Рак lungs – наиболее распространенная локализация
oncological process, characterized by quite hidden
the course and early appearance of metastases. Incidence rate
раком lungs зависит от зоны проживания, степени индустриализации,
climatic and working conditions, gender, age,
genetic predisposition and other factors.
Что такое рак lungs?
Рак lungs – это злокачественное новообразование, которое
develops from the glands and mucous membrane of the lung tissue and bronchi.
В современном мире рак lungs среди всех онкологических заболеваний
occupies the top line. According to statistics, this oncology
affects men eight times more often than women, and there were
It is noted that the older the age, the higher the level
The development of lung cancer is not the same for tumors of different
histological structure. For differentiated squamous
cancer is characterized by a slow course, undifferentiated cancer
develops rapidly and gives extensive metastases.
The most злокачественным течением обладает мелкоклеточный рак
- develops covertly and quickly
- early metastasizes
- has a bad prognosis.
More often the tumor occurs in the right lung – in 52%, in the left lung –
in four8% of cases.
The main group of cases – long-smoking men in
age from 50 to 80 years, this category is 60-70% of all
случаев рака lungs, а летальность – 70-90%.
According to some researchers, the morbidity structure
different forms of this pathology depending on age
in the following way:
- up to four5–one0% of all cases;
- from four6 to 60 years – 52% of cases;
- from 6one to 75 years –38% of cases.
До последнего времени рак lungs считался преимущественно
male disease. Currently increasing
incidence of women and lowering the age of primary detection
Depending on the location of the primary tumor emit:
- Central cancer. It is located in the main and share
- Aerospheric. This tumor develops from the small bronchi and
- Small cell cancer (less common) is very
aggressive neoplasm, as it can very quickly
spread throughout the body by metastasizing to other organs.
Typically, small cell cancer is found in smokers, and to
at the time of diagnosis, 60% of patients are widely observed
- Non-small cell (80–85% of cases) – has a negative prognosis,
combines several forms of morphologically similar types of cancer with
similar cell structure.
- central – affects the main, lobar and segmental
- peripheral – damage to the epithelium of the smaller bronchi,
bronchioles and alvelol;
- massive (mixed).
The progression of a neoplasm goes through three stages:
- Biological – the period between the appearance of a neoplasm and
manifestation of the first symptoms.
- Asymptomatic – external signs of the pathological process are not
appear at all, become visible only on
- Clinical – a period when noticeable symptoms appear when
cancer, which becomes an incentive to rush to the doctor.
Основные причины рака lungs:
- smoking, including passive (about 90% of all cases);
- contact with carcinogenic substances;
- inhalation of radon and asbestos fibers;
- genetic predisposition;
- age category over 50;
- the influence of harmful production factors;
- radiation exposure;
- the presence of chronic diseases of the respiratory system and endocrine
- рубцовые изменения в lungs;
- viral infections;
- air pollution.
The disease develops covertly for a long time. Tumor
begins to form in the glands, mucous, but very quickly
metastasis grows throughout the body. Risk factors
the occurrence of malignant neoplasms are:
- air pollution;
- viral infections;
- hereditary causes;
- harmful production conditions.
Обратите внимание: раковые клетки, поражающие лёгкие,
divide very quickly, spreading the tumor throughout the body and
destroying other organs. Therefore, the important point is
timely diagnosis of the disease. The earlier cancer is detected
the treatment of his lung is begun, the higher the chance of an extension
жизни the patient.
Самые первые признаки рака lungs
The first symptoms of lung cancer often have no direct connection with
respiratory system. Patients treat differently for a long time.
specialists of a different profile are examined for a long time and, accordingly,
receive the wrong treatment.
- low-grade fever that does not go astray with drugs and
extremely exhausting the patient (during this period the body
is subject to internal intoxication);
- weakness and fatigue in the morning;
- pruritus with the development of dermatitis, and possibly the appearance
growths on the skin (caused by an allergic effect
- muscle weakness and increased swelling;
- CNS disorders in particular dizziness (up to
fainting), incoordination or loss
If these symptoms appear, be sure to refer to
pulmonologist for diagnosis and clarification of the diagnosis.
When confronted with lung cancer, many do not know how to determine
stage of the disease. In oncology in assessing the nature and extent
заболевания рака lungs классифицируют four стадии развития
However, the duration of any stage is for each
patient purely individual. It depends on the size.
neoplasms and the presence of metastases, as well as the rate of flow
- Stage one – a tumor less than 3 cm. Located within the boundaries of the segment.
lung or one bronchus. There are no metastases. Symptoms
difficult to distinguish or not at all.
- 2 – a tumor up to 6 cm, located within the boundaries of the lung segment or
bronchus Single metastases in individual lymph nodes. Symptoms более
expressed, hemoptysis appears, pain, weakness, loss
- 3 – the tumor exceeds 6 cm, penetrates into other parts of the lung
or neighboring bronchi. Numerous metastases. To symptoms
blood is added to mucopurulent sputum, shortness of breath.
How does the last four stage of lung cancer manifest?
При данной стадии рака lungs опухоль метастазирует в другие
organs. Survival rate over five years is one% at
small cell carcinoma and from 2 to one5% for non-small cell carcinoma
The patient has the following symptoms:
- Constant pain when breathing, to live with
- Chest pain
- Weight loss and appetite
- Slowly blood clots, fractures often occur.
(metastases in the bones).
- The appearance of bouts of severe cough, often with the release
sputum, sometimes with blood and pus.
- The appearance of severe pain in the chest, which directly indicates
поражении близлежащих тканей, так как в самих lungs болевых
- To symptoms рака также причисляются тяжелое дыхание и одышка,
if cervical lymph nodes are affected, speech difficulty is felt.
Для мелкоклеточного рака lungs, который развивается
rapidly, and in a short time affects the body, characterized by only
2 stages of development:
- limited stage when cancer cells are localized in one
lung and tissues located in close proximity.
- extensive or extensive stage when the tumor metastasizes to
область за пределами легкого и в отдаленные organs.
Symptoms рака lungs
Клинические проявления рака lungs зависят от первичного
the location of the tumor. At the initial stage most often
the disease is asymptomatic. In later stages may
appear general and specific signs of cancer.
Ранние, первые симптомы рака lungs не специфичны, и обычно не
cause anxiety, these include:
- unmotivated fatigue
- loss of appetite
- slight weight loss may occur
- специфические симптомы cough с «ржавой» мокротой, одышка,
hemoptysis join in later stages
- pain syndrome indicates inclusion in the process
nearby organs and tissues
Специфические симптомы рака lung:
- Кашель – беспричинный, приступообразный, изнуряющий, но не
зависящий от физической loads, иногда с зеленоватой мокротой,
which may indicate the central location of the tumor.
- Dyspnea. Lack of air and shortness of breath first appear in case
stress, and with the development of a tumor, the patient is disturbed even in the supine
- Chest pain. When the tumor process affects
the pleura (lining of the lung), where the nerve fibers and
endings, the patient develops excruciating pain in the chest
cage. They are sharp and aching, constantly disturbing or
depend on breathing and physical exertion, but most often they
located on the side of the affected lung.
- Hemoptysis. Usually the doctor and patient meet after
blood and phlegm from the mouth and nose begin to flow. The
the symptom indicates that the tumor has begun to infect blood vessels.
|Stages рака lungs||Symptoms|
|2||The disease manifests itself:
|3|| Signs of cancer manifest themselves:
|four||Symptoms усиливаются, это последняя стадия рака.|
Signs of lung cancer in men
- Exhaustive, frequent cough is one of the first signs of cancer.
lungs. Subsequently, sputum appears, its color may become
greenish yellow. During physical labor or hypothermia
- При дыхании появляется свист, dyspnea;
- Pain appears in the chest area. It can be considered
a sign of oncology in the presence of the first two symptoms.
- When coughing, in addition to sputum, discharge may appear
- Attacks of apathy, increased loss of strength, increased
- With a normal diet, the patient loses weight sharply;
- In the absence of inflammatory processes, colds
body temperature is elevated;
- The voice becomes hoarse due to nerve damage.
- On the part of the neoplasm, pain in the shoulder may appear;
- Problems with swallowing. This is due to the defeat of the tumor walls
esophagus and respiratory tract;
- Muscle weakness On this symptom, patients, as a rule, do not
- Heart rhythm disorder.
Lung cancer in women
Important signs of lung cancer in women are discomfort in
chest area. They appear in varying intensity in
depending on the form of the disease. Discomfort becomes especially
strong if intercostal cells are involved in the pathological process
nerves. It practically does not give in to stopping and does not leave
Unpleasant sensations are of the following types:
Along with common symptoms, there are signs of cancer.
lung in women:
- changes in voice timbre (hoarseness);
- swollen lymph nodes;
- violation of swallowing function;
- pain in the bones;
- frequent fractures;
- jaundice – with metastasis to the liver.
The presence of one or more signs characteristic of a single
categories of respiratory diseases should cause
immediately contact a specialist.
A person noting the above symptoms should report
them to the doctor or to supplement the information collected by him with the following
- attitude to smoking with pulmonary symptoms;
- the presence of cancer in the blood
- gradual intensification of one of the above symptoms
(is a valuable addition as it indicates a slow
the development of a disease characteristic of oncology);
- acute exacerbation of symptoms against a background of chronic anterior
malaise, general weakness, loss of appetite and body weight – this
also a variant of carcinogenesis.
How is lung cancer determined? Up to 60% of cancer lesions
lungs are detected during prophylactic fluorography, at different
stages of development.
- At stage one, only 5-one5% of patients with cancer are recorded.
- By 2 – 20-35%
- At stage 3 -50-75%
- four – more than one0%
Diagnostics при подозрении на рак легкого включает в myself:
- общеклинические анализы крови и мочи;
- biochemical blood examination;
- цитологические исследования мокроты, смыва с
бронхов, плеврального экссудата;
- evaluation of physical data;
- рентгенографию lungs в 2-х проекциях, линейную
томографию, КТ lungs;
- бронхоскопию (фибробронхоскопию);
- плевральную пункцию (при наличии выпота);
- diagnostic thoracotomy;
- прескаленную биопсию лимфоузлов.
Early diagnosis gives hope for a cure. The most
надежным способом в данном случае является рентген lungs. Clarify
diagnosis with endoscopic bronchography. With its help you can
determine the size and location of the tumor. Besides,
necessarily carried out cytological examination – biopsy.
Lung cancer treatment
The first thing I want to say is that treatment is carried out only
a doctor! No self treatment! This is a very important point. After all, what
the sooner you seek help from a specialist, the greater the chances of
favorable outcome of the disease.
The choice of a particular treatment strategy depends on many
- Stage of the disease;
- Histological structure of carcinoma;
- The presence of concomitant pathologies;
- The combination of all the above fatkorov.
There are several complementary cancer treatments.
- Surgical intervention;
- Radiation therapy;
Surgical intervention is the most effective way
which is shown only on stages one and 2. Share these types:
- Радикальный – удалению подлежит первичный очаг опухоли и
regional lymph nodes;
- Паллиативный – направлен на поддержание состояния
When small cell carcinoma is detected by the leading method of treatment
is chemotherapy, since this form of tumor is the most
sensitive to conservative therapies. Efficiency
chemotherapy is quite high and allows you to achieve good
effect for several years.
Chemotherapy бывает таких видов:
- curative – to reduce metastasis;
- adjuvant – used as a preventive measure for
- inadequate – immediately before surgery
intervention to reduce tumors. Also helps to reveal
the level of cell sensitivity to drug treatment, and
establish its effectiveness.
Another treatment is radiation therapy: used when
неудалимых опухолях lungs 3-four стадии, позволяет добиться хороших
results for small cell carcinoma, especially when combined with
chemotherapy. The standard dosage for radiation treatment is
Применение лучевой терапии при раке lungs рассматривается как
separate way if the patient refused chemistry, and carrying out
resection is impossible.
To make accurate predictions for lung cancer, perhaps, will not undertake
no experienced doctor. This disease can lead myself
unpredictable, which is largely due to the diversity
histological variants of the structure of tumors.
However, the cure of the patient is still possible. Usually to
successful outcome results in the use of a combination of surgery and
How many people live with lung cancer?
- При отсутствии лечения почти 90 % больных после выявления
diseases do not live more than 2 – 5 years;
- при хирургическом лечении 30 % больных имеют шанс прожить
more than 5 years;
- при сочетании хирургической, лучевой и химиотерапии шанс
live more than 5 years, appears in four0% of patients.
Do not forget about prevention, include:
- healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition and physical
- avoiding bad habits, especially smoking
Prevention рака lungs включает следующие рекомендации:
- Refusal of bad habits, first of all from smoking;
- Compliance with a healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition rich
витаминами и ежедневные физические loads, прогулки на свежем
- Time to treat diseases of the bronchi, so that there is no transition to
- Airing of the room, daily wet cleaning
- It is necessary to reduce contact with harmful chemicals and
heavy metals to a minimum. During the work required
use protective equipment: respirators, masks.
If you have symptoms that are described in this article,
Be sure to see your doctor for an accurate diagnosis.