas.

Treatment

Тактика лечебных мероприятий зависит от стадии развития cancer
stomach, размера опухоли, прорастания в соседние areas, степени
settlement of malignant lymph node cells, lesions
metastases of other organs, the general condition of the body,
associated diseases of organs and systems.

Успех лечения cancer stomach напрямую зависит от размеров и
the prevalence of tumors on neighboring organs and tissues, as well as from
metastasis. Very often, an operation is performed before surgery.
diagnostic laparoscopy to exclude metastases in
peritoneum.

Operation

Основной метод лечения — хирургический, заключается в
removal of the tumor with the stomach (gastrectomy) or part of it.
If it is impossible to carry out a radical operation,
preoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy
reduce the size and growth of the tumor.

Хирургическое лечение cancer stomach предполагает предварительное
examination – the patient undergoes laparoscopic diagnosis for
identify possible metastases in the abdominal cavity and on the gland for
pre-planning the volume of surgical
interventions.

AT зависимости от степени поражения опухолью организма применяют
two types of surgery – endoscopic resection
or intracavitary surgery. AT первом случае, вмешательство
minimally.

Chemotherapy

Best results with a steady positive effect can
get complementing chemotherapy surgery. This therapy represents
is an introduction to the body of chemicals for oppression
tumor cells remaining after surgery – invisible local
areas of the tumor and foci of secondary lesion in the form of remote
metastasis. The duration of chemotherapy is determined in
depending on the dynamics of events.

How many people live with cancer at different stages: forecast

Doctors can give a positive prognosis if successful
diagnose the development of cancer cells in the stomach at the initial
stage of the disease. In this case, the result of treatment will be
effective in 90% of cases. When metastasis spreads to
neighboring organs, the chance of recovery is reduced, but still he
there is and primarily depends on the number of common
metastasis.

Сколько можно прожить при разных стадиях cancer
stomach
Stage Forecast
one With timely diagnosis and start of treatment, the prognosis
favorable:

  • survival over 5 years – 80%;
  • 70% cure cancer completely.
2
  • Survival at this stage is 56%

Main task: start therapy and remove cancer in time.
areas

3 Adverse prognosis for humans:

  • 38% survival rate
  • the rest within 5 years die from complications or stage four
    cancer
four
  • The survival rate is very low at around 5%.

But, even at the last stage, there is a chance at the time provided
help.

In conclusion, it should be noted that today more and more
диагностируется рак stomach. Symptoms and manifestation of this
diseases should be a reason for consulting a specialist.
The earlier the doctor confirms the pathology and prescribe the appropriate
treatment, the higher the chances of a favorable prognosis.

Be sure to take several times a year at the examination
gastroenterologist, take tests on time and start treatment,
if there are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Watch your body and
be healthy!

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